Quality of the Environment in Japan 1995

 (2) Countermeasures

  Marine pollution problems include flow of pollutants from off the land, discharges of oil and other substances from ships at sea, and dumping of wastes at sea, and effective results in preventing this pollution can only be expected with cooperation from all countries in the world. International cooperation, therefore in the form of adoption of treaties for prevention measures against marine pollution, centering on the International Maritime Organization (IMO), is being actively promoted, and countries are developing their marine pollution counter-measures in line with these activities.
   Japan revised its Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster in 1980 and again in 1983, strengthening its requisite domestic laws, and also moved to strengthen preventive countermeasures for marine pollution by participating in the Conven-tion on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention), which regulates dumping of wastes into the ocean that were generated mainly on land, and the Protocol of 197$ Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL73/78 Convention), a comprehen-sive treaty that prevents marine pollution by regulating the discharge of oil, noxious liquid substances, and wastes from ships, as well as ship structure and facilities.
   For the MARPOL73/78 Convention, the main body of the treaty, plus regulations for the prevention of oil pollution (Annex I), went into effect in October 1983, regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II) went into effect in April 1987, regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships (Annex V) went into effect at end of December 1988, and regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmful substances carried by sea in packaged forms, or in freight containers, portable tanks (Annex III), went into effect in July 1992, and even for the regulation (Annex IV) that has not at the current time gone into effect, for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships, the IMO is working toward early implementation. And even should these annexes undergo revision, Japan is ready to revise its own Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster to keep the domestic implementation structure in readiness. A recent revision to the law, which went into effect in April 1993, made it a requirement to that ships keep on board an emergency oil spill prevention handbook.
   Also, the London Convention was adopted in November 1972 and went into effect in August 1975. Japan, as well, ratified the convention in October 1980, and it went into effect in Japan in November of that year. Furthermore, when at the 16th meeting of the contracting parties to the London Convention, held in November 1993, an annex to the convention was revised to prohibit the disposal or incineration of indus-trial wastes at sea, Japan issued a enforcement ordinance in February 1994 revising the Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster to prohibit the incineration of industrial wastes at sea.
   For regional efforts to protect the marine environment, the UNEP regional seas program, which calls for adoption by concerned countries of joint action programs for environmental conservation of international closed seas, is promoting the Northwest Pacific region, centering on the Sea of Japan. At the first intergovernmental meeting, held in Seoul in September 1994, the four countries of Japan, South Korea, China, and Russia adopted the Northwest Pacific Action Plan-NOWPAP. In addition, to promote marine science research in the North Pacific and to promote related information exchange, a treaty for the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), adopted by Japan, the United States, Canada, China, and the Soviet Union in December 1990, went into effect in March 1992. This organization has four commit-tees, including the Marine Environmental Quality Committee, to pro-mote marine science, and the third annual meeting of members was held in Nemuro City in October 1994.
   Meanwhile, spurred on by the massive oil spill accident caused by the running aground of the Exxon Valdez off the coast of the U. S. State of Alaska in March 1989, governments agreed on the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Responses, and Co-operation, 1990 (OPRC Convention) in November 1990 for the purpose of strength-ening the environmental restoration and prevention system in times of major oil spills and of confirming the international cooperation system. It went into effect in May 1995. Moreover, the large-scale oil spill caused by the Gulf War in January 1991 again confirmed the importance of international cooperation in restoration of the environment.
   To develop the domestic structures necessary f or signing the OPRC Convention, we submitted the Bill amending the Law relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster to the 132nd Diet with the addition of regulations concerning reporting by ships that discover oil spill accidents, and the requirement that oil spill emergency measures handbooks be placed in oil storage facilities.
   Moreover, the Ministry of Transport is promoting preparations of the necessary domestic structures toward early signing of the conven-tion and, based on international information concerning countermea-sures to large-scale oil spills, has been promoting the OS PAR Program that assures the set-up of an international regional emergency preven-tion system in case of a large-scale oil pollution accident in ASEAN seas. The program was completed with the delivery of equipment and materials to Malaysia in January 1995.
 Also, the International Trade and Industry Ministry has created the Subsidized Fund for Large-Scale Oil Disaster Response Structure Development Projects, and has so far seen the completion of five oil spill prevention equipment and materials bases in Japan and four bases overseas.
   Meanwhile, with the frequent occurrence of supertanker acci-dents in recent years, such as the tanker collision off the north coast of Sumatra in January 1993, the Ministry of Transport convened the Meeting concerning Tanker Shipping Safety Measures to develop coun-termeasures for the fulfillment and strengthening of the navigation control system, and the development of an emergency response system when accidents occur, and, with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, convened the Joint Meeting concerning Tanker Shipping Problems to discuss measures for the development of structures that can assure secure shipments of oil in the ASEAN seas. Responding to the proposals made in the Joint Meeting, shipping companies, cargo owner groups, and others established the ASEAN Seas .Secure Oil Shipments Council in December of that same year.

7. Countermeasures for Trausboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes

 (1) Summary of the problem

  Movement of hazardous wastes across national boundaries origi-nally took place as an ordinary occurrence in places like Europe where many nations border each other and commercial travel is common. Nevertheless, this movement could not be said to have been appropriate-ly done in environmental terms. In particular, spurred by an incident in 1982 of the disappearance of dioxin-polluted soil that had been left over after an accidental explosion at an Italian agricultural chemicals fac-tory in 1976, and which was then discovered in France the following year (the Seveso Polluted Soil Shipment Incident), which presented a new environmental pollution threat from the transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, the EC and the OECD commenced moves to create control systems.
  Again, a number of incidents occurred in the latter 1980s where hazardous wastes were being exported from developed countries to developing countries, thus causing environmental pollution in those countries, including the Coco Incident (1988), where discarded trans-formers containing PCBs from Italy, Norway, and elsewhere was discovered to be dumping in Nigeria. These types of incidents apparent-ly began to occur when it became difficult for hazardous waste owners to dispose of them in advanced countries, and they turned to exporting to less developed countries where the regulations were more relaxed and disposal costs less. In this way, people became aware that the problem of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes was no lon-ger limited to the advanced countries but became a problem that involved the developing countries and that required responses on a global scale.

 (2) Countermeasures

  In response to these problems, UNEP worked to conclude the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal in March 1989, which mandated a system of permits and prior notification for the export of hazardous wastes and required re-export where inappropriate exports and disposal of wastes had occurred, and the convention went into effect on 5 May 1992.
   Moreover, the problem of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes was taken up at the Earth Summit held in Brazil in 1992 as one important theme in global environmental problems, and its importance as a problem needing attention was also noted in Agenda 21.
   As a result, Japan, being aware of the need for early participation in. the Basel Convention from the viewpoint of contributing to the conservation of the global environment, adopted and promulgated the Law concerning Regulation of Exports and Imports, Etc. of Specified Hazardous Wastes, Etc. on 16 December 1992, as Japan's domestic legal response to the Basel Convention.
   Later, the enforcement ordinance for the law was promulgated on 3 September 1993, completing the structure of Japan's domestic imple-mentation of the convention, and Japan officially became a member of the Basel Convention on 17 September of that year. The convention went into effect in Japan on 16 December of that same year, and the domestic law in response to the convention was implemented from that same day.
   In addition, concerning the regulation of procedures in OECD member countries for the movement of wastes across national borders for the purpose of recycling, since Japan entered into passage in March 1992 of the OECD Council Decision concerning Regulation of Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes for Conducting Recycling Operations before the Basel Convention went into effect in Japan, the necessary regulations for transboundary movement of wastes covered by the OECD decision were based on the Law concerning Regulation of Exports and Imports, Etc. of Specified Hazardous Wastes, Etc., of 16 December 1992.
   Based on this law, the volume of exports of specified hazardous wastes, etc., permitted during January to December 1994 was 7,580 tons, while the volume of permitted imports was 1,216 tons.
   Elsewhere, the Law for the Amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, promulgated on 16 December 1992, was implemented from 15 December 1993. It imposes necessary regulations for the export or import of wastes, requiring confirmation by the Minister of Health and Welfare for export of wastes, and a permit from the minister for import of wastes.

