What is CITES?

Case studies on the benefits of Appendix Ⅱ listing

In the habitat and range of endangered wild plants and animals, the livelihood of local people may be supported by the commercial exploitation of such wildlife species. In such cases, prohibiting the commercial exploitation of wildlife species will undermine the incentive to conserve these species and their habitat, which may lead to an increase in poaching or smuggling, and have a negative impact on the conservation of the species.

Regulations on the international trade of endangered species of wildlife under the CITES must be implemented while considering such local conditions. These ideas are described in Conf. 8.3 (Recognition of the Benefits of Trade in Wildlife).

Below are four case studies of listing species in Appendix Ⅱ rather than prohibiting commercial trade (listing in Appendix Ⅰ) are introduced as examples of how sustainable use is being achieved and species conservation is being promoted through appropriate commercial trade based on permits. Of these, the vicuna and the saltwater crocodile are examples of cases in which moving from Appendix Ⅰ to Ⅱ and allowing international trade was effective for conservation, and the bighorn and the yellow-spotted river turtle are examples of cases in which appropriate trade management as Appendix Ⅱ listed species was effective for conservation.

*The above are some of the examples introduced as reference cases on the CITES website. For the details of these and additional case studies and other related information, please visit the livelihoods section of the CITES website.