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Target Technology Fields Fields Currently Targeted Small hydropower generation technology field Global warming mitigation technology field (lighting energy reduction technologies) Human waste treatment in natural areas: human waste treatment technology field Organic wastewater treatment technology field Water environment improvement technologies in enclosed coastal seas field Water purification technologies for lakes and reservoirs field Heat-island mitigation technology field (technologies for reducing air conditioning loads by using building envelope systems) Heat-island mitigation technology field (heat pump air-conditioning systems using ground source heat, wastewater heat, etc.) Simplified VOC, etc. measurement technology field
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Target Technology Fields

Human waste treatment in natural areas: human waste treatment technology field

Outline of the Field
Background and Related Information
List of Verified Technologies
Nature in mountain districts, coastal areas and remote islandsNature in mountain districts, coastal areas and remote islands
Installation of a simplified water-circulating toilet Installation of a simplified water-circulating toilet
List of Verified Technologies
Outline of the Field

Outline of Technologies

The target technologies are those for the appropriate disposal of human waste in such areas as mountain districts, coastal areas and remote islands where the development of infrastructure, including water supply and sewerage systems, commercial power supply and roads is insufficient and/or due consideration must be given to the natural environment.

Examples of Target Technology

A technology (system) which treats human waste by means of biological, chemical and/or physical methods and does not discharge in principle cleaning water or treated sewage to public water areas.

* As treated sewage is not discharged, this treatment technology falls in the category of a vault toilet defined in the Building Standards Act rather than the category of a Johkasou defined in the Johkasou Act.

Reference: What is a Johkasou?
(Article 2 Item 1 of Johkasou Act)
A Johkasou is a system or facility which is connected to a toilet(s) to treat sewage and miscellaneous wastewater (excluding special types of wastewater, such as industrial wastewater and rainwater; the same shall apply hereinafter) and to discharge treated sewage, etc. to a place or facility other than public sewers having a terminal treatment plant stipulated in Article 2 Item 6 of the Sewerage Act (Act No. 79 of 1958) (hereinafter referred to as “sewerage with terminal treatment) and which is neither part of the public sewer or river basin sewerage system stipulated by the said Act nor a human waste treatment facility constructed by a municipal authority in accordance with a plan formulated pursuant to the provision of Article 6 Paragraph 1 of the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Act (Act No. 137 of 1970).

Reference: What is a vault toilet?
(Article 31 of the Building Standards Act)
In treatment areas stipulated in Article 2 Item 8 of the Sewerage Act (Act No. 79 of 1958), toilets other than flush toilets (limited to those where a soil pipe is connected to a public sewer stipulated in Article 2 Item 3 of the Sewerage Act) shall not be used.

In the case where human waste from a toilet is to be discharged to a place or facility other than public sewers having a terminal treatment plant stipulated in Article 2 Item 6 of the Sewerage Act, a septic tank (of which the structure complies with the technical standards to be stipulated by a cabinet order regarding the human waste treatment performance (meaning the performance required of a septic tank to treat the human waste in question without causing any sanitation problems) and which uses the structural mechanism set forth by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or which is certified by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism) shall be set up.

Reference Materials

For users
As the number of visitors to natural areas has been increasing in recent years because of the diversification of leisure activities, the introduction of toilets has become essential to ensure the sensible usage of the natural environment in tandem with its conservation. However, the construction of toilets in natural areas lacking such infrastructure as commercial power supply, water supply and sewerage systems is still far from satisfactory throughout the country.

The construction and improvement of toilets prevent adverse impacts of outdoor excretion on nearby public water areas and vegetation and improve the convenience and comfort of visitors. The construction of toilets also suppresses the need of visitors to step off footpaths, contributing to the conservation of vegetation and safety of visitors.

The selection of an appropriate human waste treatment technology for the site conditions is essential for the construction of toilets, making it imperative to gather basic information on individual technologies.

The ETV Program assists the selection of technologies suitable for the needs of users by means of disclosing the results of technology verification tests conducted by third party organizations and providing various types of information required to judge the effectiveness of individual technologies.

For verification applicants
A toilet need survey with local governments across Japan has found that although there is a need for appropriate human waste treatment technologies, there are cases where the feasibility of adopting such technologies has never been examined or examined without subsequent adoption. One reason for this is concern on the part of users regarding the technologies due to insufficient information on the said technologies.

Even when a technology is introduced, there are cases where the expected technical performance has not materialized or the maintenance cost has been far higher than anticipated. These problems can be partly attributed to insufficient information at the technology selection stage, culminating in the selection of a technology which is unsuitable for the site conditions or the introduction of a system of which the scale is far larger than the actual need.

The ETV Program assists the dissemination and wider use of useful advanced environmental technologies of verification applicants by means of bringing out the potential needs of users through the introduction of usable environmental technologies to users, disclosure of the results of technology verification tests conducted by third party organizations and provision of various types of information required by users to select technologies.

A verified technology is issued with a verification number and logo which can be used to adopt the said technology as well as promotion of the wider use of products using the said technology and is actively used in product pamphlets, company website and others.

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