8. Prevention of Desertification

 (1) Summary of the problem

  Desertification, as defined by the Agenda 21 adopted at the June 1992 Earth Summit, and the Convention on Prevention of Desertification agreed in June 1994, is "land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities." In this case, "land" is a concept that includes the soil, water resources, the topsoil layer, and vegetation, while "degradation" is the decline of a land's resource potential due to a single or multiple processes, such as the outflow of topsoil or its depositing on river floors due to rain or wind, decline of the natural variation of vegetation over long period of time, and salinification of land. According to a survey on the current state of desertification conducted by UNEP in 1991, areas where desertification is progressing cover about one-quarter of the Earth's total land area, and about 70% of arid land, or about 3.6 billion hectares, and about on&sixth of the world's population is affected.
   Major causes of desertification can be considered to include grazing of livestock beyond a grassland's ability to recover, degraded land due to shortened fallow periods of agricultural land, over collection of wood for charcoal and firewood, and rising salinification of agricultural land caused by inappropriate irrigation. Lurking in the background are such socioeconomic factors as local poverty and rising population in less developed countries, which make the desertification problem more complex.

 (2) Countermeasures

  International efforts for the prevention of desertification, spurred by the drought that began in 1968 in the Sahel region south of the Sahara in Africa, centered around UNEP with the holding of the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) held in 1977. Further-more, in response to the Earth Summit's Agenda 21, the 47th UN General Assembly in 1992 established the Intergovernmental Negotiat-ing Committee on Desertification, for the adoption of the Convention on Prevention of Desertification. The Convention Negotiation Conference met five times through June 1994, and in the fifth meeting adopted two resolutions concerning the Convention on Prevention of Desertification (main document plus four regional implementation annexes), the Resolu-tion concerning Temporary Measures until the Convention Takes Effect and the Resolution concerning Emergency Action for Africa. And in October 1994, the signing ceremony for the convention was held in Paris, and 86 countries (including the EU), signed the convention. Japan was one of the signatories.
   Japan, with the intention of moving toward the conference of member states, and actively contributing as much as possible to the on-going negotiations for the Convention on Prevention of Desertifica-tion, conducted studies into the methods of comprehensive countermea-sures for prevention of desertification, that took into account the socioeconomic viewpoint. Elsewhere, Japan is conducting the govern-ment level desertification-related projects through bilateral and multi-lateral assistance, research on desertification and evaluation of its interactive effects on human activities in India and China, surveys on agricultural development as a response to desertification in West Africa's Niger River drainage basin, joint international research to analyze the mechanism of desertification in China's Taklamakan Des-ert, surveys into forest regeneration technology in desertified regions, and joint Japan-China research on the mutual interaction between the topsoil and the atmosphere in the Amur River drainage basin. In addition, Japan is conducting development in Egypt of a water-retention chemical for improving the soil.
   At the private-sector level, NGOs such as Green Sahel are engaged in desertification prevention activities in Africa.

9. Dealing with Pollution Problems in Developing Countries

  In developing countries, poverty and population pressures lie behind the progress of deforestation and desertification while the advance of urbanization and industrialization are rendering air pollu-tion, water pollution, and other pollution problems more serious. In addition, with the end of the Cold War structure, it has become apparent that the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are faced with serious pollution problems left behind by planned economies that placed little regard on environmental conservation policies. So pollution problems are arising all over the world, and from the global point of view, the pollution problems in developing countries can no longer be considered as locally confined.
   Moreover, many of these developing countries do not possess the economic, technological, personnel, or institutional foundations for coping with pollution problems, and the cooperation of the advanced nations, etc., is essential, as well as their own efforts for the promotion of effective policies.
   In this situation, an emphasis on the environment is incorporated into Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter, while promotion of international cooperation concerning environmental conservation in developing countries is stipulated in the Basic Environment Law and the Basic Environment Plan. Efforts in this area have been actively promot-ed in official development assistance, etc., to date (see Section 4. Environmental Cooperation, Etc., for Developing Countries).

Section2. Efforts by International Organizations, Etc.

1. Follow-Up on the Earth Summit

 (1) International efforts

 1) Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

  Agenda 21 passed at the 1992 Earth Summit called for "a high-level Commission on Sustainable Development should be established in accordance with Article 68 of the Charter of the United Nations." In response, the 47th U. N. General Assembly held the same year called for the commission's establishment in the course of a resolution passed to develop organizations related to follow-up on the Earth Summit, and the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was established in February 1993 under the U. N.. Economic and Social Council.
   The CSD consists of 53 U. N. member states, including Japan, and its main objectives include 1) monitoring of the state of U. N. activities concerning Agenda 21 and the integration of environment and develop-ment, 2) examining reports submitted by member countries on the activities undertaken to implement Agenda 21, 3) reviewing and monitoring of progress concerning commitment on technological trans-fers and financial issues incorporated in Agenda 21, 4) promotion of the principles stated in the Rio Declaration and the Declaration of Forest Principles, and 5) submission of appropriate recommendations concern-ing implementation of Agenda 21 to the U. N. General Assembly via the U. N. Economic and Social Council.
   The first conference was held in June 1993, where agreement was reached on the Multi-Year Thematic Programme of Work for compre-hensive evaluation of the state of implementation of Agenda 21, toward the U. N. General Assembly Special Session on environment and devel-opment planned to be held in 1997 (Table 13-2-1).
   The second conference was held in May 1994, attended by 53 member states (of which about 40 countries were represented at ministe-rial level) and a large number of non-member states.
   At this conference, in line with the Programme that was decided at the first conference, reviews were conducted into such cross sectoral issues as trade and environment, funding, technology transfer, and sustainable consumption patterns, as well as into such sectoral issues as health, human settlement, fresh water, toxic chemical substances, and hazardous wastes, and then settled on 14 final themes and a conference chairman's summary of high-level meetings.

2) The High-Level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development

  Establishment of the High-Level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development (HLAB) was recommended in Chapter 38 (International Institutional Arrangements) of Agenda 21 adopted at the Earth Summit of 1992. HLAB consists of eminent persons knowledgeable about envi-ronment and development, including relevant sciences, in their personal capacity. HLAB is expected to play an important role in the follow-up to the Earth Summit, alongside intergovernmental organizations such as CSD.

Table 13-2-1 The Multi-year Thematic Programme of Work Concerning the State of Implementation for Agenda 21 for Commission on Sustainable Development

Table 13-2-1 The Multi-year Thematic Programme of Work Concerning the State of Implementation for Agenda 21 for Commission on Sustainable Development

 In response to this recommendation, U. N. Secretary-General Boutros-Boutros Ghali announced the establishment of HLAB in July 1993, and the first meeting was held in September. The third meeting was held in October 1994.

 (2) Efforts in the Asia-Pacific region

 1) Asia-Pacific Environment Conference (Eco Asia '94)

  The Environment Agency held Eco Asia '94 on 21 and 22 June 1994 in Omiya city, Saitama prefecture, with the participation of ministers in charge of the environment from a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Held in succession to Eco Asia '91, held in 1.991 to discuss input from the Asia-Pacific region for the Earth Summit, and to Eco Asia '93, held in 1993 to clarify the methods of regional coopera-tion for implementing the items agreed upon at the Earth Summit, this particular conference looked at the world situation two years after the Earth Summit, discussed the role of the Asia-Pacific region and new methods of cooperation for achieving sustainable development, and the state of progress of the "Long-Term Forecast Project" agreed for implementation at Eco Asia '93 and methods for promoting it, and set goals for contributing to new development of efforts for global environ-mental conservation.
   The conference attracted a large number of participants, includ-ing high-ranking government officials from 17 countries of the Asia-Pacific region, of which five countries were represented at the ministe-rial level, and the representatives of 10 international organizations. The conference recognized such points as the necessity of commencing specific activities to achieve sustainable development, and the impor-tance of the role of local public authorities. In addition, they agreed to continue the Eco Asia conferences, with a meeting for high-level working level officials set for 1995.

