Quality of the Environment in Japan 1989

6. Measures for Water Purification

 (1) Measures for Purifying of Rivers

  The following river environmental improvement projects (river purification projects) were implemented: purification water introduction projects in which water from large rivers and other sources was introduced into polluted rivers, most of which have all flow rates, to improve the water flow (Shin-Arata River, Furukawa River, etc.); direct purification projects in which heavily polluted river water was oxidized by gravel contact oxidization method (Tama River, etc.); and dredging projects in which the bottom sediments containing much organic sub-stances were removed from the river bed to reduce the sources of offensive odor and other pollution (Lake Kasumigaura, Sumida River, etc.)
  The Environment agency created the "Integrated Model Project for Restoring Urban Streams" in which the normally poor flow of rivers in urban areas will be re-established through introduction of water from other rivers, using purified sewerage water to maintain an adequate flow rate and reforming the spaces in rivers. In combination with the river purification projects, the Agency implemented the "Flow Security Watercourse Arrangement Project" which attempts to maintain an appropriate flow of water by constructing low-level watercourses in rivers.

 (2) Improvement of Flowing Conditions of Rivers

  The flowing conditions of rivers in Japan vary substantially all the year round. During a flood, they suddenly turn into rushing torrents, while in dry weather, their water level lowers steeply. This means that effective measures must be taken for flood control as well as for utilization and quality control of water. Efforts are therefore being made to keep rivers in better flowing conditions mainly through con-struction of multi-purpose dams as well as introduction of purifying water.
  The number of dam construction projects completed by the Ministry of Construction by fiscal 1987 was 290. In fiscal 1988, 301 projects in total, including 11 new water environment control dam projects to secure environmental water such as purification water, were carried out. Efforts were thus exerted to positively improve the state of flow, promote a rich water environment, stabilize water supply and ensure river water quality.
  In order to keep existing storage dams in good working condition, pilot experiments were conducted on the aeration of reservoir water for quality control at the Natorigawa and Kamafusa dams.

 (3) Measures for Purification of Coastal Water Areas

  To restore the coastal and fresh water fishing grounds which have been devastated by sediments and floating waste, the Government has been subsidizing the fishing ground restoration project (22 places) performed by prefectures and the fishing ground clean-up project com-prising comprehensive measures for conserving fishing ground.
  As part of its coastal fisheries improvement and development programs, the Government has subsidized other recovery operations (33 places) including, dredging, ploughing, and water route making in the coastal fishing grounds which have been significantly affected by the deterioration of water quality or bottom sediments.
  In order to remove sludge from heavily polluted sea areas, the Environment Agency implemented sea area purification projects at Ichikawa and Goi-Anegasaki beaches.

 (4) Measures for Removal of Sea Bottom Sediments Polluted by Mercury and PCB

  With respect to the pollution of sea bottom sediments by mer-cury, based on the results of surveys since fiscal 1973, 42 sea areas surrounding the Japanese islands were pointed out as areas where the degree of pollution of the bottom sediments exceeded the temporarily established standards measures such as their removal were proven necessary. Out of these areas, 41 were subjected to the measures as of the end of July 1988 and the remaining one area in Minamata Bay (Kumamoto Prefecture) is still in the process of carrying out the measures. Other than these, the pollution of the sea bottom sediments apparently caused by a natural factor has been confirmed in one sea area.
  In connection with the pollution by PCB, 78 sea areas where measures such as the removal of bottom sediments were necessary were detected as the result of investigations continued since fiscal 1972. Out of them, 73 areas had already been subjected to the measures as of the end of July 1988. The remaining 5 areas including Sasebo Harbor (Sasebo City) continue to be subjected to measures such as the removal of sediments, or are studying the measures to be taken.

7. Water Pollution Control Measures for Agriculture and Fisheries

 (1) Measures for Pollution Control of Agricultural Water

  The constant monitoring of the agricultural water quality was carried out across the nations, and surveys were made on the water quality and causes of water pollution for large-scale agricultural water reservoirs where water pollution is apprehended. Besides, surveys were made for the formulation of an areawide rural water quality control program which would be tied in with environmental conditions.

 (2) Pollution Control Measures on Fisheries

  The Environment Agency investigated the effect and pollution state of mercury, PCB and other substances on fish and shellfish as well as taking steps to cope with poisoning of shellfish such as the develop-ment of a method to prediet the suffering of shellfish from their toxicity. At the same time, the Agency subsidized environmental surveys to preventing water pollution at coastal fishing resources development areas, in accordance with the "Marine Fishing Resources Development Promotion Law."
  Also, the Agency carried out surveys necessary to establish a method for monitoring the effect of large-scale developments in shallow sea areas on fisheries; an investigation into the impact of the construc-tion and centralization of large power-generation facilities on fishery resources and the environment of fishing grounds; and an examination of the capacity of the fishing ground environment in order to adequately estimate and evaluate the changes due to the complex industrial devel-opment.
  In order to prevent and abate damage caused to fisheries by sudden water pollution from oil discharged by tankers, the Environment Agency subsidized the comprehensive projects for the conservation of the fishing ground environment which include the watching of fishing grounds and the guidance of fishermen by the examiners and instructors for fishery-related pollution under the auspices of the prefectural gov-ernments and the distribution of pollution preventives measures or examining materials such as oil treating agents. The Agency also implemented educational activities through movies and television spe-cials, in connection with actual fishery damages by pollution as well as pollution control measures. The Agency subsidized the fishing ground clean-up projects being carried out by prefectural governments.
  For the surfaces of Setonaikai (Inland Sea of Japan) and Lake Biwa, where red tides and poisoning of shellfish have occurred, the Environment Agency conducted surveys to observe the generating state of plankton which cause red tides and poisoning of shellfish. At the same time, the Agency subsidized red tide prevention and control projects for collection of information on plankton as well as the exchange and conveyance of such information among related organizations. The Agency also implemented the projects for surveying schists at inner bay areas which is contributive to the prevention of damages by red tides as well as the experiments to develop the technique for early detection of red tides which are generated in the wide areas and deep layers of the sea.

Section4. Promotion of Measures for Conserving Water Quality in Closed Water Areas

  The achievement of the EQS is still particularly poor in inland seas, inner bays, lakes, and other closed water areas accompanied by large sources of pollution in the hinterland because of the large influx of pollution loads and the liability of the pollutants to accumulate in such areas. This situation is further aggravated by the proliferation and growth of algae and other aquatic organisms facilitated by the influx of compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorus, etc. This process is called eutrophication and causes the progressive deterioration of the water quality.
  Water quality surveys in these closed water areas in 1987 revealed that the compliance with the EQS for COD, a representative index of organic pollution, still remains poor in Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and some parts of the Seto Inland Sea such as Osaka Bay. The compliance rate was low, 43% in lakes and reservoirs. (Fig. 3-5)

Fig. 3-5 Changes in Compliance with Environmental Quality Standards for Closed Water Areas (in COD)

Fig. 3-5 Changes in Compliance with Environmental Quality Standards for Closed Water Areas (in COD)

Note : Compliance rate: No. of water areas complying with EQS / No. of water areas to which EQS are applied×100(%)

  In 1988, red tides occurred once in Tokyo Bay, 15 times in Ise Bay, and 16 times in the Seto Inland Sea (according to surveys of the Maritime Safety Agency). In addition, a blue tide was observed in Tokyo Bay as well as "aoko," water bloom, and freshwater red tides occurred in quite a few lakes and reservoirs.
  In order to cope with these circumstances, further promotion of measures is needed to conserve water quality in closed water areas.

1. Implementation of Areawide Total Pollutant Load Control

  In order to improve the water quality of a large closed water area, efforts should be focused on cutting the total pollutant load in that area.
  The Water Pollution Control Law and related legislation were amended for this purpose in 1978 to implement a system of total pollutant load control to achieve compliance with EQS in large closed-water areas through the overall reduction of the pollutant loads flowing into the water areas. Total pollutant load control has been implemented so far in Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and Seto Inland Sea, based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements.
  The first total pollutant load control program was implemented with the target completion year set for 1984. Although the program decreased the amount of COD-generating pollutant load steadily in all three of the areas, the levels achieved so far indicated that the improve-ment was still insufficient and the amount of pollutant load had to be reduced further.
  The second program was therefore formulated based on the report "Revising the standards for the total pollutant load control of water quality" submitted by the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control in October 1986. The basic principles of the new program were formulated by the Prime Minister in January 1987 with the target year set for April 1989, and new plans for reducing the total pollutant load were formulated by prefectural governments in April 1987.
  The second program for reducing total pollutant load specified reduction targets, for specific sources of pollution, and requested the comprehensive implementation of various measures covering both industries and citizens' lifestyles to attain the targets. The standards for the total pollutant load control have been applied to the effluents from factories and other business establishments over a specified scale of operation, and the improvement of the sewerage system and other measures have been taken to reduce pollutant loads (Fig. 3-6).
  The guideline for reduction of the pollutant load has also been drafted for small-scale enterprises, and the measures are being promot-ed.
  For the purpose of implementing the next restrictions for total pollutant load, necessary surveys are being conducted in relation to the standard for total pollutant load as well as the measures for wastewater released by small-scale enterprises and also those for gray water.

