Quality of the Environment in Japan 1989

Section2. Environmental Conservation in Natural Parks

1. Designation of Natural Parks and Review of Park Schemes

(1) Designation of National and Quasi-National Parks

  In Japan, there are three types of natural parks: national parks which are areas of prominent natural scenery which represent the Japanese landscape; quasi-national parks which are areas of natural scenic beauty second only to the former; and prefectural natural parks which are representative prefectural scenic areas. A number of these natural parks have been already designated and are making a great contribution to the conservation of nature and play an important role as outdoor recreation grounds.
  As of the end of fiscal 1988, natural parks in Japan country consisted of 28 national parks (2,040,000 hectares), 54 quasi-national parks (1,290,000 hectares) and 300 prefectural parks (1,990,000 hectares). The total area of these parks was 5,320,000 hectares, 14.1% of the total land area of this conutry (Ref: Table 6-2).

(2) Designation of Marine Parks

  To conserve the marine environment, the Director-General of the Environment Agency designates marine parks within national and quasi-national parks. The necessary regulations for conservation, and for the appropriate utilization of their sea areas are enforced.
  Twenty-seven areas in national parks and 30 areas in quasi-national parks which total 57 areas or 2,39&2 hectares had been designated by the end of March 1989.

(3) Review of Park Schemes

  For promoting the proper conservation and utilization of natural parks, all natural parks have their own park schemes. However, in the face of various changes in social conditions relating to national parks, existing park schemes have largely become obsolete. Thus, park schemes have been reviewed with the aim of conserving the natural environment in parks since 197& Parks for which the review of park schemes has been completed have their schemes re-examined every five years.

Table 6-2 Classified Areas in Natural Parks

Table 6-2 Classified Areas in Natural Parks

Note:National land area 37,783,524 hectares as of October 1987 by National Land Institute.

Table 6-3 Number Application for Permission of Activities in National Parks

Table 6-3 Number Application for Permission of Activities in National Parks

Notes :1. 'Others' includes the change in land.
  2. Figures in parentheses are in the special protection areas.
  3. Numbers include deliberation by organization of national government.
  4. The Environment Agency.

  In fiscal 1988, the Environment Agency completed reviews of the Bandai/Asahi National Park (Dewa Sanzan/Asahi area) and Yoshino/ Kumano National Park. The Agency also inspected/the Bandai/Asahi National Park (Bandai/Azuma, Inawashiro areas) as well as the Ise/ Shima National Park.
  Also, the park plans of quasi-national parks were reviewed by national and prefectural governments following national parks. In fiscal 1988, the Agency completed the re-examinations of Hida / Kisogawa Quasi-National Park (Inuyama area) and Aichi Kohgen Quasi-National Park. The Agency also inspected Ohnuma Quasi-National Park, Suigo! Tsukuba Quasi-National Park (Suigo area) and Minami-.Boso Quasi-National Park.
  As for the prefectural natural parks, there are many parks which still have not formulated any park schemes, and so guidance was made to make them formulate suitable parks schemes.

2. Nature Conservation in Natural Parks

 (1) Conservation of Scenic Beauty in Natural Parks

 a. Activity Control in Natural Parks

  Based on the Natural Parks Law, special areas, special protec-tion areas, marine park areas have been designated in natural parks in order to preserve the valuable scenic beauty of these areas (Table 7-2). In these areas, permission of the Director-General of the Environment Agency or the prefectural governor concerned is required in case of the erection of new buildings or an expansion or modification of the exist-ing structures. Such activities are controlled under the inspection guide-line on activities in national parks (except ordinary areas) and other regulations intended to conserve valuable scenic areas. Table 6-3 shows the number of applications for permission from the Director-General of the Environment Agency regarding various activities in special areas and special protection areas in national parks.
  Even in ordinary areas, there is a need to report to the prefectural governors for specified acts.

 b. Surveys of Management Methods of Scenic Beauty

  To protect and manage areas with precious features of nature, such as wild forests, which constitute the core of the scenic beauty of natural parks, the factors which bring about changes in the local ecosystem were surveyed and analyzed in order to establish conserva-tion and management methods. In fiscal 1988, the Environment Agency conducted surveys of the Iriomote Quasi-National Park in order to find the cause for the withering and damage of mangrove trees as well as to find some measures to prevent them from dying.

 (2) Measures for Environmental Conservation in Natural Parks

 a. Beautification and Cleaning Works

  Empty cans and other garbage brought by visitors to popular places in natural parks not only impair the scenic beauty but also cause problems of environmental pollution such as offensive odors. In spite of this fact, litter removal and garbage collection are not always smooth because these areas are located remotely and encompass a number of municipalities. Given this situation, efforts are being made to promote beautification of popular areas in national parks through the encourage-ment and support of local organizations undertaking the cleaning of such areas. Financial assistance is provided for their cleaning projects.
  With the first Sunday of August designated as Natural Park Cleaning Day, beautification and cleaning activities were conducted at natural parks across the nation with the cooperation of the related local governments to arouse awareness for the beautification and cleaning of natural parks.

 b. Conservation of Special Plants

  In order to carry out conservation and propagation measures in a comprehensive manner for precious plant communities in natural parks such as the Oze marshes in the Nikko National Park, subsidies were given to local governments for the rehabilitation of vegetation, environmental surveys and extermination and prevention of the breed-ing of harmful insects.

 c. Control of Giant Starfish (Acanthaster planci)

  In order to protect the scenic beauty of coral reefs in marine parks from the unusual multiplication of giant starfish in areas such as those in the Iriomote National Park and the Amami Inlands Quasi-National Park, the national government subsidized the related local governments for the extermination of the starfish.

 d. Measures for Proper Use of Automobiles

  The increased traffic of automobiles in areas of highly valuable natural environment in natural parks has brought about troubles in the conservation and use of natural parks, in the form of damage to vegetation and disturbance to the comfortable and safe use of natural parks. Under these circumstances, measures, such as traffic control under the Road Traffic Law and the operation of buses in place of private cars, are being stepped up under the Guide for the Rationaliza-tion of the Use of Automobiles in National Parks which the Environ-ment Agency formulated in March 1974.

 e. Measures for Conservation of Areas Noted for their Natural Environment

  To ensure protection of 'valuable ecosystems in national parks, experiments and surveys were continued on the conservation and resto-ration of spruce woods in the Odaigahara area in the Yoshino-Kumano National Park. Similar activities for conserving the Sarobetsu Wilder-ness in the Rishiri-Rebun National Park were also started.

 f. Measures for Conservation of Lakes

  In order to conserve the water quality of lakes and rivers in natural parks, efforts were made to step up the development of sewer-age systems, including specified environmental public sewerage in the Lake Akan area of the Akan National Park.

 (3) Measures for Over-Utilization of National and Quasi-National Parks

  In order to prevent environmental pollution and nuisance auch as noise caused by excessive concentration of people in some areas of national and quasi-national parks, the Environmental Agency had the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation commence the construction and assignment project of facilities for these parks.

 (4) Strengthened Organization of Management

  Regarding the organization for the management of national parks, the Environment Agency has established national park offices in each national park and has endeavoured to manage them properly in cooperation with the relevant local governments and private organizati-ons. However, in order to adapt to recent changes in various situations relating to national parks, efforts have been made to strengthen the organization of management according to the features of each locality.

 a. National Park Offices

  For protecting and managing scenic beauty in national parks as well as for giving guidance to business enterprises within the parks, providing reference information to park visitors and performing a wide range of other activities, national park offices have been set up in 10 major national parks including the Akan and Nikko National Parks, and national park managers have been stationed in national parks. As of the end of March 1989, there were 111 national park officials. In order to carry out appropriate management in each national park according to its individual features, management plans are being drawn up by relevant national park offices. In 1988, such plans were completed for seven parks including the Sanin Kaigan National Park.

 b. Activities of Private Organizations

  (a) The National Park Beautification and Management Foundation
  The National Park Beautification and Management Foundation has carried out various projects such as the beautification and cleaning of parks, maintenance and management of park facilities, enlighten-ment for nature conservation in 17 areas in the national parks including the Kamikochi area of the Chubu Sangaku National Park.
  (b) The Nature Conservation Fund for the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge
  The Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Natural Environment Conservation Fund (Foundation) executed the projects to subsidize the beautification and cleaning projects and the natural protection thought spreading service as the measure for conserving the natural environment in the Setonaikai (Inland Sea of Japan) National Park in and around the Honshu-Shikoku Bridge (Kojima-Sakaide Route).