 2) Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation

  The Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation has been held in each year since 1992 to facilitate information exchanges and administrative dialogues at the environmental administration level concerning environmental problems in the Northeast Asia region, and to promote regional cooperation as emphasized in Agenda 21.
   In response to the results seen at the second conference held in Seoul in September 1993, the Environment Agency jointly hosted with Hyogo prefecture the third conference, held in September 1994. The conference discussed such themes as follow-up to CSD, sustainable cities, and conservation of biodiversity, and reached agreement on the need to strengthen cooperation in each field.

 (3) Efforts in Japan

 1) Response to conventions agreed upon at the Earth Summit

  At the Earth Summit, Japan signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Both conventions were ratified in May 1993 and Japan, becoming parties to them, began promoting efforts within the country in response to respon-sibilities to the conventions.
   In addition, the United Nations Convention to Combat Deser-tification, negotiations for which began at the Earth Summit, was adopted in June 1994, and Japan became a signatory at a signing ceremony for the Convention on Prevention of Desertification held in Paris in October of that year.

 2) Implementation of National Action Plan for Agenda 21

  Preparations and studies for national action plan under Agenda 21, were hinted at in the Agenda 21 adopted at the Earth Summit. And according to the Munich Summit of 1992 and the Tokyo Summit of 1993, these action plans were to be adopted and published by the end of 1993.
   In response, the government decided the National Action Plan for Agenda 21 on December 1993 at the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, and submitted it to the CSD secretariat.
   This National Action Plan for Agenda 21 is composed of a list of specific items to be implemented as action plans that Japan should do in the future, for each plan field listed in Agenda 21 (Table 13-2-2). In implementation, the action plan places emphasis on the items listed below, and based on these precedents, makes efforts toward attainment of sustainable development.
i. Efforts toward the building of a society with sustainable develop-ment and few burdens on the global environment, and popularization and enlightenment of the need for the people to change their own lifestyles into environmentally sound ones.
ii. Participation and contribution to create an effective international framework for global environmental conservation.
iii. For global environmental conservation, active participation in international efforts to develop funding supply systems such as the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
iv. Contributing to the improvement of the capabilities of developing countries to handle environmental problems, through the promotion of technology transfers that are appropriate to the environment.
v. Assurance and implementation of international links for monitor-ing and research on global environmental conservation.
vi. Strengthen effective links between broad sectors of society, in-cluding the central government, local governments, corporations, and non-governmental organizations.

 3) Local Agenda 21

  Local governments are expected to do much in their roles as the main actors of Agenda 21 and adopt Local Agenda 21 to ensure effective efforts on the part of local governments. The Environment Agency convened the Study Meeting for Adoption of Local Agenda 21 and when the studies were completed, compiled and published the policies in June 1994 under the title "Philosophy concerning Adoption of Local Agenda 21."

2. Activities in the United Nations and Elsewhere

  The U. N. Environment Programme was established in 1972 at the time of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, for the purpose of unifying and adjusting the various environment-related activities being conducted in institutions within the existing United Nations system, and of promoting the activities of these institutions in the field of environmental conservation. UNEP is head-quartered in Nairobi, and in addition to comprehensive adjustment of activities in the environmental field within the United Nations system, also engages in wide-ranging cooperation with other international insti-tutions, national governments, and non-governmental organizations. Programs administered by UNEP divide broadly into three areas; 1) global environmental monitoring consisting of understanding of environ-mental conditions from such systems as a global environmental monitor-ing system, an international environmental information source refer-ence system, and an international registry system for toxic chemical substances, 2) environmental management consisting of human settle-ment, forest conservation, biodiversity conservation, desertification, environment and development, and environmental laws such as the Basel Convention, etc. and 3) support activities consisting of informa-tion, education and training, and technical assistance. The 17th Govern-ing Council meeting was held in May 1993, where future UNEP activ-ities were discussed in response to the discussions and decisions taken at the Earth Summit.

Table 13-2-2 Structure of Agenda 21

Table 13-2-2 Structure of Agenda 21

   Japan has been a Governing Council member since UNEP's establishment, and participating in UNEP Governing Council meetings, has contributed greatly to the Environment Fund, with $9 million in fiscal 1994 (second in the world after the United States).
   Moreover, in October 1992, the UNEP International Environment Technology Center, a subsidiary institution to UNEP, was established in Osaka City and Shiga Prefecture as the first environment-related U. N. institution based in Japan. The goal of the center is the transfer of technologies to developing countries that are favourable to the environ-ment, to develop a data base for environmental conservation technol-ogies, and to provide information, training, and consultation. It consists of the Shiga office, which is in charge of environmental management technologies for freshwater lakes and marshes, and the Osaka office is in charge of technologies centering around urban environmental man-agement, and commenced operations in April 1994.
   At the U. N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the convening of the Commission on Sustainable Development under the auspices of the ESCAP, as agreed at the 47th general meeting of ESCAP in 1991 for a "Regional Strategy toward Sustainable Development Appropriate to the Environment in the Asia-Pacific Region" and also as discussed at the Earth Summit, strength-ened policies capabilities in each country in the region and helped build a framework of cooperation within the region in terms of implementa-tion of environmental planning.
   In September 1994, the International Conference on Population and Development, a once-in-a-decade intergovernmental conference on population problems hosted by the United Nations, was held in Cairo.
   The goal of the conference was a complete revision of the World Population Plan of Action passed at the World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974, and the adoption of a new "plan of action" looking ahead to the next 20 years.
   A special characteristic of this conference could be considered the new attempt to deal with the relationship between the population problem and the problem of sustainable development, particularly the environment, building on the trend seen at the 1992 U. N. Conference on Environment and Development. Because of this emphasis, the confer-ence name was changed to International Conference on Population and Development.
   Moreover, in.. the "Plan of Action" passed at this conference, Chapter 3 discusses the "mutual relationship between population, sus-tainable economic growth, and sustainable development," and with this recognition of the mutual relationship between population, development, and the environment, notes the necessity for "sustainable economic growth in the context of sustainable development" and the necessity for a "change in unsustainable production and consumption patterns."
   In addition, where population problems had in the past been treated as macro policies for nations, some special characteristic of this conference were the new responses to population problems never attempted before, such as the treatment of population problems from the micro viewpoint based on the individual (particularly women), the participation of NGOs, and the partnership with NGOs.
   In addition, the United Nations University located in Aoyama, Tokyo, adopted an action plan, called the United Nations University Agenda 21, in December 1993 for conducting research and training personnel in technical fields dealing with global environmental prob-lems, and is now engaged in dealing with environmental problems.
   In the forum for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), a consultative system concerning economic problems in the Asia-Pacific region, a meeting of ministers in charge of the environment was held in March 1994, where participants reconfirmed the close relationship between environmental protection toward the realization of sustainable development in the region, and economic growth.
   Finally, the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in April 1994 in response to an agreement made at the Earth Summit, recognized the special conditions facing small islands nations and confirmed the necessity of international support.