Fig. 3-6 Changes in Generation of Pollutant Load and Reduction Targets (by Pollution Sources) In the three Sea Areas under Total Pollutant Load Control

Fig. 3-6 Changes in Generation of Pollutant Load and Reduction Targets (by Pollution Sources) In the three Sea Areas under Total Pollutant Load Control

Note : Estimated results for 1979 ; actual results for 1984 ; target values for 1989.

2. Countermeasures for Eutrophication

  Eutrophication has brought about a variety of harmful effects, such as scenic damage to lakes and reservoirs due to decreases in the transparency, changes in the color of their water, filter trouble with water service, unpleasant odor or taste of tap water or sudden perishing of fishes and shelfishes which are useful resources in fisheries. In sea areas, a serious problem has also come to the fore in fisheries such as damage caused by red tides.
  Considering these adverse effects of eutrophication, the Environ-ment Agency has worked out various measures.
  In carrying out these remedies, an attempt should be made to find a proper environmental goal for each of the substances which cause eutrophication. In 1982, the Environment Agency announced the EQS for nitrogen and phosphorus in lakes and reservoirs. Research efforts were continued by the national and local governments to establish categories of water bodies by water usage. By 1988, such categorization was made for a total of 44 water areas (40 lakes) including Biwa Lake (two water areas). As for sea areas, studies are being conducted by the Environment Agency in regard to water quality targets for the prevention of eutro-phication.
  As regards the prevention of eutrophication in lakes and reser-voirs, general effluent standards for nitrogen and phosphorus were set, and since July 1985, these general effluent standards for nitrogen and phosphorus were set, and since July 1985, these general effluent stan-dards have been applied to 1,022 lakes and reservoirs for phosphorus and to 45 lakes and reservoirs for nitrogen. Furthermore, surveys were made for designation of the lakes and reservoirs to which general effluent standards are applied for nitrogen.
  To preclude damage from eutrophication in the Seto Inland Sea, the prefectures concerned have taken measures to lower the levels of phosphorus and its compounds in accordance with the Law concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea.
  Continued efforts have been made since 1982 by the prefectural authorities involved to control eutrophication of the Ise and Tokyo bays based on the results of information exchange and coordination work at their liaison councils on eutrophication control measures.
  Furthermore, analytical surveys were made carried out to clarify the system of generation of red tide planktons, which have often taken place in the Inland Sea of Japan. Surveys were also conducted to determine the system of generation of blue tides which have been a problem in Tokyo Bay and other areas in recent years.

3. Environmental Conservation Efforts for Lakes and Reservoirs

  The factors responsible for water pollution in lakes and reser-voirs come in a broad range including those associated with the entre-preneurial activities conducted by various industries on the littoral areas along their lakes and reservoirs, and the livelihood of the inha-bitants in such areas, and due to the fact that the controls exercised under the existing Water Pollution Control Law alone were not ade-quate, the Law concerning Special Measures for Conservation of Lake Water Quality was enacted in July 1984 and was enforced in March 1985. This law is designed to conserve the water quality of lakes and reservoirs by designating the lakes and reservoirs where the mainte-nance of EQS is urgently required. A Lake water conservation plan is formulated for each designated lake. The plan aims to carry out various measures in a comprehensive and systematic manner, including the development of sewer systems, effluent controls over various sources of pollution, and conservation of areas surrounding the lakes and reser-voirs.
  In accordance with the above-stated law, Lake Naka-no-umi and Lake Shinji were specified as designated lakes in January 1989, and the prefectures concerned are drafting lake water quality preservation plans.
  Table 3-4 summarizes the nine lakes and other inland water bodies for which conservation plans have been made so far.

4. Measures for Environmental Conservation in the Seto Inland Sea

  The Seto Inland Sea is favored with good natural conditions as it is a site of excellent natural beauty as well as a valuable treasury of fishery resources for the people. At the same time, however, it is a semi-closed water area surrounded by areas with high concentration of industry and population. In the decade around 1965, in particular, it became rapidly polluted, which invited demands for vigorous enforce-ment of measures for environmental conservation including ones for preserving water quality. Thus, the Interim Law for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea was enacted in 1973. The Law was revised in 1978 to include new policies and became a permanent law under the new name of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea, under which overall measures have been taken.
  These efforts resulted in considerable improvement of the water quality in the Seto Inland Sea in general. The compliance with EQS for COD has been attained at 80% (in 1987) of the monitoring points, although the achievement is still poor in Osaka Bay and a few other areas. In particular, the ratio of compliance is as low as 57% (in 1987) in Category A water areas occupying the greater part of the Seto Inland Sea.

Table 3-4 Outline of Designated Lakes

Table 3-4 Outline of Designated Lakes

Notes: 1. Compiled by the Environment Agency.
   2. Maximum values are listed for areas having more than one EQS monitoring point.
  Eutrophication has increased in the Seto Inland Sea as algae have massively propagated in conjunction with the inflow of nutrient salts. Red tides, a phenomenon associated with eutrophication, are still widely observed in the sea and 117 red tide occurrences were confirmed in 1988 (Fig. 3-7). Damage from red tides was reported in 12 instances from July to Dec.

Fig 3-7 Yearly Changes in the Number of Confirmed Outbreaks of Red Tide

Fig 3-7 Yearly Changes in the Number of Confirmed Outbreaks of Red Tide

Source : Fishery Agency

  Though the incidents of marine pollution by oil drastically de-creased in number from 874 in 1972 to 146 in 1988, it still accounts for about 25% of the national total.
  To sum up, continued efforts to improve the water quality of the Seto Inland Sea are needed, which can be achieved by carrying out thorough control measures.
  An overview of the environmental conservation measures taken in 13 prefectures associated with the Seto Inland Sea under the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea is given below.

 (1) Implementation of Prefectural Plans

  The prefectural governors concerned are carrying out a wide variety of environmental conservation measures according to their respective prefectural programs (partially revised in December 1987) which provide for measures for the environmental conservation of the Seto Inland Sea.

 (2) Permission for Installation of Specified Facilities

  A permission system is in force for the installation of specified facilities. In 1987, 553 applications for installation and 577 applications for alteration were permitted.

 (3) Promotion of Areawide Total Pollutant Load Control

  The second total pollutant load control program is currently promoted with the target year set for 1989 (see 1 Promotion of Total Pollutant Load Control).

 (4) Guidance in Reducing Phosphorus and Its Compounds

  Measures against eutrophication have been taken under the administrative guidance for reduction of phosphorus and its compounds since 1980. The current guidance is based on the October, 1985, report of the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Council which has been embodied in the guideline intended to reduce phosphorus and its compounds by 1989.

 (5) Conservation of Natural Beaches

  Coastal areas of the Seto Inland Sea have been converted into artificial coastlines to an extent above the national average. The main cause of this change has been the development of the areas that resulted from the concentration of population and industry. Remaining natural beaches are utilized for bathing, shellfish gathering, and other recrea-tion. The 58 principal bathing places in this area were visited by a total of about 8,630,000 persons in 1987
  Ten prefectures have enacted ordinances designating natural seashores to be conserved, and 82 areas had been designated as such by the end of December 1988.

 (6) Environmental Consideration in Reclamation Projects

  In permitting or approving reclamation projects in the Seto Inland Sea, it is stipulated that the prefectural governors concerned should give full consideration to the peculiarities of the Seto Inland Sea. In regard to a basic policy for the enforcement of this provision, the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Council made a recom-mendation in May 1974. Since the enactment of the Law Concerning Special Mesures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea, 2,951 applications for reclamation covering a total area of 758 hectares, including 162 applications covering an area of 379 hectares in one year from November 2,1987, were licensed or approved till November 1, 1988.