3. Public Procurement of Private Land for Nature Conservation

  The prefectural governments with subsidies from the national government procure private lands for conservation of the scenic beauty of national and quasi-national parks, for protection of wildlife in the national wildlife protection area, and for the adjustment of interests of the private landowners of these areas.
  The actual purchases in the last five years are shown in Table 6-4. Up to now, 5,126.24 hectares in 48 areas have been purchased with a total project outlay of ¥9,178,845,000.

4. Provision of Facilities in Natural Parks

  In order to respond to the needs of citizens who want to commune with nature in national parks and quasi-national parks that are areas of excellent natural scenic beauty, in order to guarantee safe and comfort-able use of the parks and to prevent deterioration of nature by excessive use of these parks, the development and improvement of 178 basic facilities were made in 1988 for the following purposes.
 1) Nature conservation
  In order to alleviate, solve or disperse the excessive use of nature and to prevent deterioration of the areas with excellent scenic beauty, footpaths, gardens and parking areas were built and improved.

Table 6-4 State of Procurement of Private Land by Subsidies for Prefectural Compensation Bonds, etc.

Table 6-4 State of Procurement of Private Land by Subsidies for Prefectural Compensation Bonds, etc.

Note * indicates quasi-national park, other are national parks.

 2) Prevention of accidents
  In order to guarantee the safety for visitors to these parks and to prevent accidents, footpaths and shelter huts were built and improved, and worn-out facilities were rehabilitated. 3) Education on nature conservation
  To promote proper understanding of nature and enhance the awareness of citizens for nature conservation, exhibition facilities for objects of natural history, footpaths and camping sites were built and improved.

Section3. Wildlife Protection

  Wildlife is one of the important components of the natural envi-ronment and is indispensable for human beings from the standpoint of science, economics and recreation. In addition, importance is attached to wildlife as a potentially usable "storehouse" of genes in medicine, agriculture, forestry and other sectors as genetic engin ring has made progress in recent years. The wide variety in value inherent in wildlife is broadly recognized today. There is an increasing strong demand for the protection of wildlife both at home and abroad.
  In order to satisfy such demand for wildlife protection in recent years, and further to promote wildlife protection activities, the Environ-ment Agency is undertaking the following measures to further enrich the wildlife protection policy.

 (1) Promotion of the Sixth Wildlife Protection Project Plan and Formulation of the Standards for the Sixth Wildlife Protection Project Plan

  Based on the Sixth Wildlife Protection Project Plan (1987-1991), efforts were made in each relevant prefecture in ord to further promote wildlife protection measures such as collection of information on the numbers and living conditions of wildlife according to actual circumstances, and designation of wildlife protection areas. In addition, the standards for the Sixth Wildlife Protection Project Plan were formulated and shown to all the prefectural governments.

 (2) Establishment of Wildlife Protection Areas

  The Director-General of the Environment Agency or prefectural governors establish wildlife protection areas and designate special wildlife protection areas.
  In the establishment of national wildlife protection areas, priority is given to the areas where protection of wildlife is of particular impor-tance from a national point of view. In fiscal 1988, the Yatsu Wildlife Protection Area was established.
  The wildlife protection areas established as of the end of March 1988 are shown in Table 6-5.

Table 6-5 Present State of Wildlife Protection Areas

Table 6-5 Present State of Wildlife Protection Areas

 (3) Protection of Endangered Wildlife

  The following measures were taken to step up the protection and propagation of wildlife in danger of extinction.
 a. Regarding the Japanese Crested Ibis (Nipponia Nippon),an artifi-cial propagation project has been carried out involving a male Japanese Crested Ibis borrowed from China in 1985. In 1988, efforts were made to breed and propagate the remaining two male ibises and one female ibis (totalling 3 birds) and studies have been conducted on technology for artificial fertilization.

 b. Regarding the Iriomote Wildcat (Mayailus iriomotensis), feeding was done as part of their protection and propagation project.

 c. With regard to the Japanese Crane (Grits japonensis),feeding was done in the winter season and watchmen were stationed. It was con-firmed that there were 485 cranes.

 d. As for Blakiston's Fish-owl (Ketupa blakistoni), nest boxes were installed and feeding was done.

 e. Surveys were carried out on the number of special birds as "nami-akahige" (red bearded bird), "hontoh-akahige" (another kind of red bearded bird) and "ohston-oh-akagera" (Great spotted woodpecker).

 f. On the Golden Eagle (Aquila chysaetus), Hodgnon's Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus nipalensis), N orthers Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus) and Brown Bear (Ursus arctos), basic studies were conducted to cast light on their behavioral and dietary patterns and other ecological features. In order to grasp their real state of the actual living environment the Asiatic black bear in Kyushu, whose living state is unclear, was surveyed.

 g. Regarding the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) in the Shimo-kita Peninsula, rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and surveillance, con-servation of their habitats and other protective measures were taken.

 h. Projects for the protection and proliferation of Musashi stick-back (Pungitius sp.) and Atlas moth (Attacus atlas atlas Linnaeus) were started.

 i. Many precious kinds of wildlife such as the Okinawa rail (Rallus Okinawa) and Okinawa gold beetle inhabit the Southwest inlands of Japan. Surveys were conducted on their distribution, habitant, ete.

 j. Surveys were conducted on the selection of the species of wildlife, the protection of which are urgently required.

 k. Surveys for selecting wildlife habitats have been started.

 (4) Protection of Japanese Serow (Capricornis crispus) and Prevention of Damage Caused by Them

  With regard to the Japanese serow, a wide variety of measures are taken for their protection and the prevention of damage caused by them upon consultation among the Agency for Cultural Affairs, the Forestry Agency and the Environment Agency.
  In 1988, studies were carried out for the establishment of Japanese serow protection areas in mountain areas of Mt. Ku.
  Particularly in areas where there is much damage, caused by the implementation of protective measures including the installation of guard fences and polyethylene nets were taken. In Nagano and Gifu Prefectures, the number of species was adjusted.
  The distribution and habitat of Japanese serow were surveyed, and studies were also conducted on methods for the protection and control of them.

 (5) Banding Surveys on Migratory Birds

  Ten Class I observation stations at major staying and migration locations, and 50 Class II observation stations at other migratory courses have been established. Banding surveys on the migratory birds were conducted at these stations.

 (6) Proper Administration of Breeding Birds

  In order to properly administrate the birds approved for breeding, distinguishing individual birds is absolutely necessary. Considering that the present format of the certificate should be changed, it was decided that the ring to be put on the bird's leg should be regarded as part of the bird breeding certificate and used in lieu of the existing certificate on and after April 16, 1989.

 (7) Promotion of International Cooperation in Wildlife Protection

  With reference to the Washington Convention, the Environment Agency took necessary measures such as the intensification of the waters-edge control and the thorough dissemination of educational materials. With respect to the Lamsar Convention, the Agency has been endeavoring to protect Kushiro Swamp and Izunuma & Uchinuma bogs that have been registered as designated swamps. In June 1988, the Agency agreed to the proposed amendment of the Convention which included the establishment of provisions relating to the conferences of member companies and introduction of the cost-sharing system. With regard to bilateral cooperation, information was exchanged at the Fourth Japan-China Migratory Birds Protection Conference held in Beijing in November 1988, under the Migratory Birds Protection Treaty between Japan and the U. S. A., Japan and Australia, and Japan and China.
  For the purpose of promoting the protection and increase of wild crested ibises living in China, technical cooperation was extended by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) together with the pro-ject fonded by private contributions.
  In December 1988, the Japan-Soviet Migratory Birds Protection Treaty was implemented through the exchange of ratification docu-ments 15 years after the signing of the treaty in October 1973. Along with implementation of the treaty, the Soviet government sent Japan a list of birds that are in danger of extinction. Eventually, the govern-ments of both countries amended the enforcement regulations for the law concerning the restriction to the transfer of particular birds and then added 23 species of birds such as the Indian wild geese and blue wild geese to the list of special birds to be protected.

 (8) Enforcement of the Law for Regulating Domestic Trading of Endangered Wildlife

  The Law for Restricting Domestic Trading of Endangered Wildlife (official name : the Law for the Restriction of the Transfer of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) was enacted and enforced in. December 1987, in order to contribute to the more effective execution of the Washington Convention. This law prohibits trading in rare species of wildlife (504 animal species and 130 plant species, a total of 634 species, specified by a government ordinance) except for the cases where it has been registered previously or approved by the director-general of the Environment Agency as necessary for academic and other purposes. This has worked to protect such species of wildlife that might die out from excessive international trading. In the one year after implementation of the law up to Nov. 30. 1988, approval was obtained for trading of 54 individual wildlife. Also, 3,201 individual wildlife species have been registered and therefore become feasible to be trans-ferred.