3. Activities at the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)

  The OECD is an international cooperation institution for the economies of the advanced industrialized nations, and there are present-ly 25 member states. The highest decision-making body is the Council, and the Ministerial Council meeting is held once a year.
   Reflecting the rising interest in worldwide environmental prob-lems that occurred toward the end of the 1960s, environmental problems that had been handled by the Committee for Scientific and Technologi-cal Policy were given over to a newly established Environment Commit-tee in July 1970 to specialize in environmental issues. Since its founding, the committee has been actively involved in environmental conserva-tion. In March 1992, however, it was partially reorganized and the name changed to the Environmental Policy Committee (EPOC).
   The Environment Policy Committee conducts studies on prob-lems that member countries believe important in the formulation of environmental policy. When necessary, the results are passed by the council as an OECD decision or recommendation, and the results of surveys and research are broadly publicized in reports. One result coming from this committee was the confirmation and dissemination of the Polluter-Pays-Principle (PPP).
   Moreover, other OECD committees have also been dealing broad-ly in recent years with environmental problems from their various viewpoints. And joint projects between the Environment Policy Commit-tee and other committees are becoming more common. For example, the EPOC has established a joint session with the Trade Committee on trade and environment, and based on that project formulated the "Pro-cedural Guidelines on Integrating Trade and Environment Policies." In addition, the committee is studying "development assistance and envi-ronment" with the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), and "environment and taxation" with the Fiscal Affairs Committee. The Environment Policy Committee convenes a ministerial-level conference about once every five years, and the Fourth Environment Committee Meeting at Ministerial Level, held in January 1991, adopted an environ-mental strategy for the 1990s. The strategy consisted of the following three pillars:1) integrating economic and environment policies, espe-cially the promotion of economic instruments, and the use of environ-mental indicators, 2) improving environmental performance of OECD countries, and commencement of monitoring of the implementation of environmental policies of member states, and 3) strengthening interna-tional cooperation with developing countries, while addressing global environmental issues. In addition, the Ministers agreed to launch the environmental performance review, a systematic review of each mem-ber nation's environmental performance. As a result, the review was commenced in 1992. In the case of Japan, the review was conducted in 1993, and the report was released in 1994. The review has also been conducted in other member states and Japan has been actively engaged in the review by dispatching experts.
   Moreover, the International Energy Agency (IEA), as well, an organization set up within the framework of the OECD to ensure stable energy supplies, has with the rising interest in worldwide environmental problems noted the large effect that energy consumption has on the global environment, and has placed more emphasis in recent years on new responses to global environmental problems. In particular, minim-ization of the bad effects that the consumption of energy production can have on the environment were incorporated into joint goals set at a 1993 meeting of the ministerial council.
   In recent years, a "Scoping study" was implemented in June 1994 as a technological option in response to climate change and as a method for accelerating technology development. This became the basis for the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) proposed by advanced nations at a meeting of member states of the Framework Convention on Climate Change held in March 1995, and such activities are becoming increasing-ly important.

4. Efforts toward Environmental Problems at the Summit

  Ever since the Ottawa Summit of 1981 the economic declaration has always included environmental problems. But it has been since the 1989 Arche Summit, in particular, that global environmental problems have been treated as an important topic.
   The Naples Summit in July 1994 demonstrated that environment is a top priority for international cooperation and stated that environ-mental policy can contribute to enhancing growth, employment and living standards, for example through investments in appropriate tech-nologies, energy efficiency improvements and cleaning-up polluted areas. The Summit also supported and welcomed efforts to follow-up on the Earth Summit, such as operations in the Commission on Sustainable Development, implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Framework Convention on Climate Change, reorganization of the Global Environment Facility and increased investment in it, signing of the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the results of the Conference on Small Islands, and confirmed the need to strengthen these institutions in the future. On global warming countermeasures, in partic-ular, the Summit confirmed that implementation of individual country plans under the Framework Convention on Climate Change should be brought forward, that the state of those plans should be reported at the next year's Summit, and that measures for the years beyond 2000 should be adopted.
   In addition, the Summit expressed welcome for operations con-cerning trade and environment under the newly established WTO.
   Preceding the Naples Summit, in response to a request by the Italian prime minister for preliminary exchanges of opinion between environment ministers of G7 countries, an unofficial meeting of G7 environment ministers was held in Florence in March 1994.
   That meeting saw exchanges of opinion over the relationship between global environmental problems and a broad range of issues, including environment and population, employment, trade, and the economy, and the results were partially reflected in the Economic Declaration at the Naples Summit.

Section3. International Cooperation Based on Other Treaties, Etc.

 (1) The Antarctic Treaty

  The 18th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was held in Japan in April 1994, where parties adopted recommendation concerning tourism and other non-governmental activities, to promote protection of the Antarctic environment based on the Antarctic Treaty System.

 (2) The World Heritage Convention

  At a meeting in December 1993, the World Heritage Committee took steps for appropriate conservation of two districts in Japan (Yaku-shima Island and Shirakami-sanchi mountain district) which are found on the list of World Heritage Sites. In addition, surveys for conservation of World Heritage Sites in the Asia are promoted.

 (3) Activities based on the Japan-U. S. Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement

  Since the Japan-U. S. Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement was first signed in August 1975, there have been 10 meetings of the ministerial-level Joint Planning and Coordination Committee for discussion of wide-ranging environmental issues based on the agree-ment. At the 10th JPCC held in Tokyo in November 1994, the two countries exchanged opinions on a number of global environmental issues of deep mutual interest
   Moreover, there are currently 17 projects based on the agreement in operation, for information exchanges, conferences, and exchanges of experts.

 (4) Activities under the U. S.-.Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR)

  The 14th meeting of the U. S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources, which was originally established in 1964, was held in the United States in July 1993. In addition, the 16th general meeting of the Conservation, Recreation, and Parks Panel was held under this program, for exchange of information and other activities.

 (5) Activities based on the Japan-U. S. Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement

  Ministerial-level joint High-Level Committee Conferences have been convened five times under this agreement, which was first signed in June 1988 and then extended in June 1993. The Fifth JHLCC was held in Tokyo in January 1995.
   There are seven major fields of cooperation in Annex I of the agreement, of which the field of "earth science and global environment" has been the scene of agreement for 45 projects where joint research is now in progress.

 (6) The Japan-EU High-Level Consultations on the Environment

  The Japan-EC Joint Declaration released in July 1991 emphasized the importance of cooperation between Japan and the EC in the environ-ment field. Since 1992, four meetings have been held in response to the declaration. The fourth meeting, held in Brussels in October 1994, demonstrated real progress between Japan and the EU in the environ-ment field.

 (7) Activities based on the Japan-Soviet Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement

  The Japan-Soviet Environmental Protection Cooperation Agree-ment was signed in April 1991. But because of conditions on the Russian side, no Joint Committee has been held. Nevertheless, a, meeting was held in Tokyo in January 1994, where there was active discussions of such areas as environment policies in the two countries and global environmental issues.

 (8) Activities based on the Japan-Soviet Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement

  The second meeting of the Japan-Russia Science and Technology Joint Committee was convened in May 1994, under the auspices of the Japan-Soviet Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement, which was signed in 1973 and allowed to continue intact with Russia. There was progress in cooperation under the agreement for such themes as the
"Reconstruction of Global Environmental Changes in Lake BaikaL"

 (9) Activities based on the Japan-Canada Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement

 Five Joint Committees have been held to date based on the Japan-Canada Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement that was signed in 1986, and cooperation in the environment field is progress-ing. The Fifth Joint Committee was held in Ottawa in February 1995, where agreement was reached to establish an Earth Sciences and Environment Panel under the auspices of the agreement.

 (10) Activities based on the Japan-China Environmental Conservation Cooperation Agreement

 The first meeting of the Japan-China Environmental Conserva-tion Joint Committee, based on the Japan-China Environmental Conser-vation Cooperation Agreement signed in March 1994, was held in Beijing in December 1994. Agreement was reached between the two countries to place future emphasis on cooperation on the acid deposition problem, and also agreed to implement nine new projects, including "biogeochemical studies on the acidic deposition and pollutions in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems."

 (11) Activities based on the Japan-Republic of Korea Environmental Conservation Cooperation Agreement

  The second meeting of the Japan-Republic of Korea Environmen-tal Conservation Joint Committee, based on the Japan-Republic of Korea Environmental Conservation Cooperation Agreement signed in June 199&, was held in Seoul in February 1995. Agreement was reached to continue such on-going projects as "promotion of environmental conservation technologies," and to implement such new projects as "aircraft and ground-based observations of acidic and oxidative compo-nents in East Asia."

 (12) Major activities based on other science and technology cooperation agreements

 The Environmental Protection Technology Panel was established based on the Japan-Germany Science and Technology Cooperation Agreement signed in 1974. Since 1976, there have been 15 panel meetings to promote cooperation.
   In addition, there have been six joint meetings held based on the Japan-China Scientific and Technological Cooperation Agreement signed in 1980, promoting cooperation in the environmental field.
   Also, based on the Japan-Republic of Korea Scientific and Tech-nological Cooperation Agreement signed in 1985, there have been seven meetings to date of the Japan-Republic of Korea Scientific and Techno-logical Committee, promoting cooperation in the environmental field.