 (7) Promotions of Sewerage Improvement

 a. The efforts on developing sewerage have been focused upon public sewerage systems, drainage basin sewerage systems, and specific environmental conservation public sewerage systems in 13 prefectures under the sixth five-year plan for sewerage improvement and construc-tion.
 b. Waste oil treatment facilities for treating waste oil from ships were in operation at 40 places in 24 ports, including 22 places in 16 ports where waste light oil could be treated, in the Seto Inland Sea as of January 17, 1989.
 c. Taking up the Seto Inland Sea as a priority sea area for the intensive crackdown on marine pollution, the Maritime Safety Agency is patrolling the area with aircraft and boats. In 1988, the Agency staged the Seto Inland Sea Cleaning Operation twice and exercised concen-trated patrols in order to eliminate marine pollution offenses associated with the emission of oil, that of hazardous liquids and wastes, etc.
 d. In respect of the research and monitoring of water pollution, water quality monitoring has been conducted since 1972. Researches have also been conducted for the development of technology in the forecasting of red tides, clarification of the mechanism of red tides, collection of environmental information, measures against eutrophica-tion.
 e. As the understanding and cooperation of local residents and entrepreneurs is inevitable in stepping up the environmental conserva-tion of the Seto Inland Sea, the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conser-vation Association carried out projects for the enhancement of environ-mental conservation through study meetings and lecture meetings.

Section5. Groundwater Pollution and Corrective Measures

1. Groundwater Pollution

  The groundwater pollution survey conducted by the Environment Agency in fiscal 1982 and 1983 revealed pollution by trichloroethylene and other pollutants in many areas. Later surveys conducted since fiscal 1984 by local public entities on the actual condition of groundwater pollution indicate that trichloroethylene was detected in the con-centration exceeding the temporary water quality standard for city water at 3.2% of some 16,000 wells and tetrachloroethylene in a similar concentration at 3.9% of the total number of wells. The groundwater pollution was detected in many areas.
  Indicated below are the results of surveys on actual groundwater pollution carried out by local public entities in fiscal 1987.

 (1) General Surveys

  Surveys on the actual condition of well water pollution in the areas, where these surveys had not been done before, were conducted in 444 municipal areas of 33 prefectures. The proportion of the wells where the concentrations exceeded the tertative water quality standards (ratio of excess) was the highest with tetrachloroethylene (4.8%), foll-owed by trichloroethylene (2.9%) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (0.2%) (Ref: Table 3-5).
  As the results of general surveys carried out in fiscal 1984 through 1986 are compared with those of 1987, the well water pollution was observed in the areas newly surveyed in fiscal 1987 at similar ratios of excess as those in the areas surveyed so far, though the locations where surveys were done were different.

 (2) Surveys in Areas Around Polluted Wells

  Surveys on the pollution state of wells located near the wells, where pollution was observed in the general surveys, were carried out in 124 municipal areas of 22 prefectures. The proportions of the wells where the concentrations exceeded the tentative water quality stan-dards (ratio of excess) was 7.9% with trichloroethylene and 11.8% with tetrachloroethylene and 1.4% with 1,1,1-trichloroethane (Ref: Table 3-6).

Table 3-5 Results of General Survey on Groundwater Pollution

Table 3-5 Results of General Survey on Groundwater Pollution

Note: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. "Wells for ordinary drinking use" are wells counted under "number of wells" which are used for ordinary drinking.
   3. Different areas were subjected to the surveys in 1984, -1987.

Table 3-6 Results of Surveys in Areas Around Polluted Wells

Table 3-6 Results of Surveys in Areas Around Polluted Wells

 Note: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. "Wells for ordinary drinking use" are wells counted under "number of wells" which are used for ordinary drinking.
   3. Different areas were subjected to the surveys in 1984, - 1987.

  In this survey, areas near polluted wells were examined in detail. Because the pollution of groundwater has a certain expanse, the ratios of exces were higher than those found in the general survey.

2. Countermeasures Against Groundwater Pollution

  It is clear that measures must be taken to prevent pollution before it develops much, since groundwater, once polluted cannot be restored easily. Based on this consideration, the Environment Agency decided to take measures against the pollution by trichloroethylene and two other substances that are causing particular problems. A tentative guideline concerning the reduction of these substances emitted from factories and other business organizations dealing with them was for-mulated and reported to local governments on August, 1984. Each local government is providing guidance to the factories and other business establishments (Table 3-7). The Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been providing guidance to related industries for the proper handling of these sub-stances, through the printing and distribution of manuals and other means. The Ministry of Construction has also been providing guidance as well as doing surveys on well water. Pollution by toxic substances such as sexivalent chrome has been occurring every year although it is limited to a small number of areas.

Table 3-7 Tentative Guidance on the Emission of Trichloroethylene and Other Substances

Table 3-7 Tentative Guidance on the Emission of Trichloroethylene and Other Substances

  Such being the circumstances, the Environment Agency asked the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control in November 1988, to study what groundwater conservation measures should be taken. In view of the importance and urgency of the prevention of groundwater pollution, the Agency drafted in February 1989, a report including the concrete procedures for preventing water containing toxic substances from permeating into the ground and the monitoring and measurement of the groundwater quality as the measures which should be taken for the time being.
  Based on the above report, the "Bill for Partial Revision of the Water Pollution Control Law" was submitted to the 114th Diet session.
  With reference to the problem of groundwater pollution, it is necessary to continue the examination of the activities of underground substances in the future. The Environment Agency has been proceeding with examinations to clarify the constitution of the groundwater pollu-tion as well as the method to control the groundwater quality.

Section6. Marine Pollution

1. Present State of Marine Pollution

 (1) Ports and Harbors

  In general, although there are some places where water quality and bottom deposits are gradually improving, a number of ports and harbors as well as the coastal waters surrounding them are still contaminated by industrial and domestic effluents that flow into them either directly or by way of rivers. For instance, red tides are still seen in some ports and harbors and coastal waters in Tokyo and Ise bays and the Seto Inland Sea.

 (2) Coastal Sea Areas

  In succession to that conducted last year, the Environment Agency conducted a fact-finding survey in 1988 on the contamination of waters around Japan. In this survey, a total of 42 measuring points were set on the measuring lines that extended from the Japanese coast across the ocean currents around the Japanese archipelago, passing through the centers of dumping areas ('A water areas') specified under the Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster, where solidified sludge containing heavy metals and other substances is dumped. The concentration of heavy metals in sea water and muddy bottom sediments, in addition to general marine observation items, were examined at these measuring points. The Agency further conducted an investigation into the concentration of heavy metals contained in sea-water and sea bottom sludges. The investigation carried out in fiscal 1987 revealed no worsening of pollution of the sea by these substance.
  Surveys are also conducted by the Maritime Safety Agency to collect basic data for marine environment conservation. The agency surveyed in waters around Japan, 'A water areas' and its major bays to find the oil, PCBs, and heavy metal contents in sea water and bottom sediments. No progress in pollution was found within any of the areas surveyed.
  Regular surveys are conducted on tar balls drifting or cast ashore in the littoral and peripheral waters of Japan. The 1988 survey revealed that both drifting tar balls and those cast ashore had increased from the previous year in a number of sea areas, particularly in the area south of Honshu Island. On the whole, the numbers of drifting oil balls have remained stable, and those cast ashore are have decreased slightly.
  The occurrence of maritime pollution found in waters around Japan by the Maritime Safety Agency was 927 cases in 1988 registering a decrease by 48 cases from 1987.
  As for cases of sea pollution by oil in 1988 on the basis of their causes, the majority of the troubles or 469 cases were caused by ships. Out of these cases, 186 cases were caused by carelessness in handling and 92 cases by intentional acts. In connection with pollution by items other than oil, 226 cases were caused by factors on shore and 56 cases by ships. Almost all of them were caused by intentional acts.

2. Countermeasures for Marine Pollution

 (1) International Trend and Japan's Response

  Now that the prevention of marine pollution is fully effective only when all nations of the world join their coordinated efforts to cope with it, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) plays a central role in stepping up international cooperation. In response to this interna-tional move, Japan enacted the Marine Pollution Prevention Law in 1970, and primarily under this law, Japan has tightened measures for marine pollution prevention.
  Meanwhile, changes in the marine transport structure led to the commissioning of larger oil tankers and an increase in seaborne cargoes of harmful substances other than oil, particularly those carried by chemical tankers. In the wake of th developments, in 1978, the Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the Preven-tion of Pollution by Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78 Convention was adopted, constituting a new package treaty on marine pollution control. MARPOL 73/78 Convention is comprised of the text and five annexes that set forth the details of the rules for each of the substances covered.
  It stipulates that 1) regulations must be made applicable to not only already regulated heavy oil but also light oil, toxic liquid sub-stances in bulk, harmful substances carried by sea in packaged form or in freight containers, portable tanks or road and rail tank wagons, sewage, and garbage, and that 2) regulations must be laid down on the structure and equipment of ships, which must be inspected.
  Japan promulgated in May 1983 the Law for Partially Amending the Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster. After taking other necessary legislative measures, Japan deposited an instrument of accession to the MARPOL 73/78 Convention in 1983.
  Of the regulations stipulated in this Convention, the main text and the regulation for prevention of oil pollution (Annex I) were put into effect internationally by countries including Japan in October 1983. The regulation for the control of pollution by hazardous liquid substances shipped in bulk (Annex II) has n effective internationally, as well as in Japan, since April 1987. The regulation for preventing pollution by solid ship wastes (Annex V) was enforced internationally from Decem-ber 1988, and ministries and agencies are currently surveying the ships to be controlled in Japan, considering a desirable system of ship waste disposal, etc. The other provisions stipulated in this Convention (i.e., the regulation for preventing pollution by hazardous liquid substances shipped in containers from ships (Annex III) and the regulation for preventing pollution by ship waste water (Annex IV)) have not yet been implemented, though efforts are being made at IMO for early implemen-tation.