Section4. Conservation of Natural Environment in Urban Areas

1. Nature Conservation in Urban Areas

  Natural areas such as woodlands, grasslands in and around urban areas, play important roles in purifying the air, moderating the climate, preventing uncontrolled urbanization, pollution and hazards. At the same time, they are indispensable for a healthy and comfortable urban environment because they provide recreational space and form attrac-tive and neat streets. For this reason, these natural features must be positively protected, improved, and restored. The following measures were implemented in 1988 to achieve these ends.

(1) Maintenance and Development of National Gardens and National Cemetery

  The Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace, the Shinjuku Gyoen National Gardens and the Kyoto Gyoen National Gardens, all of which once belonged to the Imperial Family, have been opened to the public under the management of the Environment Agency since 1971.
  The Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace (inclusive of the Kitanomaru sector) has an area of 114.9 hectares and the number of people who utilize this place reaches some 8 million per year. The Kitanomaru sector is maintained as a forest garden, and the Imperial Palace Plaza emphasizes Japanese black pine trees and lawn. Mainte-nance and repair undertaken in 1988 included repair of the garden paths in front of the Sakurada Gate, repair of the Wadakura wisteria trellis and checking a water quality of the moats. In the Kitanomaru sector, the leaks in the pond and the well were repaired.
  The Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden is representative of the gardens constructed in the Meiji Era with a combination of Japanese and Western styles. The garden covers an area of 58.3 hectares and boasts 2,000 cherry-trees of some 100 variants and many flowers and trees that can be enjoyed throughout the four seasons. This garden is visited by some one million persons annually. In fiscal 1988, the sur-rounding screens of the palace were repaired and a lavatory was newly built.
  The Kyoto Gyoen National Garden, embracing the Kyoto Impe-rial Palace, covers 65.3 hectares and serves as the central park of Kyoto city. This garden is visited by about 6 million persons annually. Works undertaken in 1988 included rethatching of Japanese tiles for the former residence of Prince Kan-in and the construction of a lavatory.
  The Shinjuku Gyoen and Kyoto Gyoen National Gardens the also part of the "Forest of Mothers and Children" program intended to increase the opportunity for mothers and children to enjoy nature. These gardens are utilized for educational events under this program.
  The Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery covers a total area of 1.6 hectares and accommodates the remains of 330,282 persons (as of March 1989) who died overseas in the battles of World War II. Some 150 thousand people pay visit to this cemetery every year.

 (2) Formulation of Green Zone Master Plan

  In order to prevent the deterioration of the urban environment with the progress of urbanization, and to create a more comfortable city environment, the formulation of a Green Zone Master Plan has been promoted based on the recommendation submitted by the Central City Planning Council in July 1976. This plan is drawn for each city planning area and aims at the overall improvement and preservation of green zones and open spaces in cities.

 (3) Improvement of City Parks

  City parks are not only major basic public facilities that form a favorable urban environment, mitigate pollution and provide refuge sites in case of disaster. They are also indispensable open spaces to meet a variety of demands, including growing cultural activities and sports.
  The systematic improvement of city parks has been pushed forward in accordance with the City Park Improvement Five-Year Plan based on the Law concerning Emergency Measures for the Improve-ment of City Parks. At the end of March 1987, however, the area of city parks per person under the program is only 5.1 in corresponding to a quarter of the 20 m up as a goal under the Green Zone Master Plan, and still at a lower level than in Western nations. In the future, it is necessary to step up the improvement of city parks in a planned manner to meet the social requirements.
  In fiscal 1988, the third year of the fourth City Park Improvement 5-Year Plan (total investment of ¥3,110 billion including ¥1,300 billion from the general public works fund and with a goal of 5.7 m2 per capita by the end of fiscal 1990) projects were carried out with an outlay of ¥102,607 million from the national budget (¥260,216 million from the general public works fund). (Ref: Table 6-6).

Table 6-6 Budget for Park Works in 1988

Table 6-6 Budget for Park Works in 1988

 (4) Conservation of Urban Green Space

  To secure green zones in cities, green conservation areas have been designated in accordance with the City Green Zone Conservation Law. As of the end of March 1988, green zone conservation areas totalled about 1,839 hectars including suburban green space.
  Within the conservation areas of green space, it is necessary to apply for permission in advance for certain development activities, In addition, a scheme of procurement of private land has been established. By 1987, some 65 hectares, and in 1988 some 4 hectares were added to green space conservation areas except special suburban green conserva-tion zones.
  Furthermore, for stepping up tree-planting, fair-sized private landowners have unanimously accepted agreements on green space. As of the end of March 1988, such agreements were concluded in 96 cities totaling 639 areas.

 (5) Designation of Suburban Green Space

  To preserve green space in the suburbs of Tokyo, Osaka and other large cities, 24 areas with a combined area of about 97,000 hectares have been designated as special suburban green conservation areas under the Law for the Conservation of Green Belts around the National Capital Region and the Law for the Development of Conserva-tion Areas in the Kinki region. In these areas, activities which will affect the conservation of green areas should be reported in advance for approval. Of these areas, those which should be conserved with particu-lar care have been designated as special suburban green conservation areas, There are now 13 such areas having a total area of about 1,247 hectares. In special suburban green conservation areas, certain develop-ment activities require that permission should be obtained in advance. A system of procurement of private lands has also been established and a total area of some 152 hectares had been procured by 1987 and approxi-mately 4 hectares were added in 1987.

2. Conservation of Cultural Properties and Historical Environment

 (1) Conservation of historic Sites, Places of Scenic Beauty and Natural Monuments

  Shell mounds, ancient burial mounds, ruins of castles, and other remains of ancient times that have a high historical or academic value are designated as historical monuments. Gardens and other sites of a high scenic or artistic value are disignated as scenic sites to be preser-ved. Animals, plants, geological features, minerals, etc. with a high academic value are designated as natural monuments. Alteration of the status quo of these designated entities is limited by the government. A total of 1,266 historical monuments, 252 scenic sites, and 915 natural monuments had been designated by the end of the 1987 fiscal year. Privately owned land containing a historical or other monument may be purchased by the government if particular needs exist. Protection programs (subsidy programs) are provided for maintenance and other work conducted according to the nature and entities of each historical monument. In 1988, the government subsidized the purchase of 173 sites including the remains of the Musashi Kokubunji Temple (Tokyo) and the preservation and repair of 166 sites including the remains of Hikone Castle (Shiga Prefecture).
  As regards the remains of the Ueijokyo, 131 hectares are now designated as a special relic. In 1988, 0.3 hectares were purchased, and about 98% of the places under the plan have been nationalized and the Nara National Cultural Institure is now conducting excavations and surveys. As regards the Asuka and Fujiwara areas, the purchase, excavation, surveys and development of historical remains are being made.

 (2) Conservation of Historic Landscape in Historic Cities

  For the purposes of preserving those districts in historic cities where historically significant buildings and remains from the embodi-ments of tradition and culture together with the surrounding natural environment, historical feature preservation areas with a total of approximately 13,000 hectares have so far been designated in six cities and one town including Kyoto City, in accordance with the provision of the Law concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of Historical Natural Features of Ancient Cities. Particularly important districts with a total area of about 4,532 hectares (39 districts) in these areas have been designated as special historical features preservation areas in related city planning.
  According to the Law concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of Historical Natural Features and the Improvement of the Living Environment in Asuka Village, an area of 125.6 hectares in Asuka Village, Takaichi-gun, Nara Prefecture was designated as a Class I historical feature preservation area while an area of 2,278.4 hectares in the same village was designated as a Class II historical feature preservation area for town planning and zoning.
  In these special historical features preservation areas, all activ-ities such as the erection of buildings and other structures that might have an adverse effect on the preservation of the historic landscape require the permission of prefectural governors. The procurement of private lands is also being carried out. Up to 1987, a total of 278 hectares were purchased and 11 hectares were procured in 1988. The government has subsidized the improvement of preservation facilities to be im-plemented in accordance with the Historic Features Preservation Pro-gram, necessary for the conservation of historic landscape in the lands procured. In 1988 a national budget of ¥47.50 million with an additional budget of ¥95 million had been appropriated for operation such as the installation of facilities to prevent landslides. In historic feature preser-vation areas other than special areas, controls are exercised, such as prior application for permission with the prefectural governor for the construction of a new structure.