Section4. Environmental Cooperation, Etc. for Developing Countries

  The developing countries are facing such problems as the destruc-tion or degradation in quality of their natural resources, including declines in forests and other vegetation, soil erosion and salt damages, depletion of water resources, advancing desertification, and declines in wildlife. In addition, rising populations concentrated particularly into the cities, rapidly rising numbers of automobiles, and other factors are resulting in urban pollution problems. Moreover, rapid industrialization is resulting in severe environmental pollution and destruction of nature even worse than Japan has experienced. And while faced with these conventional types of environmental problems, they must also deal with such global environmental problems as depletion of the ozone layer and global warming. Unfortunately, due to a shortage of capital, technology, and human resources, these countries are not in a position to respond adequately, and the assistance of the developed countries is essential. Furthermore, assistance to the countries of Eastern Europe that did not take environmental countermeasures seriously and are thus faced with severe pollution problems has also become an issue.
   At the Earth Summit in June 1992, the Prime Minister announced that Japan would strengthen its assistance to developing countries in the environmental field, including greatly expanding and strengthening official development assistance (ODA) for the environmental field in the five years from fiscal 1992 from 900 billion yen to 1 trillion yen. In the two years of fiscal 1992 and fiscal 1993, Japan had already surpassed half of that targeted amount (at 508.3 billion yen).
   In addition, Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter, decided by the Cabinet on 30 June 1992, regards conservation of the environment as one of the basic principles in official development assistance, and promises to assist developing countries in their own self-help efforts to promote sustainable development on a global scale.
   Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Basic Environment Law stipulates Japan must adopt necessary measures to promote international coopera-tion for environmental conservation, etc. In addition, the Basic Environ-ment Plan includes provisions for Japan to assist developing regions in self-help efforts, and for active, participation in international coopera-tion for all kinds of environmental conservation.
   In response, Japan is boosting her efforts by engaging in policy dialogues with developing countries, and in searching feasible projects, to bring these directives into specific action.
   In fiscal 1994, the following environmental cooperation with developing countries were conducted.

1. Official Development Assistance, Etc.

 (1) Survey and search for projects

  With Japan expanding and strengthening its assistance in the environment field, it is important to accurately grasp the state of environmental problems in the developing countries, and the socio-economic conditions that lie behind it, to strengthen policy dialogue in various areas with the developing countries, and to seek out prior aid projects. Based on this viewpoint, the government has sent environmen-tal missions since 1989 to Central and South America, Southeast Asia, East Africa, and Southwest Asia.
   In addition, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has, with cooperation from relevant ministries and agencies, actively promoted various surveys for shaping specific projects.

 (2) Development study

  JICA's major development studies implemented in fiscal 1994, for the purpose of adopting a master plan concerning environmental conser-vation in developing countries, are shown in Table 13-4-1.

 (3) Dispatch of experts

  JICA sends experts to provide technical cooperation for adminis-trative, research, and other kinds of institutions in developing countries, with the cooperation of the relevant ministries and agencies, and of local public authorities. The dispatching of experts in the environment field are increasing rapidly. Experts nominated by the Environment Agency in fiscal 1994, for example, totaled 108 experts, sent to Thailand, China, Indonesia, Korea, and elsewhere (Figure 13-4-1). The need for the dispatching of experts in the environmental field has risen fast in recent years, and assuring and training enough personnel has become a major issue. JICA, the relevant ministries and agencies, and other related groups, are promoting the expansion of personnel training and registering human resources for smooth dispatches, and are also striving to build up links with local public authorities and others.

Table 13-4-1 Major Development Studies

Table 13-4-1 Major Development Studies

Fig. 13-4-1 Trends in the Dispatch of Experts in the Environmental Field (Experts nominated by the Environment Agency)

Fig. 13-4-1 Trends in the Dispatch of Experts in the Environmental Field (Experts nominated by the Environment Agency)

 (4) Acceptance of trainees

  Many of the developing countries are faced with a shortage of administrators and engineers having the special knowledge and expert-ence concerning environmental conservation overall. JICA, with the cooperation of relevant ministries and agencies, and of local public authorities and others, is conducting group training. In fiscal 1994, JICA conducted group training in such areas as environmental policy, environ-mental technology (conservation of water quality), and environmental technology (conservation of air quality), and conducted special training by country, targeting the countries of Eastern Europe, Brazil, and others. In addition, JICA is responding to the demands of developing countries by conducting individual training according to each nation's needs (Table 13-4-2 and Table 13-4-3).

 (5) Project-type technical cooperation

  Project-type technical cooperation, which combines dispatching of experts with trainee acceptance and other aspects, is conducted by JICA with the cooperation of the relevant ministries and agencies. The main projects now in progress are listed in Table 13-4-4. Moreover, additional cooperation is provided if necessary for projects whose cooperation terms have already expired.
   Moreover, in response to demands for implementation of new project-type technical cooperation, JICA sent implementation survey team in fiscal 1994 to Mexico and Chile concerning environment center projects, a preliminary survey team to Indonesia concerning a biodiver-sity conservation program, and a basic survey team to Madagascar concerning a biodiversity conservation program.

 (6) Role of local governments and others

  The role of local governments and others is very large in such environmental cooperation as sending experts and accepting trainees, because they possess enough experiences and skilled personnel in the specific environmental fields. In projects related to the Environment Agency, a total of 20 environmental experts from various local public authorities were sent out through JICA in fiscal 1994, and other types of assistance were provided. Local public authorities are also actively promoting environmental cooperation on their own by accepting trainees from sister-cities, holding conferences, and conducting informa-tion exchanges.

Table 13-4-2 Group Training Courses in the Environmental Field

Table 13-4-2 Group Training Courses in the Environmental Field

Table 13-4-3 Acceptance of Individual Trainees in the Environmental Field (Trainees related to Environment Agency)

Table 13-4-3 Acceptance of Individual Trainees in the Environmental Field (Trainees related to Environment Agency)

 (7) Grant aid

  Grant aid has mainly been provided to the projects involving water treatment and sewerage system facilities to improve water quality, and provided cleaning equipment. For implementation, consider-ation was given to the linkage with project-type technical cooperation that establishes facilities and operates them, so as to make the aid more effectively utilized.

 (8) Loan aid

  Just as loan aid once played a major role in Japan's postwar recovery, so it is exhibiting great effectiveness in promoting sustainable development in developing countries through aid for economic infras-tructure and other such projects.
   This is the same in environment-related fields. Through the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF), Japan actively provides loan aid in the environment field.
   Projects focus mainly on those sectors, such as water treatment and sewerage systems, air pollution countermeasures, and other projects where the scale is so large that grant aid cooperation or technical cooperation is not sufficient for responding. Table 13-4-5, shows various kinds of environment-related funding from the OECF conducted in fiscal 1994.

 (9) Basic surveys, etc.

  For the smooth promotion of the above projects, the relevant ministries and agencies conducted surveys and other activities concern-ing environmental problems and their backgrounds in developing coun-tries.

Table 13-4-4 Major Project-type Technical Cooperation

Table 13-4-4 Major Project-type Technical Cooperation
*Represents projects which grant aid from Japan was used to construct buildings, etc.

 (10) Cooperation through international organizations

  Cooperation through international organizations is important from the standpoint of global environmental problems that cannot be adequately dealt with through bilateral cooperation alone, for creation of policies of joint efforts, and for promoting efforts in countries or sectors where there is not much information available.
 In fiscal 1994, to the United Nations Environment Programme, which serves a central role in coping with environmental problems, Japan provided $11 million (U. N. Environment Fund and Technical Cooperation Trust Fund for UNEP's International Environment Technology Center), and 1.745 billion yen to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), for the conservation of tropical forests and their sustainable utilization. Moreover, the United Nations Develop-ment Programme (UNDP), the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, where Japan is a major contributor, and other multilateral aid organizations are also strengthening efforts in the environmental field, and the assistance provided to the environmental field through these organizations is also growing important,

Table 13-4-5 Major Loan Aid in the Environmental Field

Table 13-4-5 Major Loan Aid in the Environmental Field
(FY1994 based on exchange of notes)

   In particular, the Global Environment Facility (GEE), commenced in 1991 as a three-year pilot phase with the cooperation of the World Bank, UNDP, and UNEP to provide funds for the promotion of efforts in developing countries to deal with such problems as global warming, decreasing biodiversity, worsening environments in international waters, and ozone layer depletion, was deemed a success in 1994 when the pilot phase was over. Based on an agreement at the Earth Summit, the new GEF was given about US$2 billion, and the decision making process was made more fair and transparent. Japan, in consideration for its position in international society, has become the second largest capital contributing nation (about US$415 million), next only to the United States, and is actively participating in the new GEF with, for example, contributions of personnel to participate in evaluation commit-tees that review each project.