 (2) Preventive Measures

 a. Controls on Ships

  Under the Law Relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster, attempts were made for the appropriate enforce-ment of controls on the discharge and incineration of oil, hazardous liquid substances and others, and wastes. At the same time, inspection to ensure compliance with technical standards for ship construcion and equipment maintenance is carried out and a marine pollution prevention certificate is issued when the ship meets the standards.

 b. Rating of Unrated Liquid Substances

  In response to the enforcement of the regulations concerning hazardous liquid substances and others, the Environment Agency has been rating unrated liquid substances. Ninety-two substances have been rated and announced so far (as of the end of December 1988). The rating, combined with the specification based on cabinet ordinances, has cov-ered 544 hazardous liquid substances and 90 safe liquid substances.

 c. Guidance for Marine Pollution Prevention

  The Ministry of Transportation and the Maritime Safety Agency endeavored to thoroughly spread necessary information about marine pollution control and to foster consciousness about preservation of the marine environment by holding marine pollution control seminars, where they explained the restrictions on oil and toxic fluid substances prescribed in the Marine Pollution Control Law as well as the restric-tions on waste discharge from ships which have been in effect since the end of December 1988.
  In addition to regular guidance on marine pollution prevention, the Maritime Safety Agency designated Marine Pollution Prevention Week to coincide with the Environment Week. Officials were dispat-ched to ships to provide on-board intensive lessons. Monitor systems for marine pollution prevention were utilized to disseminate the idea of marine pollution prevention and have the related laws known to all the people concerned.

 d. Improvement of Waste Oil Treatment Facilities

  Of all waste oil facilities treating waste oil from ships, those operated by the public sector were improved. As of January 17, 1989, 132 public and private waste oil treatment facilities were in operation at 81 ports across the nation. Of these, 49 facilities at 35 ports were able to dispose of waste light oil.

 (3) Improvement of Discharged Oil Recovery System

  To cope with oil spills at sea, the Maritime Safety Agency concentrated its efforts in keeping patrol boats and aircraft on standby and acquiring sufficient supply and, equipment. Efforts were also made to ensure that shipowners and other interested parties should keep prevention resources ready to use. The Agency continued to make available guidance and fostering programs for the Japan Maritime Disaster Prevention Center, a non-governmental institution organized to play a key role in private sector maritime disaster prevention activities. The Center handled the removal of the spilt oil in 10 cases during 1988, including the removal of the oil discharged from the Dai-ichi Kasuga Maru, a small tanker (480 tons in total), which was waterlogged and sunk at sea off Kyogasaki Point, Kyoto Prefecture in December 1988.
  The Agency also guides and fosters the conferences on preventive measures for oil spill disasters, which have long been in operation at major ports. Drills in controlling large-scale oil spills were provided jointly by the government and private sectors.
  In addition the Agency provides guidance on the improvement of measures against oil discharge from national oil storage bases in response to the progress of the national oil storage project.

 (4) Purification Measures for Ports and Harbors and Their Surrounding Sea Areas

  To ensure environmental conservation at ports and harbors and their surrounding sea areas, pollution control operations for ports and harbors, such as dredging sludge containing organic substances, were carried out in 1988, at 11 ports including Tokyo and Osaka. The operations performed that year for improvement of the environment at ports and harbors comprised the construction of sea walls for waste disposal for reclamation purposes at 26 ports and one bay including Fushiki Toyama port, a survey on construction designing for the waste reclamation site in Tokyo Bay, and waste removal operations which have been continued to recover floating refuse and oil from open sea areas outside port and harbor districts.
  Surveys were conducted to draw operational plans for sediment purification to improve the environment of Tokyo Bay, lse Bay, and Seto Inland Sea, these being semi-closed and easily affected by advanc-ing eutrophication.

3.Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage

  (1) In view of the fact that oil pollution caused by tankers cost enormous damages, Japan signed the international Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969, and the International Conven-tion on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971 in order to rescue sufferers with the utmost care. In accordance with the Oil Pollution Compensation Law, a Japanese legislation fully reflecting the spirit of these two conventions, the following measures are taken, among others, in association with the pollution damage caused by the oil spills from tankers:
 1) Absolute liability should be imposed on the owner of the tanker.
 2) The ceiling to such liability should be within a certain limit.
 3) The owners of tankers with an oil cargo capacity of more than 2,000 tons should be obligated to effect liability insurances.
 4) The victims of oil pollution, if not fully compensated by the shipowner under the above compensation system, claim the unpaid balance from the international fund under the International Fund Convention, provided that it does not exceed the specified compensation amount.
 (2) At the international conference held at IMO headquarters in 1984, the protocols for revision of the two conventions were adopted. The principal revisions incorporated in the protocols include, among other, 1) raises in the amounts to be charged to shipowners and those to be compensated by the international fund, and 2) invocation of the conven-tions to vacant tankers and exclusive economic zones. At present, studies are under way on domestic action on such revisions, taking into consideration the actions taken by other countries.
  Of the oil pollution damage caused to fisheries by unidentified sources which constitutes a considerable portion of all oil pollution damage, the government subsidized the relief projects such as payment of relief funds and disbursement of recovery expense carried out by the Relief Fund for Fishery Damage from Oil Pollution on the Fishing Grounds.
  In 1987, the total amount of relief outlays stood at ¥1031 million in a total of 42 cases.

Chapter4. Other Pollution and Corrective Measures

Section1. Waste Disposal

1. Present State of Waste Disposal

(1) Domestic Waste

  Domestic waste is generally disposed of according to the disposal programs formulated by municipalities. The volume of purped-out human waste and septic tank sludge amounted to 104,531 kl/day in 1986, of which 82% was treated at night soil treatment plants or put into sewerage systems. The hygienic disposal of human waste has been promoted effectively.

Table 4-1 Present State of Waste Disposal (National)

Table 4-1 Present State of Waste Disposal (National)

Note : 6)=3)+4)+4), 7)=6)/2), 8)=3)+4), 9)=3)+5), 10)=9)/2)
Source : Ministry of Health and Welfare

  A total 5,800,000 septic tanks have been installed in Japan, contributing to the popularization of flush toilets, which are currently used by 33,080,000 persons or about one fourth of the national popula-tion.
  Garbage treatment is shown in Table 4-1. The total amount of garbage discharged in 1986 was 122,599 tons/day, and incineration accounted for 72% of the garbage treated under the disposal programs.

 (2) Industrial Wastes

  The present state of industrial waste generated is shown in Table 4-2, and the facilities installed for the disposal of industrial wastes as of April 1987 are shown in Table 4-3. The number of licenses granted to businesses for the disposal of industrial wastes has been increasing year by year, reaching 56,538 as of April 1987.
  Industrial waste businesses have recently come to play an impor-tant role, although the disposal of industrial waste must, in principle, be the responsibility of the body generating the waste.

2. Empty Cans

  The production of canned beverages has sharply increased recent-ly. Their production increased to more than 19.0 billion cans in 1987 from some 800 million cans in 1970. A serious environmental problem has come to the fore because many of these cans, after being emptied, are left scattered over roads, parks, rivers, and other places.
  The findings of a questionnaire survey conducted in 700 munici-palities across the nation in 1988 reveal a general tendency toward gradual improvement, although obstacles still remain in some areas.
  Measures to prevent the dispersion of empty cans are carried out in various manners by various sectors of the society.
  Local governments are taking a wide variety of measures, depen-ding on their respective needs. In addition to the enforcement of ordi-nances and operating procedures to prevent the littering of empty cans, campaigns for the prevention of the littering of empty cans strength-ening efforts for cleaning and so forth, some local governments are recovering empty cans under a deposit system in public parks and other systems and other areas on a trial basis.