Section5. Sound Utilization of the Natural Environment

1. Promotion of Sound Utilization of the Natural Environment

  The need for communication with nature has been increasing in proportion to the increase in the leisure time and the progress of urbanization. It is important, in this situation, to promote the sound utilization of the natural environment by reserving and creating the spaces for communication with nature as well as by distributing appro-priate information.
  It is important to teach children the knowledge and love of nature by providing them with opportunities to be close to nature, since it is they who should protect and foster the natural environment in the future.

2. Promotion of Communion with Nature

 Due to the development of urbanization and dissemination of urban lifestyles across the nation, the opportunity to come in contact with nature is on the decrease not only in large cities but also in provincial small cities. Given this trend, people increasingly desire to commune with nature in order to have peace of mind and to have a certain amount of latitude in their living. It is important for people not to have preju-diced perceptions of nature because of the decrease in opportunities to have direct contact with nature.
  In response to this trend, the Environment Agency and local governments have strived to improve facilities with which to promote communion with nature such as the improvement of visitor centers and nature study trails in the national and quasi-national parks, establish-ment of people's recreational areas in the prefectural natural parks and longdistance nature trails, Compaigns for communion with nature in-cluding Natural Park Convention and field activities are also stepped up.
  In recent years, various measures for communing with nature or engaging in recreational activities have been promoted in various areas. In order to promote such measures, it is basically necessary to have continued communion with nature without impairing the characteristics of nature. In this case, it is also necessary to come in contact with the culture and traditions which are characteristic of agricultural or fishing villages and which have been maintained in close interaction with nature. This contact may be done through people who shouldered the maintenance of such culture and traditions. In addition, in improving rivers or in building and improving conservation facilities of seashores, it is necessary to bear in mind that the nature close at hand should be conserved.

Section6. Promotion of Afforestation

  The promotion of afforestation is extremely important from the standpoint of the conservation of the national land and environment, cultivation of water resources and improvement of the living environ-ment. The protection and cultivation of greenery not only contribute to the sound mental an physical growth of young people but provide the national life with affluence and peace of mind as well.
  With this in mind, the government has promoted a wide variety of projects based on the policy for afforestation campaign decided in April 1983 at the Liasion Council of Afforestation.
  In addition, local governments, particularly the municipalites closely tied in with local residents, are working for the evolution of a nationwide afforestation campaign, such as the transplantation of commemorative trees and afforestation projects, with the involvement and cooperation of a broad segment of local residents and private organizations. It is necessary to further promote campaigns fitted to the actual conditions of various localities.

Chapter7. Environmental Research

Section1. Promotion of Research by the National Institute for Environmental Studies

1. Strengthening of Organizational Structure for Research

  The National Institute for Environmental Studies was estab-lished in Tsukuba Science City in March 1974 to play a leading role in environmental studies in Japan.
  Since then, efforts have been made to strengthen the research system in order to expand research activities. In fiscal 1988, the observa-tion and research by the ozone lazer radar installed in March 1988 was started in June 1988, and the research system for ozone layer observa-tion was strengthened.
  The National Institute consists of 10 departments, 2 sections and 39 laboratories. The number of employees is 250.

2. Improvement of Research Activities

 (1)Research Activities

  In fiscal 1988, the Institute conducted research on 163 ordinary themes and 12 special themes. On special research projects, the related departments in the Institute cooperated with one another on each project with the participation of researchers from outside the Institute. These projects are carried out in a comprehensive manner with a combination of research using large-scale facilities and field surveys for a period of several years.
  Indicated below are the themes of special research works carried out in fiscal 1988:
 1) Study on Behavior of Toxic Chemicals in the Sphere of Soil and Groundwater. (1985-1989)
 2) Study on Assessment of Effects caused by Hazardous Substances on Aquatic Ecosystems. (1985-1988)
 3) Study on the Development of Fluctuation Prediction Methodol-ogy Concerning Urban and Natural Environments Using Environ-mental Indexes. (1985-1988)
 4) Study on Air Pollution Accompanied by the Physical Process of Masses of Cloud over the Japanese Archipelago. (1986-1989)
 5) Study on Biotechnological Development of Plants which may serve as Indexes for Atmospheric Environment. (1986-1990)
 6) Study on Assessment of Effects of Eutrophication on the Eco-system of Inner Bays. (1986-1990)
 7) Research on the Chemical Environment in High Technology. (1987-1991)
 8) Pilot Study on the Global Fractionation of Carbonic Trace
  Constituents of Air Related to the Warming of the Earth. (1987-1991)
 9) Research on Evaluting the Function of Water Areas as seen from
  Environmental Capacities and New Methods of Management. (1987-1991)
 10)Research work related to the development of the environmental health monitoring method on environmental stress and health in urban areas. (1988-1991)
 11)Experimental research on the evaluation of the impact exerted on living things by air pollution substances, mainly by particulate materials. (1988-1992)
 12)Fundamental research on the changes in the ozone layer in the stratosphere and the environmental impact. (1988-1992)

 (2) Environment Information Service

  Processing various data on the environment of Japan, especially those data centering on the quality of air and water, and storing them in magnetic tapes, the National Institute for Environment Studies has been making efforts to improve the data base on environmental pollut-ants.
  In addition, the Institute, serving as the focal point in Japan for INFOTERRA (International Environmental Information Referral Sys-tem) of UNEP, perfomed various services on environmental informa-tion.

Section2. Promotion of Environmental Research

1. Present State of Research

  The research field of science and technology for promoting environmental conservation measures can be classified into the follow-ing five areas: 1) development of pollution prevention technology ; 2) development of monitoring and measuring technology ; 3) clarification and assessement of the effects of environmental pollution; 4) clarifica-tion of the mechanism of environmental pollution ; and 5) conservation of the natural environment.
  These researches are extensively conducted by the national and local governments and the private sector.
  In carrying out such research and study activities cooperation is required among related research organs and researchers because today's research activities involve a wide spectrum of science and technology.
Therefore, the Environment Agency appropriates a lump sum to all the budgets of pollution prevention studies undertaken by research insti-tutes of related ministries and agencies, (except the budget of pollution prevention studies undertaken by universities and their subordinate experimental and research organs) and through their distribution, coor-dinates pollution prevention studies undertaken by the national govern-ment in a comprehensive manner.
  The Environment Agency has been conducting research and studies useful for promoting countermeasures by the national govern-ment such as establishing environmental quality standards. It has also been conducting research and studies financed by the comprehensive research promotion and coordination budget for environmental conser-vation, in an effort to cope flexibly with emergencies.
  The government has also been encouraging the development of large-scale and comprehensive technologies, which either have high administrative priority or which are epochal new techniques that are expected to contribute to the complete abatement of pollution by either organizing large-scale project teams including the private sector, or by subsidizing the private sector in their development efforts.
  The research institutes for environmental pollution of local governments has been conducting research and studies closely related to the environmental administration of respective regions, and the Envi-ronment Agency has been taking the necessary measures to ensure their continued activities in this field.

2. Research Activities of National Research Institutes

 (1) Outline

  In 1988, the Environment Agency allocated a total budget of ¥2,343.62 million for 107 environmental research projects undertaken by 49 research institutes attached to 13 ministries and agencies, namely, the National Police Agency, Hokkaido Development Agency, Agency for Science and Technology, Environment Agency, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Construction. (In fiscal year 1987, 109 environmental research projects were undertaken by these research institutes with a total allocated budget of ¥2,473,83 million.)
  In financing environmental research projects to be undertaken by national institutes, emphasis has been placed on projects that have a bearing on not only urgent problems but also long-term pollution preven-tion measures. And the government has set up comprehensive research projects for each area and promoted them.