 (11) Environmental cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe

  In response to the declarations made by then-Prime Minister Kaifu while on a visit to Central and Eastern Europe in January 1961, Japan is promoting technical cooperation through JICA and other groups for the severe environmental problems of Central and Eastern Europe. In fiscal 1994, Japan accepted trainees from Central and East-ern Europe, and are engaged in the Sajyo Valley Region Air Pollution Control Plan (development study) and the Varpalota Region Environ-ment Improvement Plan (loan aid) in Hungary. Moreover, Japan has provided funding each year since fiscal 1991 for the Regional Environ-mental Center for Central and Eastern Europe in Budapest, which was established to support countermeasures for environmental problems in Central and Eastern Europe. Japan contributed $1.7 million in fiscal 1994.

2. The Role of the Private Sector

 (1) The role of corporations

  Many pollution prevention devices and other technologies for environmental conservation have been developed by private-sector corporations in response to government regulation and guidance and to rising awareness by the public, and private-sector corporations, too, play a significant role in technology transfer, in the form of direct investment in developing countries and other such methods. With the demands for technology transfer expressed at the Earth Summit, and with rising expectations for contributions from Japan, further promo-tion of private-sector transfers of environmental conservation technol-ogies is becoming a major topic.

 (2) The role of private sector groups

  Private-sector groups play an important role in promoting coop-eration with developing countries and in boosting awareness of the importance of international cooperation. Public foundations such as the Japan Wildlife Research Center, the International Lake Environment Committee, the Overseas Environmental Cooperation Center, and the Organization for Industrial, Spiritual, and Cultural Advancement Inter-national (OISCA), and voluntary groups such as the Japan International Volunteers' Center and the Buddhist Soto Sect Volunteers' Society engage in environmental conservation projects from the government level all the way down to the grassroots level and holding symposiums, lectures, and seminars related to environmental cooperation, to promote efforts in international environmental cooperation. Many other groups also actively contribute to international environmental cooperation. The Basic Environment Law notes the importance of private-sector group participation in international cooperation for the conservation of global environment. The government offers assistance to these kinds of private sector group activities, including the Japan Environment Corpo-ration's Global Environment Fund, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' NGO project subsidy and grass-roots (small-scale) granted cooperation, and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications' International Volunteer Savings, and private sector group activities are expected to increase as the people's interest continues to rise.

 (3) Debt for Nature Swaps

  The Debt for Nature Swaps (DNS) is a system in which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that are internationally active negotiate with developing countries to purchase their debt, and in exchange for disposing of the debt, they ask the government to use its own currency to spend for nature protection and other environmental conservation policies. DNS has attracted attention at international conferences such as the Summit of the major industrialized countries, and was noted in the Agenda 21 agreed on at the Earth Summit as a revolutionary method of raising funds. By December 1993, DNS had been used 31 times, mostly in Central and South America and mostly by NGOs in the United States.
   In Japan, a U. S. subsidiary of the Bank of Tokyo, Ltd., and Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Ltd., have made contributions to DNS projects in the Philippines and the Galapagos Islands, respectively. Moreover, the collection and arrangement of DNS-related information is important for the smooth promotion of DNS, and a DNS information network has now been set up by the Overseas Environment Cooperation Center (OECC).

3. Environmental Considerations in Official Development Assistance, Etc.

 (1) Environmental considerations in official development assistance

  Consideration of local environmental conservation is extremely important when implementing official development assistance (ODA). With the basic concepts and principles listed in Japan's Official Develop-ment Assistance Charter, and with the statement made in 1989 by the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, the govern-ment has strengthened its environmental considerations when im-plementing ODA.
   With this in mind, JICA in February 1990 issued Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessments Concerning Dam Construction, and then from fiscal 1991 to fiscal 1993 issued guidelines that took considera-tion of the environment for the social and economic infrastructure, the mining industry, and the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries industries, requiring environmental considerations to be taken into account at the preliminary survey stage, and when deemed necessary at the prelimi-nary survey stage, to also conduct environmental impact assessment at the main survey stage. In addition, the OECF, which is in charge of yen-based loans, is working to assure environmental considerations based on environmental consideration guidelines drawn up in October 1989. At the same time, both institutions have made efforts to expand their organizations dealing with environment, and to have environmen-tal experts participate in the survey teams.
   Article 35, Clause 1 of the Basic Environment Law, and also the Basic Environment Plan, stipulate taking environmental considerations into account in the course of international cooperation. Boosting these considerations still further, while obtaining the understanding of the recipient countries, will be important in the future.

 (2) Environmental considerations for companies expanding overseas

  Environmental considerations are extremely important for com-panies expanding business overseas. With a statement made in 1989 by the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, the government called for appropriate environmental considerations to be taken.
   Economic organizations are working on their own as for environ-mental considerations. The Japan Federation of Economic Organiza-tions (Keidanren) adopted a guideline for environmental conservation, the Keidanren Charter on the Global Environment (April 1991). In this charter, 10 clauses are stipulated on environmental considerations when companies expand business overseas, including a promise to strictly observe environmental standards of the countries where they operate and to strive for further environmental conservation.
   Article 35, Clause 2 of the Basic Environment Law stipulates that the government must work to adopt measures needed such as supplying information about this kind of environmental considerations, while the Basic Environment Plan also requires that private-sector companies take appropriate environmental considerations when engaged in over-seas activities. Boosting these considerations still further, while obtain-ing the understanding of the countries where Japanese companies operate, will be important in the future.

 (3) Multilateral discussions concerning development assistance

  The OECD Development Assistance Committee has promoted the study of guidelines on assistance and environment concerning environ-mental assessments, agricultural chemicals, wetlands, etc.

Section5. Surveys and Research on Global Environment

1. Promotion of Surveys and Research on Global Environment

  To promote conservation of the global environment based on scientific knowledge, and to contribute to the world, the "Comprehen-sive Promotion Program for Global Environment Research, Monitoring, and Technology Development for FY1994" adopted in September 1994 by the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, was based on such plans as the "Basic Plans for Research and Development on Earth Science and Technology," determined by the Prime Minister in August 1990, to conduct the following research, technology develop-ment, and monitoring activities.

 (1) Promotion of surveys and research

  Global environmental problems are much larger in scale, in terms of time and space, than conventional environmental problems, and cover a wide range of fields. Moreover, since many of their mechanisms and effects remain unclear, it is necessary to combine natural science research with the social sciences in interdisciplinary research programs, and to promote integrated surveys and research into the global environ-ment that encompasses research into socioeconomic systems. Further-more, in the promotion of this kind of survey and research, it is neces-sary to participate in and link up with such international global environ-ment research programs as the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP).
   Based on this position, in order to promote integration of global environmental research from an interdisciplinary, inter-ministerial, and international viewpoint, research activities were strengthened under the cooperation of researchers and related national institutes in various scientific areas. For example, a new sector named "cooperative research with developing countries" had been established within the Global Environment Research Program.
   And concerning the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), Japan assumed responsibility for the Interim Secretar-iat, supported the activities of Working Groups for discussing APN's scientific themes, and convened the Third Workshop on the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN) in March 1995. The workshop reached agreement on a joint statement concerning the scien-tific themes targeted by APN, organizational structures and procedures, and announced that APN had moved to the operational phase.
   The major survey and research conducted in fiscal 1994 are as shown in Table 13-5-1.