Table 4-2 Discharge of Industrial Wastes (National)(1985)

Table 4-2 Discharge of Industrial Wastes (National)(1985)

Source : Ministry of Health and Welfare

  The central government established a Liaison Council on Prob-lems of Empty Cans, made up of the representatives of 11 related ministries and agencies. On the basis of an accord of this council, attempts have been made to promote dissemination and enhancement of preventive activities against empty cans littering. Besides that, the Environment Agency and Ministry of Health and Welfare have called on local governments for the designation of an Environmental Beautification Action Day primarily during the Environment Week as part of the environmental beautification movement in an attempt to encourage each segment of the population to take positive action for beautification of the environment, including the prevention of scattering empty cans.

Table 4-3 Present State of Industrial Waste Disposal Facilities

Table 4-3 Present State of Industrial Waste Disposal Facilities

Notes : 1. Surveyed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare.
    2. Landfill disposal sites handling domestic waste and industrial waste together are included in the number of control-type final disposal site.
    3. "Public bodies" are municipalities and public service corporations which are concerned with water supply, sewerage of industrial water supply, sewerage or industrial water works conducted by municipalites.

Table 4-4 Current State of Industrial Waste Recycling (1983)

Table 4-4 Current State of Industrial Waste Recycling (1983)

Source : Ministry of International Trade and Industry

  Beside nationwide campaigns for the dissemination and enhance-ment of undertakings for empty can problems, enterpreneurs distribute takehome bags and trash boxes, and also step up the recovery of empty cans at various places and installation of recovery containers to auto-matic vending machines across the nation.
  People also cooperate in a take empty-cans home campaign and the segregated collection of wastes, and carry out unique activities for the cleaning, recycling of throwaway cans at various places across the nation.

Section2. Ground Subsidence

1. Present State of Ground Subsidence

  The history of ground subsidence is long. This phenomenon began to attract public attention since the early 1910s.
  Ground subsidence is primarily caused by the excessive pumping up of groundwater. In fact, groundwater is pumped up not only for use in industry and buildings but for tap water, agriculture, aquaculture, snow melting and many other purposes. (Table 4-5)
  Major areas in which ground subsidence had been observed before 1986 cover 60 areas in 36 prefectures. (Fig. 4-1)
  The characteristics of recent ground subsidences throughout Japan are as follows:
 (1) As for ground subsidence throughout Japan, the general level has stayed the same for the last several years but marked subsidence still continues in some areas.
  The area in which the most remarkable ground subsidence was seen in fiscal 1987 was the northern part of the Kanto Plain where water shortages continued from spring to summer. In this area, the ground level dropped by 4.8 cm in Saitama Prefecture (Kurihashi.Cho), 4.3 cm in Tochigi Prefecture (Nogi.Machi) and 4.0 cm in Ibaragi Prefecture (Goka-Mura). Other than the above, the areas where ground subsidence exceeded 4.0 cm per year were Kamaishi city of Miyagi Prefecture and the Suwa Basin of Nagano Prefecture.
  In the heavy snowfall areas where the ground subsidence due to pumping up of groundwater for melting snow has been a big problem, the rate of subsidence in 1987 decreased from 1986 because of the restrictions on the amount of groundwater pumped up as well as less snowfall in 1987.
 (2) In the past, marked ground subsidences were observed in Tokyo' s wards, Osaka City and Nagoya City. As a result of the control on the pumping-up of groundwater enforced later, the progress of the phe-nomenon either slowed down or ceased. In other areas, there are signs of an improvement from a long-range perspective, but in the areas indicated in 1) above and some other areas, ground subsidences are still in progress.
 (3) Such continuous ground subsidence has been causing damage to buildings, farmland and a number of facilities for water pumping, water control, harbors, and agricultural purposes in wide areas, threatening the hazard of disasters caused by floods, high tides, etc. in a number of sea-level areas.

Table 4-5 Use of Groundwater in Japan

Table 4-5 Use of Groundwater in Japan

Notes: 1. "Industry" is calculated on the basis of the industrial statistical data (1986 survey) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry with the number of operation days set at 300 a year. The amount of water used for industry is the amount of the intake of fresh water excluding the amount of recovered water. Groundwater is the well water (the water taken from the shallow wells, the deep wells and the spring water).
  2. "Drinking water" is calculated on the basis of the tap water statistics (1986 survey) of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. (The total quantity of water for tap water services and tap water supply services.) ground-water is well water (the water from shallow wells and deep wells).
  3. The amounts of water for industry and tor drinking water include the overlapped amount of water supplied to industries from tap water. (This overlapped amount of water was 690 million m3 year according to the industrial statistics of 1986.)
  4. The total amount of water used for agriculture is calculated on the basis of the state of development of agricultural land in 1973. The groundwater used for agriculture is calculated on the basis of the survey on actual condition of utilization of groundwater for agriculture conducted in 1973 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery and prepared in 1978. Groundwater is the water pumped up from the deep wells, the shallow wells, catchment ditches and the catchment areas. The use of ground-water is concentrated in the period from April to September, and the intake of 96% of the total amount of ground water used for agriculture is made during this period.
  5. The water used for buildings, etc. is the amount of groundwater used, and was determined by the survey of the actual condition of the amount of intake of groundwater, etc., conducted in the years from 1971 to 1987, which was prepared by the Environment Agency, and also by the survey of actual condition conducted by local public entities.

Fig. 4-1 Areas prone to Ground Subsidence

Fig. 4-1 Areas prone to Ground Subsidence

2. Countermeasures for Ground Subsidence

  In order to prevent ground subsidence, the pumping-up of ground-water is controlled under the Industrial Water Law and Law Concerning Regulation of Pumping-up of Groundwater for Use in Buildings, the so-called Building Water Law. At present, 10 prefectures and some areas of four prefectures are designated as such areas under the two laws, respectively. In many areas, besides the controls exercised under the ordinances of local governments, attempts are being made to reduce the pumping-up of groundwater with voluntary restriction on the pumping-up of groundwater for industrial use and administrative guid-ance for the rationalization of its use.

Section3. Soil Pollution

1. Present State of Soil Pollution

  For the pollution of agricultural soil by designated harmful substances, detailed surveys for countermeasures for control of soil pollution have been conducted covering the areas which are likely to have been polluted since 1971.
  In 1987, detailed surveys for cadmium in an area of about 836 hectares in 13 areas in 9 prefectures, for copper in an area of about 21 hectares in 1 area in 1 prefecture, and for arsenic in an area of about 24 hectares in 2 areas in 2 prefectures had been made. As a result, levels of cadmium higher than the standard required for the designation as polluted areas were detected in two areas. fly 1987, the total of the areas where the levels of designated harmful substances higher than the standard required for the designation as a polluted area were detected came to 7,030 hectares in 128 areas.

2. Countermeasures for Soil Pollution

(1) Preventive Measures for Farmland Soil Pollution

  Of the areas where the levels of designated harmful substances higher than the standard required for the designation as polluted area were detected, 39 areas with a total of 4,230 hectares (excluding the areas the designation of which was cancelled) were designated as areas requiring countermeasures, as of October 1, 1988. Of these areas, countermeasures were formulated for 33 areas with a total of 2,950 hectares. In these areas, countermeasures such as special land improve-ment projects for prevention of environmental pollution, incorporating soil removal, top soil replacement, water source conversion are carried out. The areas in which these countermeasure projects had been com-pleted (including those completed as of the end of FY 1988) are 4,010 hectares or 57.0% of the areas where levels higher than the standard values have been detected.
  In the areas contaminated with cadmium, measures are being taken for the prevention of rice contamination as a provisional measure till the countermeasure projects are completed.
  Besides, in order to grasp the overall picture of farmland soil pollution with heavy metals, a basic survey on the soil environment is being carried out at designated points.
  In the areas where the farmland soil is polluted, surveys and experiments such as on the effects of top soil replacement and soil improvements have been carried out.
  In recent years, recycled organic substances have been increasing-ly used in farmland. Efforts are being made to prevent soil contamina-tion in accordance with the control standards for the prevention of the accumulation of heavy metals in the agricultural soil as a provisional measure.

 (2) Measures for Soil Pollution in Urban Areas

  In recent years, soil pollution in urban areas has been posed as a grave issue, as toxic chemical substances were detected in the soil of the sites from which industrial plants, experimental and research institu-tions, etc. had been transferred, when their land was converted to other purposes.
  Given this situation, the study group on soil pollution problems in built-up areas came out in January 1986 with a provisional guideline on soil pollution countermeasures for the state land which would be designated for public use.
  In addition, the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corpo-ration Act was amended to facilitate the smooth implementation of soil pollution control in urban areas. A new system of official loan was established to finance the projects that attempt to prevent or remove soil pollution in urban areas by means of soil covering, paving, isolation, etc.