 (2) Promotion of Comprehensive Research Projects

  Ten comprehensive research projects undertaken in 1988 are as follows:

 a. Comprehensive Research on Combined Air Pollution

  This comprehensive research is designed to develop preventive technology for pollutant emission at sources and to step up development of methods for the clarification of photochemical reaction mechanisms and for the prediction of pollution. As in the past, 6 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conducted on 6 themes including the technique to control the discharge of volatile organic halogen compounds into the atmosphere.

 b. Comprehensive Research on Improvement of Waste Water Treatment

  This comprehensive research project is designed to step up research work on the improvement of treatment technology of indus-trial and domestic waste water, the development of technology for the recovery and recycling of useful substances and the development of technology for the utilization of treated waste water for useful pur-poses. As in the previous year, 10 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conducted on 4 themes, including the development of the technique for advanced treatment of gray water as well as the floc-culant to produce microorganisms.

 c. Comprehensive Research on Sea Pollution Prevention

  This comprehensive research program is designed to step up research work on the clarification of sea pollution and development of technology for sea pollution prevention and purification. As in the previous year, studies are continued on 9 themes. In addition, studies were conducted on 3 themes, including the technique for purification of organic sludges as well as the establishment of the procedure for the investigation and evaluation related to the transfer and diffusion of pollutants by means of blow flowing.

 d. Comprehensive Research on Waste Disposal and Recycling Technology

  This comprehensive research program is designed to step up research work on the development of technology for pollution-free waste disposal and for their utillization. As in the previous year, 6 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conducted in respect to the technique for the treatment of industrial wastes containing organic chlorine compounds.

 e. Comprehensive Research on Development of Basic Technology for the Conservation and Management of the Natural Environment

  This comprehensive research program is designed to step up research work on the development of survey methods of the impact on living things and ecosystem brought about by a deterioration of the environment and survey methods of the natural environment. As in the previous year, 4 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conduct-ed on 2 themes, including the monitoring method for preservation of swamp ecosystems.

 f. Comprehensive Research on Technological Development for Environmental Conservation in Urban Areas

  This comprehensive research program is designed to step up systems research work on the development of control methods of material flows in urban areas and conservation methods using the location of green space in these areas. Following the previous fiscal year, studies were conducted on 4 themes.

 g. Comprehensive Research on the Prevention and Evaluation of Noise and Vibration

  In this comprehensive research, a study of methods of noise and vibration prevention such as the development of the technology for the control at sources, measuring techniques, the technology for prevention of their spread, and prediction and evaluation technology together with the elucidation of their health effects is being undertaken. As in the previous year 7 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conducted on 3 themes, including the technique to reduce the noise of a small machine for construction work (concrete cutter).

 h. Comprehensive Research on Advancement in Measuring Technology of Environmental Pollutants

   This comprehensive research program is designed to step up the advancement of measurement techniques in a comprehensive manner, such as the evaluation and improvement of the existing measuring technique and the development of new techniques suitable for subjects to be measured. As in the previous year, S themes were studied. In addition, research was carried out on four themes, including the tech-nique for monitoring the components of particles floating in the atmo-sphere.

 i. Comprehensive Research on Impact Assessment of Environmental Pollutants

  This comprehensive research program is designed to step up, in a comprehensive manner, research work in regard to the clarification of the hereditary, physiological and ecological impacts of environmental pollutants on living things, and the development of evaluation methods on the toxicity of environmental pollutants and so forth. As in the previous year, 14 themes were studied. In addition, studies were con-ducted on 5 themes, incluiding the development of the experimental method for foreseeing the effect of environmental pollutants on human bodies.

 j. Comprehensive Research on Global Environmental Conservation

  This comprehensive research is designed to step up, in a compre-hensive global manner, research work on the clarification, of the impacts of the substances discharged in the environment as a result of human activities, with the view that the earth is a closed system, and to step up research work on clarification of the impacts of human activ-ities such as the degradation of the environment brought on living things. As is the previous year, 6 themes were studied. In addition, studies were conducted on the transportation of pollutants in relation to acid rain.
  In fiscal 1988, in addition to the promotion of the above ten comprehensive research projects, studies were conducted on 3 themes following the previous fiscal year in order to clarify the system of the quality change of groundwater in cultivated land. In addition, studies were carried out in respect to the development of the method to foresee and monitor the diffusion of the pollutants by the hightechnology indus-tries.

3. Research Activities of Local Governments

  Local environmental research institutes of local governments support the environmental administration of local governments with scientific matters and have extensively engaged in such activities as monitoring analysis, measurement, survey, collection of basic data and so forth. In addition, they are energetically involved in research activ-ities concerning environmental issues peculiar to respective localities.
  In order to assure a close collaboration with local environmental research institutes and promote research work effectively, the Environ-ment Agency held conferences for the directors of local environmental research institutes. In addition, a symposium for the Presentation of research results on environmental conservation and the prevention of pollution so as to provide researchers of local institutions with opportu-nities to present the findings of their latest surveys and research works and to promote exchange of information among them.

Chapter8. Promotion of International Cooperation

Section1. Approach to Global Environmental Problems

 (1) With the increase in world population as well as the expansion of human activities in the background, the environment problems such as the destruction of the ozone layer and the warming of the earth have been expanding on a global scale instead of staying only on an domestic level. Even in the developing countries, environmental pollution prob-lems such as air and water pollution have become more obvious, and an international level approach is required to settle these problems.
  In order to cope with such global environmental problems, vari-ous approaches are being made by many different organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization (UNESCO) that acts mainly under the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) established on the basis of the recommendation made at the United Nations Human Environment Conference ; the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) ; the Food and Agriculture Orga-nization (FAO) ; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop-ment (OECD) ; International Culture and Science Union (ICSU); World Bank and other international banks; and the governments of various countries.
 (2) In Japan, the "Council on Global Environmental Problems" (Chairman: Saburo Ohkita, ex-Foreign Minister) consisting of academic experts, has continued examinations under the presidency of the director-general of the Environment Agency since September 1977 as to how we should approach the global environmental problems. Reports have been submitted by this council four times so far. The reports are related mainly to the activities of the "World Committee on Environ-ment and Development" of the United Nations as stated below.
 1) On the basis of the second report submitted by the group in April 1982, the Japanese government sent a delegation headed by the director-general of the Environment Agency to the special meeting of the UNEP Management Council held in Nairobi in May 1982. The Japanese delega-tion proposed the establishment of a special committee to search for the ideal image of the global environment in the 21st Century and to draft a strategy to realize it. On the basis of the resolution of the U. N. General Assembly held in December 1983 in response to the Japanese proposal, the special committee was established in May 1984 under the name of the "World Commission on Environment and Development" (WCED).
 2) The WCED report was finally drafted at the last meeting held in Tokyo in February 1987 and announced to the public in April 1987. In this report, "substainable development" is considered the dominating concept and many proposals were submitted. These proposals have exerted a great impact on the growing worldwide interest in the global environment problems. This report was taken up also in the United Nations General Assembly. In December 1987, a resolution concerning the actions of U. N. organs and the governments of the countries which has received the report was approved.
 3) Japan, which proposed WCED, has the obligation to positively contribute to the world in protecting the global environment in line with its higher international position. Under such understanding, the council for discussion of global-scale environmental problems established a special committee in November 1987. In this committee, discussions were held on how Japan should approach the problems stated in the WCED report and the conclusion obtained in the committee was announ-ced as the fourth report of the council in June 1988. In the report entitled "Approach of This Country to the Global Environmental Problems-Japan's Contribution--Aiming at a Better Global Environment," there are several propositions : (1)strengthening of the scientific view on the global environmental problems, (2)development, education and training for conservation of the global environment, (3)promotion of various projects for conservation of the global environment and (4)establish-ment of a system to promote conservation of the global environment as well as the expansion of aid. In line with these four principal aims, Japan's approach to the global environmental problems is proposed in a concrete and comprehensive manner. In order to proceed promptly and smoothly with the planning, designing and promotion of these proposi-tions, the Environment Agency established the "Headquarters for Global Environmental Conservation Planning and Promotion" in August 1988.

Section2. Multilateral Cooperation

1. World Commission on Environment and Development

  The Japanese government, in response to the above-mentioned report of the Ad hoc Group on Global Environmental Problems, sent a delegation led by Director-General of Environment Agency to the spe-cial session of the UNEP Governing Council held in Nairobi in May 1982. At this meeting celebrating the 10 th anniversary of the UN Conference on the Human Environment, the Japanese delegation em-phasized the need for international solutions to global environmental problems and proposed the establishment of a special committee to formulate the strategy to seek and realize the ideal global environment in the 21 st century. In response to this proposal, the UN General Assembly, in December 1983, resolved that the special committee, named the "World Committee on Environment and Development" would be established as of May 1984.
  The Committee conducted energetic discussions on meetings held in many places around the world. A report was concluded at the 8 th (final) meeting in February 1987 held in Tokyo. The "Tokyo Declara-tion" was adopted at this meeting. The report "Our Common Future," made public in April, explicated international economy, population food, species and ecosystems, energy, industry, urban problems, com-mon properties, security, proposals for change , and other issues con-structed around the central concept of "sustainable development" or development that will satisfy the needs of the present generation without obstructing the coming generations in the satisfaction of their needs.
  The report was submitted to the UNEP Governing Council in June 1987 and sent to the UN General Assembly together with the resolution of UNEP. The UN General Assembly discussed the report in October 1987, and a resolution requesting actions by UN organizations, national governments, etc. was adopted in December 1987.

2. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

  Japan has been taking part in UNEP since its establishment as a member of its Governing Council. Japan has contributed a great deal to this organization, for instance, making a contribution of 4.7 million to the Environment Fund in 1988 and becoming the second largest contribu-tor (the largest contributor in that year being the U. S.)

3. OECD Environment Committee

  The Environmental Committee was established in the OECD in July 1970. Since then, many activities have been continued for the purpose of conservation of the environment. In recent ye r , the envi-ronmental problem has been taken up cross-sectionally respective viewpoints, by other OECD committees from their.
  The Environment Committee, the establishment of which was decided in July 1970, has been eagerly continuing its activities reflecting the member countries' strong interest in environmental problems. Japan has also been positively participating in the activities, trying to have other countries properly understand the realities of Japan's environmen-tal problems and absorbing knowledge, experiences and t hnologies of other nations for Japan's domestic use.

4. Approach to the Environmental Problem at Summit Meeting

  Since the environmental problem was referred to in the economic statement at the Ottawa Summit in 19$1, this problem ha been discus-sed from various angles at later summits and the glob 1 environmental problem has become an important theme in recent years.
  In the economic declaration at the Venice summit in June 1987, the responsibility to promote cooperation among mem r countries to efficiently cope with the global environmental problems such as the destruction of the ozone layer, change of weather and acid rain was emphasized. In the economic declaration at the Toronto summit in June 1988, support was expressed for sustainable development" which is the dominating concept of the WCED report, and the strengthening of international cooperation was requested of all countries. At the same time, it was requested to promote the signing and ratification of the Montreal protocol regarding the substances which destruct the ozone layer. The need for further activities was emphasized concerning such problems as the change of weather on a global level, air pollution, sea water and fresh water pollution, acid rain, toxic substances, decrease in forests, and endangered wildlife.

5. Other Multilateral Cooperation

 (1) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
  The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) was adopted in Washington, D. C. in March 1973 and came into effect in July 1975.
  In August 1980, the Japanese Government deposited its instru-ment of acceptance to the Convention with the Swiss Government. The Convention came into effect for Japan in November 1980.
  The Law on Regulating Transfer of Endangered Species was enacted in May 1987 for effective execution of this Convention, and was enforced in December 1987.

 (2) Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitats

  The purpose of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitats (Ramsar Convention) was adopted at Ramsar in Iran in February 1971 and came into effect in December 1975.
  Japan acceded to the Convention in June 1980, which became effective in Japan in October. Japan has registered the Kushiro Swamp in Hokkaido and the Izunuma-Uchinuma area in Miyagi prefecture as swamps subject to the Convention.

 (3) Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol

  Based upon the discussion at UNEP, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted in March 1985 and implemented in September 1988. The Montreal Protocol Concerning Substances Destroying the Ozone Layer was adopted in September 1987 and implemented in January 1989. Japan submitted the application for admission to the convention as well as the written acceptance of the protocol to the U. N. Director-General in September 1988. Based upon this, the Convention became effective for Japan in December 1988 and the Protocol in January 1989. As for the internal legal steps after receiving these notifications, the Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer by the Restriction of Designated Substances has been implemented in Japan.

Section3. Bilateral Cooperation

 (1) Activities under the Japan-IT. S. Environmental Cooperation Agreement

  Since the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government of the United States of America on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection was concluded in August 1975, the Joint Planning and Coordination Committee has met to discuss a broad range of environmental issues under the agreement. The 8 th meeting of the Committee was held in Tokyo in October 1987 with the approval of Mr. Lee M. Thomas, the Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency of the U. S. Government.
  Under this agreement, a total of 14 projects are now in progress. Under these projects, information is exchanged, conferences are held and experts are interchanged.

 (2) U. S.-Japan Coference on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources (UJNR)

  The U. S-japan Conference on Developing and Utilizing Natural Resources which was established in 1964 has held 14 meetings of the Panel on Conservation, Recreation, and Parks.

 (3) Activities Based on the Japan-U. S. Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement

  In place of the old agreement signed in 1970, the new Japan-U. S. Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement was concluded in June 1988. Seven major cooperation fields such as global science and global environment are indicated in Appendix 1 of this agreement. Both countries are now searching for projects or themes on which they can cooperate.

 (4) Cooperation under the Japan-Federal Republic of Germany Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement

   The Panel for Research and Development on Environmental Protection Technology was held in Bonn in November 1987 in accor-dance with the Japan-Federal Republic of Germany Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement concluded in 1974. Views and infor-mation were exchanged on the general trend of research and develop-ment in environmental protection technology in both countries, the state of research and development on 11 themes and that of cooperation in this field.

 (5) Major Activities Based on Science and Technology Cooperation Agreements with Other Countries

  The fourth Japan-France Amenity Meeting was held in October 1988 as part of the activities of the "Amenity in the Urban Environ-ment", a cooperation project under the Japan-France Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement.
  As for cooperation between Japan and the Soviet Union, the General Secretary of the Soviet Union referred to global environmental cooperation at the U. N. General Assembly in 1988, and with this in the background, agreement was reached between the two countries on the cooperation projects related to four fields of environmental conserva-tion proposed by Japan at the Fifth Conference of the Japan-Soviet Science and Technology Cooperation Committee held in December 1988.

 (6) Activities Based on the Migratory Birds Protection Convention

  Japan has signed the Migratory Birds Protection Convention with the United States, Australia and the People's Republic of China and continued to promote cooperation activities. In addition to the above, the Convention on the Protection of Migratory Birds & Endangered Birds and their Growing Environment Between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Union of the Socialist Soviet Repub-lics (Japan-Soviet Migratory Convention) was implemented in Decem-ber, 1989.

Section4. Technical Cooperation with Developing Countries

  As a result of the progress made in economic and social develop-ment in developing countries as well as the environmental problems there such as expansion of deserts and decrease in tropical forests caused by population pressure developing countries are now faced with the similar problems of environmental pollution that developed coun-tries experienced. Developing countries are engaged in the development and improvement of the administrative structure and the legal system for environmental conservation in parallel with economic development. Usually, these countries are inadequately provided with technical and economic foundations and therefore need assistance from developed countries in order to promote effective measures for environmental conservation. Especially in recent years, these countries are increasingly looking forward to the roles Japan could play in the field of technical cooperation for environmental conservation as Japan has much experi-ence and a record of achievement in environmental conservation, and there are growing cases of Japan to extend technical cooperation in environmental conservation. Therefore, Japan International Coopera-tion Agency (JICA) has been promoting cooperation projects as part of its technical cooperation and also has been studying measures for promotion of more effective cooperation projects. In 1986, the following projects were carried out:

 (1) Surveys on Development

  1) Mexico City Air Pollution Control Project
  Technical cooperation had been extended since February 1987 to examine the present state and cause of air pollution in Mexico City and to propose comprehensive measures against automobile exhaust and factory smoke. The final report on this project was presented in December 1989.
  2) Project for Water Pollution Control on the Basin of the Lake Ipacarai in Paraguay.
  Technical cooperation has been conducted since January 1988 to examine the present state and cause of water pollution in Lake Ipacarai in Paraguay and to propose comprehensive measures against the pollu-tion of the water system related to this lake.
  3) Survey of Air Pollution in Bogota City
  In January 1989, a Japanese delegation was sent to Bogota City in Colombia to survey the present state of air pollution and to set up a basic plan to cope with it.

 (2) International Training Courses

  There are many developing countries which are faced with short-age of absolute numbers of administrators and engineers with special-ized knowledge and experience in environmental conservation.
  JICA, with the cooperation of the Environment Agency, Ministry of Construction, and Ministry of Health and Welfare, has been giving group training courses in the environmental field. As of the end of March 1989, the training courses were attended as follows: the course for environmental administration by 8 persons from 8 countries, the course for environmental enginieering (water pollution control) by 13 person from 13 countries, the course for environmental engineering (air pollution control) by 8 persons from 7 countries, the course for sewerage works by 14 from 14 countries, the course for solid waste treatment by 10 persons from 9 countries, and the course for measures for industrial environment by 7 persons from 14 countries the course for prevention of industrial pollution by 5 persons from 5 countries. Besides, individual training focusing on specific problems is given from time to time to meet the meeds of each country.