Table 13-5-1 Major Survey and Research Conducted in the Global Environment Field in FY1994

Table 13-5-1 Major Survey and Research Conducted in the Global Environment Field in FY1994

 (2) Promotion of technology development

  To facilitate sustainable development, it is important to develop technologies that would moderate the changes in the global environment which would include technologies for directly disposing of pollutants and other substances, as well as technologies making effective use of resources and energy. Moreover, it is also important to conduct develop-ment such that technologies designed to resolve a specific global envi-ronmental problem must not give rise to other environmental problems, and to promote development of technologies that are suitable for developing countries.
   Working from this viewpoint, the efforts have been conducted to develop technologies necessary in fields where international responses are required, such as global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, acid deposition, marine pollution, tropical deforestation, and desertification. And also, systems for technology development have been developed.
   The major technology developments made in fiscal 1994 are as shown in Table 13-5-2.

Table 13-5-2 Major Technology Development in the Global Environment Field conducted in FY1994

Table 13-5-2 Major Technology Development in the Global Environment Field conducted in FY1994

2. Monitoring and Surveillance of the Global Environment

  Because monitoring and surveillance of the global environment includes various fields, items, sites, and methods, these activities were performed while bringing the methods used into congruence with inter-national monitoring programs, and exchanging results among related institutions. These monitoring and surveillance efforts are being con-ducted in coordination with some international monitoring programs, including the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the U. N. Environment Programme (UNEP), the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) of the WMO/Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission (JOC). In addition, since monitoring and surveillance of the global environment must cover wide areas and even the entire globe, the development of satellites and effective measurements for monitoring such as utilization of satellite sensors and aircraft sensors has also been promoted.
   The GAW monitoring station on Minamitorishima Island has commenced monitoring of the degree of atmospheric turbidity caused by aerosols.
   The major monitorings and observations made in fiscal 1994 are as shown in Table 13-5-3.

Section6. Overseas Public Information, Etc.

  Because Japan possesses much experience and superior technol-ogy in the field of environmental protection policy and occupies an important position in the international community, what Japan will do has come to be a focus of attention within international society.
   So offering in appropriate ways the knowledge which Japan has obtained from experience in environmental pollution and in the course of resolving those problems could be said to deepen the understanding of international society for Japan's environmental policies and could also become an international contribution.
   For this reason, therefore, the Environment Agency is actively engaged in overseas public information, publishing of a number of materials in English, including "Quality of the Environment in Japan," "Environmental Research in Japan," "Global Environment Research of Japan," and "Japan Environment Summary," and also preparing overseas public information materials and distributing them to foreign governments, international organizations, intellectuals, academics and the press.

Table 13-5-3 Major Monitoring and Observation in the Global Environment Field in FY1994

Table 13-5-3 Major Monitoring and Observation in the Global Environment Field in FY1994

Chapter14. Surveys and Research into Environmental Conservation

Section1. Promotion of Research at National Environ-mental Research Centers

1. Strengthening the Research Structure

  The National Institute for Environmental Studies, established by the Environment Agency in March 1974 as a research institution at Tsukuba Science City for the purpose of serving a central role in Japan's environment research, reached its 20th year of operation in March 1994. In recent years, in addition to its research remit in the nature conservation field, the institution has strengthened its research struc-ture to cover both the global environment and regional environment in response to social and administrative needs, and had its name changed in July 1990. Furthermore, in October of that same year, the Center for Global Environmental Research was established within the confines of the institute to serve as Japan's core center for global environmental research and global environmental monitoring.
   The research structure was strengthened still more in March 1995 with establishment of the International Water Environment Renovation Research Team within the Regional Environment Division. And to fur-ther promote joint international research, the International Coordina-tion Researcher put in place under the Senior Research Coordinator.
   The structure and personnel as of the end of fiscal 1994 was two research groups (21 research teams), seven departments (three divisions and 24 offices), three centers (two divisions and three offices), and 274 people.

2. Research Activities

 (1) Research works

  In fiscal 1994, nine special research topics related to environmen-tal research and 145 regular research topics were carried out. There were 39 global environment research topics from the Global Environ-ment Research Program. The special research topics conducted in fiscal 1994 were as follows.
1) Studies on aquatic ecosystem and environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas (final fiscal year)
2) Studies on application of biotechnology to preservation of the environment and evaluation of its effects
3) Characteristics of wetland ecosystems and their resilience in the face of environmental change
4) Human exposure to organochlorine compounds and its health effects
5) Development of lake environmental indices and analysis of new environmental problems for lakes
6) Environmental health studies on stress and health effects due to environmental sounds and air pollution in highly urbanized areas
7) Air and water pollution in an urban area caused by changes in the environmental loads and countermeasure against it
8) Evaluation of the risk of chronic pulmonary diseases due to diesel exhaust exposure and mechanism of pathogenesis
9) Quantitative exposure evaluation methods for hazardus sub-stances from waste disposal

 (2) Environmental information services

  The Environmental Information Center worked on environment data bases through development of comprehensive nature conservation data bases, beginning with numerical information files on Japan's air and water quality, and updates of the Environment Information Guide, and collected information concerning the environment from both inside and outside the country, including research reports and other bibliogra-phic information.
   In addition, the center also served as the contact point in Japan for access to the Global Environmental Information Exchange Network (INFOTERRA) run by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
   Furthermore, the center commenced preparation of the Environ-ment Information Supply System that aims to allow the people to obtain information concerning environmental conservation policies and to conduct information exchanges.

 (3) Support for global environmental research

  With a goal to seek out future directions of research into global environmental conservation, the Global Environmental Research Center convened conferences on global environment researchs, such as interna-tional conferences concerning land use for global environmental conser-vation, international research conferences into the carbon cycle, and also provided assistance for the convening of international conferences.
   Moreover, in addition to continuing the development of global environment data bases, the center was active as a cooperation center for UNEP's Global Resource Information Database (GRID) in the preparation and supply of environmental data.
   In addition, the center provided supercomputer system for analy-sis, forecasting, and evaluation of effects of global warming and other global environmental changes, organized workshops in research using the system, and published research results in English reports.

 (4) Global environmental monitoring

  In succession to the previous fiscal year, the Global Environmen-tal Research Center conducted monitoring of greenhouse gases at its global environmental monitoring station on Eateruma Island in Okin-awa Prefecture, monitoring of the ozone layer in the stratosphere with an ozone laser radar, monitoring of the amount of toxic ultraviolet rays that threaten to appear with the depletion of the ozone layer, periodic ship monitoring of nutrient salts, chlorophyll, and other substances in the ocean, and aircraft monitoring of greenhouse gases in the atmo-sphere above Siberia, as well as conducted development of data manage-ment and operating systems for mounting on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS). And in June, the center established a global environmental monitoring station on Cape Ochiishi in Nemuro City, Hokkaido, for monitoring greenhouse gases in northern districts.

Section2. Promotion of Survey and Research Concerning Environmental Conservation

1. Ongoing Survey and Research

  The field of science and technology research for the promotion of environmental conservation can be divided broadly into a field concern-ing development of pollution prevention technologies, a field concerning development of monitoring and measuring technologies, a field concern-ing understanding and evaluation of environmental pollution effects, a field concerning analysis of environmental pollution mechanisms, and a field concerning protection of the natural environment.
   Research in these areas is currently proceeding on a broad front in national and local public authorities, and in the private sector.
   Progress at the national level for this research covers a broad range of related fields of science and technologies, and it is important for the relevant research institutions and researchers to maintain close links since the research areas are intimately connected with each other. For this reason, the Environment Agency has unified and calculated the experimental research expenses (excluding expenses related to univer-sities and affiliated experimental research institutions under their juris-diction) for the prevention of pollution at research institutions under relevant ministries and agencies, and has redistributed to carry out a comprehensive coordination of research works on pollution prevention at national level. In addition, there are surveys and research that constitute the foundation for promotion of all kinds of national stan-dards, and also surveys and research under taken to deal with emer-gencies when they arise supported by the budget for Encouragement and Coordination of Comprehensive Surveys and Research for Environmen-tal Conservation.
   Moreover, concerning large-scale, comprehensive technology developments for which there are particularly strong administrative needs, and concerning the promotion of revolutionary new technology developments that promote zero pollution, large-scale projects that incorporate the private sector are formnlated, and measures for assis-tance to the private sector are promoted.
   Experimental research institutions of local governments that deal with pollution are engaged in surveys and research that is intimately related to the environmental administration in each region, and the Environment Agency has adopted measures for the continued promotion of those activities.