Section4. Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals

1. Present State of Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals

  Along with an increased use of agricultural chemicals in the postwar years, the pollution of food and the environment with BHC, DDT, dieldrin, organic mercury agents etc. has become a serious social issue. As controls on their use have been tightened under the provisions of the revised Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law since 1971 and less toxic agricultural chemicals have been developed due to the advancement of science and technology, the types and output of highly toxic and persistent agricultural chemicals have remarkably decreased.
  However, the application of agricultural chemicals means using substances possessing bioactivity in the environment, and so it is required to continue assessing their safety properly and placing them under proper control in order to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment.

2. Countermeasures for Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals

  To prevent pollution by agricultural chemicals, the Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law requires agricultural chemicals for domestic sale to pass tests as to their persistency, toxicity, etc. and to be regis-tered with relevant authorities. Registration may be rejected in respect of any of the following: 1) persistency in agricultural products; 2) persis-tency in soil; 3) toxicity against aquatic life,; and 4) water pollution. Standards for persistency in agricultural products have been established for 223 agricultural chemicals as of the end of March 1989, and common standards have been established for persistency in soil.
  For enforcement of regulations on the use of agricultural chemi-cals which may, by their persistency, affect people and livestock if they are not applied according to specified methods, these chemicals have been designated as persistent agricultural chemicals in crops or soil under the Cabinet Order. And at the same time, application standards for such agricultural chemicals have been established to regulate the methods in which they are used.

Chapter5. Promotion of Environmental Health Policy

Section1. Compensation for Pollution-Related Health Damage and Prevention

1. Overview of Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation and Prevention System

  In order to enhance prompt and fair protection and relief of the sufferers of pollution-related health damage, the "Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law" has been in force since September 1,1974, and this has played a major role in the protection of sufferers.
  Under this system sufferers are paid compensation for the dam-ages incurred by those who discharged the pollution material, and who are liable according to the Civil Code. Diseases that come under this system are classified into the following two categories: One is composed of diseases such as bronchitic asthma that has no particular relation with the causal substance (the areas in which air pollution is remarkable and bronchitic asthma and other diseases caused by that effect prevail is designated as the Class 1 areas) and such diseases as Minamata disease, Itai Itai (ouch ouch)disease, arsenism, etc. that have a particular relation with causal substances (the areas in which environmental pollution is remarkable and special diseases caused by that effect prevail are designated as the Class 2 areas).
  Of the above two areas, the Class 1 area was reviewed on the basis of a change in the state of air pollution. As a result, the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control submitted to the Cabinet its report entitled "How Class 1 Area Under the Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Law Should Be" in October 1986. Based upon this report, the following amendments were made and have been implemented since March 1988. Namely, (1) Designation of the Class 1 area shall be cancelled, (2) continuation of payment of the compensation to the sufferers of pollution-related damages already approved, (3) implementation of projects to prevent air pollution-related health dam-ages and (4) the name of the "Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation Law" shall be changed to the "Law Concerning the Compensation for Pollution-Related Health Damage" (hereinafter called the "Compensation Law").
  Under the present state of air pollution, the amendment of the system based on the scientific evaluation that the air pollution is not the cause of asthma is reasonable. The Environment Agency will further endeavor to promote steadily the present policy of protecting patients and preventing health damage by air pollution.

2. Disease by Air Pollution

 (1) Payment of Compensatioin to Designated Sufferers

  The number of sufferers already designated as of the end of December 1988 was 108, 489. Since the designation of Class 1 areas was cancelled on March 1, 1988, no new sufferers have been designated. For the sufferers already designated, the payment of the follwing benefits and allowances are being continued as before in accordance with the Compensation Law:
 (1) Medical care benefits
 (2) Injury compensation
 (3) Compensation to surviving family
 (4) Compensation to surviving family (lump sum payment)
 (5) Compensation to surviving children
 (6) Recuperation allowance
 (7) Funeral expenses
Renewal of designation is possible. In order to improve the health and welfare of the sufferers already designated, the following means of assistance are being effectuated.
 (1) Rehabilitation projects
 (2) Sending to another place for a change of air and rest
 (3) Supply of necessary utensils for rest and care
 (4) Giving guidance and suggestions for rest and care at home Expenses required for the payment of compensation shall be shared by (a) fixed pollution generation entities such as soot-and smoke-generating facilities and (b) automobiles. Their sharing ratio has been fixed at 8 to 2.
  On the other hand, the Pollution-Related Health Damage Com-pensation Claim Examination Committee has been established in order to examine applications for designation or examination of the requests for payment of compensation. In connection with the Class 1 area, 140 applications for examination were received by December 1988, 11 of which were cancelled, 10 were rejected, 84 were dismissed and 11 were withdrawn.

 (2) Execution of Health Damage Prevention Projects

  As a result of the enforcement of the amended law in March 1988, projects to prevent health damage from air pollution (hereinafter called Health damage prevention projects) have been carried out. These projects supplement the measures for air pollution-related health dam-age that were previously implemented by the national or local public entities, and aims to make these measures more effective. The business carried out by the Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation and Prevention Association (hereinafter called Association) include: (1) Investigation and research, (2) spread of knowledge and (3) training. All of which are directly carried out other than the above, included in the business are (4) the drafting of plans, (5) consultation about health, (6) medical examinations, (7) training of functions, (8) construction of facilities and (9) payment of subsidies for construction of facilities. All of these are carried out by local public entities and the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation for the Class 1 areas is made by using subsidies furnished by the Association (Ref: Figure 5-1).
  The financial resources of this project are provided from the profits of the working fund of the Association. The total amount of the fund is ¥50 billion. Expenses required by the projects each year are covered by the money furnished by the direct generators of air pollution and those related to the pollution as well as the fund furnished by the state (¥181 million in fiscal 1988). It is expected that the fund will attain the target level in 7 to 8 years.
  Indicated below is the extent of implementation of the pollution-related health damage prevention projects in fiscal 1988.
  (a) Projects for the Carried Out Directly by the Association
  As investigation and research, the Association conducted a sur-vey on bronchitic asthma in large cities as well as carried out investiga-tion and research contributive to the improvement of the atmospheric environment. To contribute to the spread of knowledge, the Association held a low-pollution car fair, carried out the air pollution prevention promotion month campaign and printed, pamphlets on prevention of and recovery from bronchitic asthma and trained those engaged in the health damage prevention projects.

Fig. 5-1 Overview of Health Damage Prevention Projects

Fig. 5-1 Overview of Health Damage Prevention Projects

  (b) Payment of the Subsidy by the Association
  The Association paid subsidies to 43 local public entities and the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation, which carried out the following projects in former Class 1 areas: Drafting plans to improve the atmospheric environment, health consultation related to asthma, medical examinations for babies and small children, function training at asthma camp, introduction of low-pollution vehicles such as electric automobiles, tree planting for purification of the air and con-struction of green zones for air pollution control.

3. Minamata Disease

 (1) History

  Minamata disease was found for the first time in areas surround-ing Minamata Bay of Kumamoto Prefecture in May 1956, and for the second time, along the Agano River in Niigata Prefecture in May 1965. In September 1968, the Japanese government announced its unified view that the disease had been caused by methyl mercury from the plants of Chisso (nitrogen), Ltd. and Showa Denko Co., Ltd. accumulaing in fish and shells which were then eaten by people.
  At the time of outbreak of the disease, Kumamoto and Niigata Prefectures respectively took their own measures. In December 1969, the Law Concerning the Special Measures for Relief of Health Damage Due to Environmental Pollution (hereinafter called Ralief Law) was enforced, and the areas related to the disease were respectively speci-fied as the designated areas. In August 1971, memorandums were issued by both the vice-minister of Environment and the manager of the environmental pollution and health section in respect to the require-ments to be met do determine whether or not a person is suffering from Minamata disease in order to inform people that the designation of this disease must be made on the basis of medical science in accordance with the Relief Law.
  On the other hand, the court decision of the first suit on Niigata Minamata disease was handed down in September 1971 and that of the first suit on Kumamoto Minamata disease in March 1973. In these suits, the obligations of Showa Denko and Chisso to compensate for damages were recognized by the courts. On the basis of these court decisions, agreements On compensation were concluded between groups of suf-ferers and the enterprises concerned through direct negotiations; namely the compensation agreement between the sufferers and Showa Denko in June 1971 and that between the sufferers and Chisso in July 1971. Thereafter, the sufferers designated under the Relief Law or the Com-pensation Law came to receive the compensation on the basis of these agreerments directly from the companies concerned.
  In September 1974 the designation of the areas applicable for the disease was made in accordance with the Compensation Law in place of the Relief Law, and the work related to the designation of the disease such as the requirements was placed under the Compensation Law.
  In the case of Minamata disease in Kumamoto Prefecture, those who applied for designation as sufferers increased drastically in number and therefore the number of those left pending also grew large. Under such circumstances, concerned Cabinet members reached agreement on the "promotion of Minamata disease measures" at their meeting held about this problem in June 1977, and it was decided that the designation of the disease should be speeded up.
  In response to the above decision, a memorandum on the "Condi-tions to be considered for the designation of acquired Minamata dis-ease" was issued under the name of the manager of the Environmental Health Department in July 1977, and this outlined and clarified the medical examination standards for the designation of Minamata dis-ease. In July 1978, a memorandum on the "Promotion of the business related to the recognition of Minamata disease" was issued under the name of the vice-minister of environment. On the other hand, Kumamoto Prefecture exerted efforts to promptly eradicate the number of those left pending for the designation of the disease, setting up in October 1977, a system for giving medical examinations to 150 people and examinations for recognition of the disease to 120 people for a month (in August 1986, this quota was increased to 250 people for medical examinations and 200 people for examination for designation per month). Further in February 1979, the Law Concerning Special Measures for the Promotion of Designation of the Disease was enacted and it became possible for the national government undertake exaimina-tions for the designation of Minamata disease.