 (3) Dispatch of Specialists

  Specialists were dispatched to Korea, Thailand, Malaysia,In-donesia, Chile, and other countries to transfer environmental technol-ogies to administrative organizations and research organizations in developing countries.

Section5. Promotion of Overseas Publicity

 (1) Overeseas Publicity

  Japan has introduced knowledge and experience in developing environmental policies from advanced countries in the course of promot-ing such policies. This suggests that interrelations and exchanges of information with other countries have made great contributions promot-ing environmental policies.
  On the other hand, Japan has experienced very peculiar damage by envimonmental pollution and has acquired much knowledge and experience in its efforts to solve the problems. It seems to be Japan's duty to contribute to the international promotion of environmental protection by offering this empirical knowledge to other countries-And these efforts will be essential to increase better understanding of Japan in other parts of the world and to promote international relations.
  As a part of such efforts, the Environment Agency has distributed Quality of the Environment in Japan 1988 an English version of a white paper on the environment, Environmental Research in Japan 1987, and a monthly Japan Environment Summary to foreign governments, inter-national organizations and other agencies concerned with the environment.

Chapter9. Pollution Prevention System in Private Sector

1. Promotion of Pollution Prevention System in Industry

  To prevent the industrial pollution, it is indispensable to stream-line pollution prevention systems in the factories. The Law for Estab-lishment of Organization for Pollution Control in Specified Factories was enacted in June 1971, and it became mandatory to designate in a specified factory, a pollution control supervisor who would control works for pollution prevention, and a pollution control manager who was qualified with expertise necessary for pollution control since September 1972. In about 20,000 specified factories, pollution control system have been established with these persons.
  As regards the designation of pollution control supervisors and pollution control managers, about 11,700 pollution control supervisors (including proxies) and about 38,400 pollution control managers (includ-ing proxies) are designated according to prefectural surveys as of end of March 1988.
  For the acquisition of qualifications as pollution control man-agers and supervisors, national qualification examinations for pollution control managers and lecture meetings for the certification of qualifica-tions are conducted under the law. The total number of persons quali-fied as pollution control managers and supervisors is about 38,400.

 (1) National Examinations for Qualification

  The Ministry of International Trade and Industry has been carrying out a national examination for qualification of pollution con-trol managers and supervisors every year since 1971. A total of 213,516 persons successfully passed in the past national examinations as of the end of march 1988.

 (2) Qualification through Lecture Meetings

  In addition to the national examination, there is another way to be qualified as pollution control managers of supervisors. That is to complete lecture meetings for qualification organized or designated by each competent miniser. This system in so designed that those who have specified technical qualifications or those who have experience in actual work of the pollution control and a specified school career may attend the lecture meeting, and those who have completed it are given the me qualification as those who have successfully passed a national examina-tion. A total of 172,812 persons have been qualified by this system from 1971 to 1988.

2. Rationalization of Environmental Measurement in Private Sector

  The Measurement Law stipulates a variety of controls to ensure legitimate measurement and weighing.
  The manufacturers and repairers of measuring instruments are obligated to register their businesses, own inspection facilitie and take other measures. As regards measuring instruments tho f r which the conditions are complete, are checked one by one for an inspection.
  At present, densitometer, sound-level meter, vibrom er, displace-ment meter, speed meter and flowmeter are designated pol-lutionrelated measuring instruments,Certain ty of th instruments are subject to inspection by a designated verification body.
  The Measurement Law obligates those entrepreneurrs who are engaged in measuring and certificating busin of concentration level, ete.,to register as environmental measurement certification business. A system of certified environmental measurement specialist was institut-ed, and national examinations have been conducted since 1975. Those who have successfully passed a national examination and completed a lecture meeting are registered with the governors of their respective prefectures. As of the end of December 1988, 6,033 persons were regis-tered as certified environmental measurement specialists,

3. Establishment of Standards for Measuring Meth

  Ministry of International Trade and Industry strives to establish and improve the Japan Industrial Standards (JIS) regarding analytical methods of pollutants, and standard gas and liquids which are used in the calibration of measuring instruments.


Appendix1. Organization and Functions of the Environment Agency

1. Background

  Thanks to the establishment, in July 1970, of the Headquarters for Countermeasures for Environmental Pollution (headed by the Prime Minister) and to the subsequent enactment and consolidation of anti-pollution legislation by the 64th (November-December 1970) and the 65th (December 1970-May 1971) Diet sessions, the pollution control adminis-tration of Japan was markedly strengthened. However, the wide distri-bution of pollution control functions among a number of ministries and agencies created serious bottlenecks in the enforcement of comprehen-sive anti-pollution measures.

  In view of the above, Prime Minister decided to establish an Environment Agency with a view not only to controlling environmental pollution but also to promoting administrative measures for overall conservation of nature. As a preliminary step an Inter-agency Prepara-tory Committee for the Establishment of an Environment Agency, composed of the administrative, vice-ministers of all the ministries and agencies concerned was instituted under the chairmanship of Director-General of the Prime Minister's Office. The work of this Committee rapidly led to the establishment of an independent agency for environ-mental protection and enhancement. The lines of thinking underlying this move are summarized as follows:
  a. The responsibilities and concern of the Environment Agency should not be limited merely to the pollution control, rather, the Agency' s administrative jurisdiction should cover all spheres of environmental protection including the nature conservation.
  b. Regulatory measures, such as the setting of standards, and the monitoring and surveillance of pollution, which have been spread over a number of ministries and agencies, should be concentrated under a single command, an Environment Agency.
  c. In view of the vital importance of scientific research and investigation relating to pollution control, a National Institute for Environmental Studies should be established.
  A Law for the Establishment of the Environment Agency was approved by the Cabinet on February 16, 1971 and passed the Diet on May 24. Under the Law, the Environment Agency came into being on July 1, 1971.

2. Administrative Responsibilities

  The Environment Agency is responsible for overall promotion of environmental protection with a view to ensuring a healthy and civilized life for the people of Japan. The following matters are under its jurisdic-tion.

a. General

  These include the planning, drafting and promotion of basic policies relating to protection of the environment; overall coordination of the various branches of the Government responsible for environmen-tal protection; coordination of budgetary policies for pollution control-related expenditures; and centralized management of appropriations for environmental research and development. The Agency's administrative structure is designed to increase its effectiveness as an overall coordina-tor.

b. Nature Conservation

  The Agency has under its jurisdiction enforcement of the Nature Conservation Law, the Natural Parks Law, the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law, the Law relating to the Regulation of Transfer of Special Birds, and the Law for the Regulation, etc., of the Transfer of Endan-gered Species of wild Fauna and Flora.

c. Pollution Control

  Matters coming under the jurisdiction of the Agency include establishment of environmental quality standards, enforcement of the Air Pollution Control Law, the Water Pollution Control Law and other laws relating to environmental pollution control.

3. Organization

a. Director-General of the Environment Agency

  The head of the Environment Agency is called a Director-General and is appointed to the Cabinet with the rank of a Minister of State.
  When the Director-General deems it necessary for the protection of the environment, he has the power to request information or explana-tions from the heads of other administrative agencies. He is also empowered to make recommendations to them with respect to impor-tant matters. When the situation so warrants, he can recommend the Prime Minister that steps be taken under Article 6 of the Cabinet Law to direct and supervise administrative agencies in accordance with the policies decided upon by the Cabinet.

b. Subdivisions and Ancillary Bodies

  The Agency comprises 4 bureaus--Planning and Coordination, Nature Conservation, Air Quality and Water Quality--and 2 depart-ments--Global Environment and Environmental Health--in addition to Minister's Secretariat. The Agency is subdivided into 24 divisions, 9 offices and etc., employing a total of 921 civil service personnels as of March 1991 (planned).
  As ancillary bodies to the Agency, the Training Institute for Environmental Pollution Control undertook its work on March 1, 1973, and the National Institute for Environmental Studies was established on March 15, 1974. But the Training Institute for Environmental Pollution Control was absorbed into the National Institute for Environmental Studies on July 1, 1990 so as to integrate environmental training and environmental studies. The Pollution-related Health Damage Compen-sation Grievance Board was established on September 1,1974 and the National Institute for Minamata Disease was established on October 1, 1978. In addition, there are in operation the Central Council for Environ-mental Pollution Control, the Nature Conservation Council, the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Council, and the Special Certifi-cation Council for Minamata Disease.