 (2) Present Status

  (a) Designation of Minamata Disease

  As of the end of December 1988, the number of people who had already been designated as being sufferers of Minamata disease was 1,002 around Minamata Bay (the total number of those designated under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 1,752) and 313 in Kago-shima Prefecture (the total number of those recognized under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 459). The number of those who have already filed applications but not been examined for designation of the disease is 3,613 in Kumamoto Prefecture and 570 in Kagoshima Prefec-ture. For the last 2 to 3 years, the handling of those who filed applica-tions but are pending for the examination has proceeded considerably smoothly. The number of those still pending for the examination has gradually been decreasing since 1986. Even now, however, there are many people who file application once again, those who refuse the examination, those who have filed applications but have become old and an increasing number of those who die without having the examination or those who are sick in bed and cannot receive the examination. Consequently, there are still many people who are left unexamined for Minamata disease.
  On the other hand, the number of people who have been designat-ed as being sufferers of Minamata disease along the Agano River was 472 as of the end of December 1988 (the total number of those who have been designated as being sufferers of Minamata disease under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 690), and the number of those who are left unexamined as of the same date was 16.
  Such being the circumstances, it is necessary for both Kumamoto and Niigata prefectural governments to exert efforts speed up designa-tion of the sufferers in order to promptly eradicate the number of those who are left unexamined. The governments should maintain and oper-ate the system of medical examination and examination for designation recognition. At the same time, it is also necessary for them to intensify the response to those who have not received the abovestated examina-tions because they reside in other prefectures at present. For those who are in other prefectures and have filed or will file applications for the examinations, examination organs have been established in Nagoya, Osaka and Tokyo at necessary times.
  The designation of the sufferers of Minamata disease has always been done on the basis of medical judgement. In October 1985, a medical expert conference on Minamata disease was held, and the appropriate-ness of the judgement was confirmed once again.

  (b) Execution of Medical Treatment Research Project and Special Medical Service Project

  The Environment Agency has been executing since fiscal 1974 the medical treatment research project of reimbursing the medical expenses paid by the applicants whose examination for designation of Minamata disease has been pending for a long period of time and thereby observing and grasping the changes in their symptoms. The Agency has also been implementing since June 1986, the special medical service project of reimbursing medical expenses paid by those whose applications for designation of the disease was rejected but who satisfy some require-ments specified by the Agency. The latter project is for to giving administrative assistance in medical care to those who cannot be diagnosed as being sufferers of Minamata disease but show certain nerval symptoms, the cause of which cannot be specified. Such a way of assistance will contribute to ward solving the cause of their symptoms and at the same time will help to reduce their anxiety about health. This constitutes a medical treatment research project including the viewpoint of social economy.

  (c) Appeal of Dissatisfaction with Rejection of the Application for Designation of Minamata Disease

  The number of those who filed claims with the Director-General of the Environment Agency appeals of dissatisfaction against disposi-tion under the Relief Law was 624 as of the end of December 1988. Of these, the number of appeals cancelled was 12, that of those turned down 2, that of those rejected by the Agency 344 and that of those withdrawn 34. The number of those who filed a claim for examination with the Examination Committee for Complaint against Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation tinder the Compensation Law was 563 as of the end of December 1988. The number of applications cancelled was 4, that of those turned down 2, that of those rejected by the Agency 195 and that of those withdrawn 59.

  (d) Suits Related to Minamata Disease

  At present, the suits brought by groups of applicants for designa-tion of Minamata disease with the state and prefectures as defendants are pending in eight courts in Japan in respect to the outbreak and spread of Minamata disease and the relief of the sufferers.

  (e) Financial Support for Chisso

  To the people who were designated as the sufferers of Minamata disease, caused by Chisso, Ltd., the causer of the disease has directly been paying compensation for their health damage. Firmly maintaining the principle that the compensation should be paid by the causer of the disease but based on the viewpoint of giving consideration to allow the payment of the compensation without trouble and also to stabilize the regional economy and society, the Environment Agency requested finan-cial organizations to financially backup Chisso. On the basis of the Cabinet understanding arrived at in June 1978, on the measures to be taken regarding Minamata disease. At the same time, the practice where by the Kumamoto prefectural government is lending to Chisso the funds it secured through the issuance of Prefectural bonds has been used.
  The above financing method expired with the payment of the compensation made in fiscal 1987. As the result of repeated discussions among involved ministries and agencies, it was decided that this method for the payment of the compensation would be continued for the three fiscal years of 1988-90. At the same time, necessary decisions were made about the policy to be taken in and after 1988 concering Minamata disease at the Cabinet meeting held in December 1987.

 c. National Institute for Minamata Disease

  The National Institute for Minamata Disease established in October 1978 as an organization for conducting comprehensive medical surveys and reseach on Minamata Disease has been carrying out clinical fundamental and epidemiological surveys and researches in an effort to elucidate Minamata Disease and to establish treatment for it.
  The Institute was assigned as a cooperation center by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 1986.
  The Institute consists of three departments, one division and 11 laboratories, staffed with 28 persons.

4.Itai Itai (Ouch Ouch) Disease

 (1) History

  Itai Itai disease which broke out in the areas along the Jintsu River of Toyama Prefecture was for the first time reported as a strange disease of unknown etiology at an academic meeting in October 1956. In May 1968, the Ministry of Health and Welfare disclosed its view that in Itai Itai disease, chronic cadmium poisoning first caused liver trouble and then osteomalacia, and thereafter changes in pregnancy, nursing of a baby and internal secretions, aging and insufficiency of calcium all became incentive factors to cause it. The Ministry of Health and Welfare then concluded that the cause of the disease was unmistakably the waste water discharged from the Kamioka Mine of the Mitsui Metal Company, Ltd. In December 1969, the area along the Jintsu River was made a designated as soon as the Relief Law was enforced. In Septem-ber 1974 this area was designated as a Class 2 area in accordance with the Compensation Law which followed the Relief Law.

 (2) Present Status

  The number of people who were designated as being sufferers of Itai Itai disease as of the end of December 1988 was 17 (the total number of those who were disignated under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 124). Toyama Prefecture also has been giving examinations of 18 people in the designated areas who require continuous observation (as of the end of December 1988) and been watching their health condition. The number of people who filed appeals of dissatisfaction with the Examination Committee for Complaint against Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation in respect to the disposition already made for them under the Compensation Law was seven as of the end of December 1988.

5. Chronic Arsenic Poisoning

 (1) History

  As far as the chronic arsenic poisoning in the Toroku area of Miyazaki Prefecture is concerned, it was reported for the first time in July 1972 that those who could be considered as the patients of chronic arsenic poisoning were observed in that area as the result of the Investi-gation by the Prefecture. Toroku area was appointed as a designated area under the Relief Law in February 1973.
  In connection with the chronic arsenic poisoning in the Sasaga-dani area of Shimane Prefecture, it was reported in August 1973, that those who could be considered as being victims of chronic arsenic poisoning were observed in that area as the result of the investigation by the Prefecture. The Sasaga-dani area was made a designated area under the Relief Law in July 1974.
  After that, the above two areas were designated as Class 2 areas in September 1974, in accordance with the Compensation Law in place of the Relief Law.

 (2) Present Status

  The number of people who were recognized as being sufferers of the disease was 87 in the Toroku area (the total number of those recognized under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 139) and seven in the Sasaga-dani area (the total number of those recognized under the Relief Law or the Compensation Law was 21).
  The number of people who filed a appeals of dissatisfaction with the Examination Committee for Complaint against Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation in respect to the disposition already made for them under the Compensation Law was 67 as of the end of December 1988. The number of those who cancelled the applications was 5, that of those who had their applications rejected, 38 and that of those who withheld the application 12.