4. Administrative Responsibilities of the Bureaus

a. Minister's Secretariat

  The Secretariat is in charge of personnel administration, account-ing, matters relating to public information, general affairs of the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control and other matters relating to general coordination of the Agency's service.
  Regional affairs officers are responsible for surveys, and collec-tion and filing of data with regard to the environmental situation in the prefectures. They also act as liaison officers with the Management and Coordination Agency's Regional Administrative Inspection Eureati which perform works on behalf on the Environment Agency.

b. Planning and Coordination Bureau

  The primary responsibilities of this Bureau are planning and implementation of basic policies relating to environmental protection and overall coordination of environmental protection measures under-taken by Government agencies concerned.
  To ensure these fundamental responsibilities, Planning and Coor-dination Division coordinates the project programs of Government agencies concerned in estimating the expenditures relating to pollution control and nature conservation. Furthermore, with resp t to environ-mental research projects to be undertaken by national r ear h insti-tutes, etc., Environmental Research and Technology Division coordi-nates the research programs and all related expenditur are once appropriated for the Environment Agency before they are reimbursed to the relevant agencies.
  Another major subject of this Bureau is environmental impact assessment. In this regard, Environmental Management Division has the following responsibilities ; 1) basic policy planning and promotion of environmental impact assessment, overall coordination of related works in environmental impact assessment by a end s concern Further, Environmental Impact Assessment Division deals with scientif-ic and technical questions concerning environmental impact assessment and it is in charge of examination and guidance in specific cases of environmental impact assessments.
  In addition, the Bureau is responsible for the following subjects:
 (a) Supervision of the Japan Environment Corporation, implemen-tation of Pollution Control Public Works Cost Allocation Law and General management of Training Institute for Environmental Pollution Control (Planning and Coordination Division).
 (b) Preparation of the annual report on the quality of the environs nent and long-term environmental conservation program (Office of Planning and Research, Planning and Coordination Divi ion).
 (c) Formulation of basic policies concerning regional pollution control programs to be prepared by prefectural governments and approval of the programs (Environmental Management Division).
 (d) General management of National Institute for Environmental Studies, and work related to designating the items of tests to be performed on new chemical substances under the Law concerning the Examination and Regulation of Manufacture, etc. of Chemical Sub-stances and requests for enforcement orders and recommendations (Environmental Research and Technology Division).

Global Environment Department

  It is our urgent task to cope with global environmental problems such as depletion of the ozone layer, global warming and deforestation. To strengthen the planning and coordinating function on global environ-mental problems, the Environment Agency established the Global Environment Department on July 1, 1990 under the Planning and Coordi-nation Bureau.
  The Global Environment Department consists of two divisions (Planning Division and Environmental Control and Cooperation Divi-sion) and one office (Reseach and Information Office). Planning Division is responsible for planning, promotion and comprehensive coordination of fundamental policies on global environmental problems and for international cooperation in the field of the environment. Environmental Control and Cooperation Division's responsibilities are planning, promo-tion, and comprehensive coordination of policies on specific problems such as global warming and deforestation. This Division is also respon-sible for operation of environmental aids to developing countries. Research and Information Office coordinates programs of studies and reseaches on global environment. Expenditures for these programs are once appropriated for the Environmental Agency before they are reim-bursed to the relevant ministries and agencies.
  The establishment of this depertment resulted in the abolishment of Councilor and the International Affairs Division.

Environmental Health Department

  The Environmental Health Department was created to assure full enforcement of Law for the Pollution-related Health Damage Compen-sation that was enacted at the 71st session of the Diet, and to handle work concerned with screening of the safety of chemicals in the wake of the enactment of legislation calling for regulation. It is also respon-sible for coordinating efforts to promote scientific study of the causes of health damage induced by pollution and to take appropriate measures based on the findings of such research.
  The Department consists of the Planning Division, and the Health and Welfare Division.
  The Planning Division is responsible for:1) overall coordination of the work of the Environmental Health Department ; 2) work related to enforcement of Law for the Pollution-related Health Damage Com-pensation, etc. (excluding work assigned to the Health and Welfare Division); 3) supervision of the Pollution-relat Health Damage Com-pensation and Prevention Association, an extra-department oraniza-tion ; 4) secretarial work for the Polluttion-relaed Health Damage Compensation Grievance Board.
  The Health and Welfare Division is charged with : 1) work pertaining to certification of pollution victims,payments of compen-sation, and welfare projects for pollution victims under Law for the Pollution related Health Damage Compensation, etc c; 2) scientific determination of the causes of health damage induced by pollution;3) work related to the pollution-related health damage prevention program such as survey and research, dissemination of information, training, planning, health consultaion, medical examination, rehabilitation,con-struction and improvement of facilities, and support for the construction and improvement of facilities; 4) work related to enforcenment of the Interim Law concerning Special Measures for the Promotion of Minarnata Disease Certification.

c. Nature Conservation Bureau

  The major responsibility of the Natire Conservation Bureau embraces all the services such as the enforcement of Natural Parks Law and the Hot Spring Law, etc. and the services relating to the protection and hunting of birds and animal This Bureau has responsi-bility for planning, drafting and promoting basic Policies relating to conservation of nature. The Bureau also coordinates from an overall standpoint the services that are being performed by other agencies for conservation of nature. For this purpose, a system is established where-by the Director General of the Agency shall be consulted by, and expresses his opinion to the heads of the related agencies matters involving protection of cultural properties city planning,green belts and forests, i.e. scenic beauty protection for and public health protection forests. In addition to the above-mentioned overall coordination, the administration of the Nature Conservation Council and enforcement of the Nature Conservation Law are a I d to the Planning and Coordi-nation Division. Other duties of this Bureau include the designation of national parks, quasi-national parks, marine parks and their special areas or special protection areas by the Natural Parks Planning Divi-sion; management of said areas by the Conservation and Management Division; assistance for the construction of people's lodges and national vacation villages by the Recreational Facilities Division; and enforce-ment of the Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law, the Law relating to the Regulation of Transfer of Special Birds, Ramsar Convention, CITES, and Law for the Regulation, etc., of the Transfer of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, etc. by the Wildlife Division. The Office of Natural Environment Research (a sub-division of the Planning and Coordination Division) developing basic studies on natural environ-ment, establishing criteria of scientific evaluation, and making a long-term plan of nature conservation. The office deals with matters concerning environmental impact assessment for natural environment.

d. Air Quality Bureau

  This Bureau is responsible for establishing environmental quality standards and the enforcement of the various pollution control laws relating to pollution caused through the medium of air-pollution, noise, vibration and offensive odor. The Air Pollution Control Division is charged with the administrative services relating to the establishment of emission standards, and the proper use of fuel to control air pollution. The Bureau also covers regulation of pollution-prone facilities and has established an independent division (Special Pollution Division) devoted full-time to the control of noise, vibration and offensive odor. This Bureau is charged, in addition, with enforcement of related laws, investi-gation of environmental pollution in related areas, and drafting of plans. In view of the gravity of pollution caused by automobiles, the Bureau has also established an Automotive Pollution Control Division to attack on a broad front environmental pollution caused by automobiles. Office of Traffic Pollution Control have been established to promote and coordinate overall countermeasures for traffic pollution.

e. Water Quality Bureau

  This Bureau is charged with establishing environmental water quality standards, and enforcing standards controlling environmental pollution caused through the medium of water-pollution, ground subsi-dence and soil contamination. Included under its jurisdiction are admin-istrative services relating to the treatment of wastes, industrial as well as domestic, and those related to the control of agricultural chemicals. With respect to water pollution, the Bureau assigns the job to its Water Quality Management Division and Water Pollution Control Division. Under the latter, the Office of Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conserva-tion was established to carry out the job provided by the Law concern-ing Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea. On October 1, 1978, the Office of Areawide Total Pollutant Load Control was newly established under the same division in order to set up a system for regulating the total amount of pollutants in effluent. As regards measures for controlling ground subsidence, the Bureau assigns the job to the Planning Division which enforces the Industrial Water Law and the Law concerning Regulation of Pumping-up of Groundwater for Use in Building, to control the pumping of ground-water for industrial use. To control soil contamination and agricultural chemicals, the Bureau established the Soil and Agricultural Chemicals Division charged with establishment of environmental quality standards on soil contamination and enforcement of the Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Law. The Bureau is also responsible for establish-ing guiding principles for registration and control of the use of residue prone agricultural chemicals. In addition, its Office of Marine Pollution Control and Waste Management establishes the standards for the final disposal of wastes, waste disposal water areas, methods of disposal of waste and treatment of sludge in sewers and handles matters concerning the planning for river basin sewer construction.