Section2. Health Survey and Research on Cadmium Pollution

1. Survey and Research on the Health Impact of Air Pollution

  The Environment Agency intends to construct as early as pos-sible a system for environmental health surveillance that monitors the relationship between air pollution and health impact on a regular and continuous basis so that any necessary measures may be adopted. Surveys have been conducted since 1987 to establish the methodology of this system. The Agency has since 1987 been conducting surveys to establish survey methods for evaluating the health impact of localized air pollution such as observed along some principal roads.
  In addition, the Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation and Prevention Association has been proceeding with investigation and research on the prevention of health damage by air pollution.

2. Survey and Research on the Health Impact of Cadmium, etc.

  According to the announcement of the opinion of Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1968, cadmium was said to be one of the causes of the Itai-itai Disease. For this reason, in order to prevent the occur-rence of health damage, continued observation on cadmium pollution and health surveys have been conducted for residents in cadmium-polluted areas. By these health surveys, no victim of Itai-itai Disease has been discovered except in the Jintsu River basin in Toyama Prefecture.
  The Environment Agency has been making efforts to analyze and evaluate the data obtained by the health surveys of the residents in the Jintsu River basin, which were undertaken during the period from 1979 to 1984 and, since 1985, the Agency has been conducting continued surveys on the health of those residents who showed any symptom of the Itai-itai disease.
  There still remain matters not clarified as yet concerning the cause of Itai-itai Disease and cadmium's effect on the human body, including the relationship between cadmium pollution and abnormalities in proximal renal tubule function. In view of this, the Envrionment Agency is commissioning the Comprehensive Study Team on Itai-itai Disease and Chronic Cadmium Poisoning to undertake the following surveys and researches to clarify the cause of this disease and the effects of cadmium on human health.
 1) Long-term experiments administering a small dose of cadmium using large-sized animals, such as monkeys.
 2) Studies on the symptoms of low molecular weight albuminuria observed in residents in cadmium-polluted areas in connection with clinical medicine and the developmental process.
 3) Studies on better convalescent conditions for persons certified as victims of Itai-itai Disease and studies on preventive measures for Itai-itai Disease.
 4) Pathological studies on residents in cadmium-polluted areas.
  In addition, the Environment Agency undertakes a comprehen-sive study on Minamata Disease, a study on the relationship between chronic respiratory disease and environmental factors, and a compre-hensive study on the effects of heavy metals on the human health in order to promote scientific surveys and researches on the effects of air and water pollution on human health.

Chapter6. Present State of the Natural Environment and Natural Environment Conservation Measures

Section1. Overall Promotion of Natural Environment Conservation Measures

1. Basic Survey for Conservation of the Natural Environment

  The natural environment of ocean, coast, river, lake, reservoir and so on, including their fauna and flora, has been recently changing at a remarkable rate. The first thing to do, in order to conserve this rapidly changing natural environment properly, is to investigate the present state of the natural environment closely and to form a clear view of the future direction of its change.
  For this reason, the National Survey on the Natural Environment is being conducted based on Article 5 of the Nature Conservation Law. The survey generally called 'National Green Census' is to be conducted about once every five years, in order to grasp the situation of the natural environment in Japan comprehensively and scientifically.
  The fourth national basic survey on preservation of the natural environment conducted in fiscal 1988, following the first, second and third surveys conducted respectively in 1973, 1978-79 and 1983-84. (Ref: Figure 6-1)
  In fiscal 1988, the checks were carried out as the first phase of the fourth survey. They were; (1) "Survey of giant trees and big tree forests" to assess the distribution of such trees and forests throughout Japan; (2) collection of the nation-wide information obtained in the third survey of natural scenic resources conducted in 1986 and 1987; (3) comprehensive analysis of the overall results obtained in the third survey; (4) drafting of the information maps arranged by each prefecture based upon the geographical information obtained in the third survey; and (5) printing of the existing 1/50,000-scale botanical stock maps. With the printing of the above maps, the existing 1/50,000 scale botanical stock maps cover-ing the whole nation have been completed.

Fig. 6-1 Keynotes of the 4th National Survey on Preservation of Natural Environment

Fig. 6-1 Keynotes of the 4th National Survey on Preservation of Natural Environment

2. Designation of Conservation Areas

  To conserve the natural environment, the government designates wilderness areas and nature conservation areas, pursuant to the provi-sions of the Nature Conservation Law. The former is an area where the natural environment has remained in its primary condition without being affected by human activities, while the latter is an area other than the former in which conservation of the natural environment in the light of surrounding natural and social conditions.
  As of the end of March 1989, five areas had been designated as wilderness areas and nine as nature conservation areas (Table 6-1).
  The prefectural governments are also empowered to designate prefectural nature conservation areas in accordance with the relevant ordinances, where there is a special need for conservation of the envir-onment in the light of natural and social conditions in the surrounding areas. As of the end of March 1989, 501 such areas had been designated. (Table 6-1).

Table 6-1 Classified Areas in Nature Conservation Areas, etc. As of the end of March 1989

Table 6-1 Classified Areas in Nature Conservation Areas, etc. As of the end of March 1989

3. Execution of Survey of the Designated Area for Conservation of Natural Environment

  In consideration of the importance of the Primeval Natural Environment Conservation Areas as well as the Natural Environment Conservation Areas designated under the Natural Environment Conser-vation Law, the Environment Agency has been conducting surveys contributive to their proper conservation. In and before fiscal 1987, the Agency surveyed five designated Primeval Natural Environment Con-servation Areas and six designated Natural Environment Conservation Areas. In 1988, the Agency surveyed the Wagadake designated the Natural Environment Conservation Area as well as the Sasagamine designated Natural Environment Conservation Area.
  As a result of the survey of Mt. Wagadake, detailed knowledge and information were obtained regarding the composition of beech forests, Miyama oak forests, etc., the distribution state of configura-tions at linear basins as well as all ecosystems. At the survey of Mt. Sasagatake, valuable knowledge and information were also acquired as to the detailed condition of Shikoku Shirabe tree forests which are growing in the southern area of Japan, regarding the alpestrine plants as well as general matters about ecosystems.

4. Dissemination of the Awareness of Importance of Nature Conservation and Promotion of Education on Nature Conservation

  In order to cultivate a better understanding by the people of the mechanism of nature, interaction of nature with human beings and to foster people's love of nature and their morals regarding nature, the Environment Agency has actively promoted dissemination of the aware-ness of the importance of nature conservation through the movement to hold communion with nature, making use of the visitors' centers and the trails for nature study, the development and improvement of which is being promoted in national parks, quasi-national parks, etc., and the Agency has also promoted education on nature conservation through nature observation, making continued improvement of the forests for observation of nature. In order to further develop the project of promot-ing education for the conservation of nature that was conducted in fiscal 1986, the Environment Agency designated five areas such as Kushiro swamp area of Kushiro Swamp National Park and Amakusa area of Unzen-Amakusa National Park as the "Arrangement Project Execution Area by Park Volunteer Activity Fund". The Agency then set up plans for volunteer activities, held training seminars and thus attended to strengthening the base for volunteer activities.

5. Nature Conservation with People's Involvement

 (1) Modeled on Britain's National Trust for Places of Historic Interest on National Beauty, Japan's National Environment Fund activ-ities are designed to acquire, manage and conserve land with an excel-lent natural environment with the involvement and cooperation of the people through a fund-raising campaign. These activities are now being carried out at various places across the nation, and include the "Shireto-ko 100-Square-Meter Movement" (Shari Town, Hokkaido) rind the activity promoted by "the Kanagawa Civic Council for Preservation of Woods" in Kanagawa prefecture.

  Such movements are significant in evolving the activities for nature conservation across the nation. It is hoped that the movement will gain ground and became firmly established among the people.
  In order to meet the above expectation, the Environment Agency continued in fiscal 1988 to undertake the business to recognize the Natural Environment Conservation Corporation (a public service corpo-ration, the major purpose of which is to undertake the business of purchasing and controlling the land which includes good natural envi-ronment for conservation of the natural environment). The Agency at the same time took a favorable measure in terms of the inheritance tax for the donation to the designated public service trust (related to the conservation of nature) in order to contribute to ward national trust activity. Also, the Agency distributed the Reference data on National Trust for the purpose of spreading and publicizing the activities of the Trust.

 (2) Selection of the Village Where Living Things Enjoy Living
  In 1963, the Environment Agency commended the efforts of local inhabitants who would endeavor to conserve and recover the familiar small animals or insects such as fireflies, butterflies and dragonflies as well as their living environment. For the purpose of contributing to positively conserve and create natural milieus close at hand the Agency commenced the selection of the model "Villages of Our Hometown Where Insects Enjoy Living."