2. Environmental Research at National Institutions

 (1) Outline

  The experimental research budget for national institutions involved in pollution prevention, etc., in fiscal 1994, as unified. and calculated by the Environment Agency, was 92 themes at a cost of 1,918.04 million yen (the previous fiscal year was 91 themes at 1,918.04 million yen). This experimental research was conducted at 46 different research institutions of 13 ministries and agencies, including the National Police Agency, the Hokkaido Development Agency, the Sci-ence and Technology Agency, the Environment Agency, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the Ministry of Labor, and the Ministry of Construction.
   The unified calculation of experimental research into pollution prevention, etc., is not restricted to problems continuing from the past, but also takes into consideration the assured promotion of basic mea-sures with long-range perspective, and promotes the formulation of comprehensive research projects in each research field.

 (2) Promotion of comprehensive research projects

  There were 10 comprehensive research projects implemented in fiscal 1994.

 1) Comprehensive research on air pollution prevention

  Conducted research into 15 themes, including development of technologies to prevent air pollution emissions from various kinds of sources, and development of pollution monitoring technologies, and also conducted research into five new themes, including reduction of nitro-gen oxides emission from high-temperature gas turbines.

 2) Comprehensive research on advanced waste water treatment

  Conducted research into five themes, including development of physico-chemical and biological treatment methods for industrial, domestic, and other waste water, and also conducted new research into analysis of the generation mechanism of organochlorine compounds in the paper pulp industry.

 3) Comprehensive research on marine pollution prevention

  Conducted research into seven themes, including analysis of the marine pollution phenomenon, and development of pollution prevention and pollution cleanup technologies, and also conducted research into two new themes, including study of the mechanism for occurrence of new types of red tide and methods for forecasting its occurrence.

 4) Comprehensive research on prevention of inland waters pollution

  Conducted research into seven themes, including analysis of the pollution phenomenon in inland waters, and development of pollution prevention and pollution clean-up technologies.

 5) Comprehensive research on waste disposal and resource reutilization technologies

  Conducted research into seven themes, including development of non-polluting waste disposal technologies and resource reutilization technologies, and also conducted research into five new themes, includ-ing development of a simple assay testing method for hazardus wastes under the Basel Convention.

 6) Comprehensive research on management and conservation of the natural environment

  Conducted research into six themes,including understanding of the dynamics of natural ecosystems, and development of management methods for natural environments, and also conducted new research into conservation of organisms and their environments located in frigid-zone coastal regions.

 7) Comprehensive research on development of urban environmental conservation planning methods

  Conducted research into evaluation of natural environments in cities and development of technologies for using urban natural environ-ment, and also conducted new research into reduction of automobile traffic pollution in cities.

 8) Comprehensive research on prevention and evaluation of noise and vibrations

  Conducted research into two themes concerning noise and vibra-tions, including development of source countermeasure technologies, transmission prevention technologies, measurement technologies, and forecasting and evaluation methods, and conducted analysis of health effects, and also conducted new research into irregularly-generated noise prevention technologies.

 9) Comprehensive research on advanced measurement technologies for environmental pollutants

  Conducted research into seven themes, including development of methods for measuring emission sources, methods for monitoring envi-ronmental pollutants, and technologies for wide-area monitoring.

 10) Comprehensive research on evaluation of the effects of environmental pollutants

  Conducted research into nine themes, including analysis of the genetic and physiological effects of environmental pollutants on the body, and development of safety evaluation methods for environmental pollutants, and also conducted research into four new themes, including ecological effects of inhalation of and exposure to mixed trace pollut-ants.
   In addition to the above 10 comprehensive research projects, also promoted in fiscal 1994 was research into dynamic control technologies for pollutants related to high-tech industries in agricultural ecologies.
   In addition, for "locally-rooted environmental research," in which local environmental problems are dealt with in joint research between local public authorities and the national government, research was conducted into analysis of the structure of underground water pollution in heavy snow regions, and new research was conducted into develop-ment of biological river cleanup systems utiliting unused resources.

3. Surveys and Research Funded by the Budget for Encouragement and Coordination of Comprehensive Surveys and Research for Environmental Conservation

  The major surveys and research conducted by the Coordination Fund were as follows. The Environment Agency conducted surveys and research into long term goals for achievement of a recycling society, by promoting preparatory recycling surveys for national pioneering action programs in line with the adoption of the Basic Environment Plan, a survey into flow patterns of toxic volcanic gases surrounding the volcanic mouth on top of Mount Aso (Nakadake peak), an emergency survey of bussinesses having implication with species protection, an emergency survey of water bird poisonings by lead shot, an emergency survey in response to the Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake, a survey of the development of indices and groups of indices for measuring progress toward creation of a sustainable society, an emergency survey confirm-ing the freon collection system, and surveys and research into effects and evaluations of low-frequency vibrations in the air. In addition, the Ministry of Transport conducted a survey into data base preparations for chemical tanker shipping conditions, the Environment Agency and Forestry Agency conducted an emergency survey of the decline of forests in the Okunikko region, and the Environment Agency and Ministry of International Trade and Industry conducted surveys and research into environmental pollution caused by arsenic and lead, and into development of related technologies.

4. Surveys and Research Funded by the Budget for Survey and Research for Environmental Pollution Prevention

  To obtain necessary data and information for establishment of various standards, the Environment Agency, using the budget for the survey and research for environmental pollution prevention, has promoted surveys and research into the health effects of environmental pollution, development of measuring technologies for various kinds of pollutants, and analysis of the mechanisms for environmental pollution. And in fiscal 1994, new surveys were conducted on water environmental quality standards for protection of organisms.
   In addition, concerning conservation of the natural environment, surveys and research were conducted in fiscal 1994 into scenery conser-vation and management methods for agricultural and grazing lands in areas of natural scenery.

5. Other Research and Assistance to Research at National Level

  The Ministry of Transport conducted surveys into development of technologies for cleaning up the water quality of closed seas and canals where there is strong demand for environmental improvement, and of technologies for creation of high-quality marine environments. The Ministry of Construction conducted research and develop-ment into resource-saving and energy-saving national land construction technologies, into technologies to restrain the appearance or promote the reutilization of secondary construction materials, and into technol-ogies for conservation of water quality in rivers.
   The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries conducted research into the development of agricultural systems that make advanced use of material recycling capabilities of agricultural ecologies, analysis of the dynamics of greenhouse gases in agricultural, forestry, and fisheries ecologies, and development of technologies to control them, development of technologies for the advanced disposal and reduc-tion of livestock wastes, etc., and development of comprehensive monitoring methods for environmental conservation in agricultural and forest ecologies.
   The Ministry of Education promoted broadly basic research by university researchers into environmental conservation, etc., and con-ducted training of researchers for environmental conservation and related subjects. In addition, the ministry used science and technology subsidies of important domain research to establish domains of methods for achieving a global-standard society for the survival of humans and of the global system and humans, and promoted basic research on the environment. The ministry promoted research into regular areas of research, as well.
   The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications conducted research into technologies for utilization of advanced electromagnetic frequencies, and also conducted research into dual-frequency doppler radar for monitoring rainfall from space.
   The Experimental Research Budget for the National Institution for Atomic Power in the Science and Technology Agency conducted basic research using radio isotopes related to environmental counter-measures for research into high-sensitivity inspection methods to study the ecological effects of environmental pollution at the genetic level.

6. Research by Local Governments

  Pollution-related research institutions of local governments bear the roles of scientific backing for environmental administration, and conduct a broad range of activities, including monitoring and measure-ment, analysis, surveys, and collection of basic data. They also actively promote researches into environmental problems specific to their own districts.
   To assure close links with these local pollution-related experi-mental research institutions, and to effectively promote research, the Environment Agency in fiscal 1994 convened conferences of the heads of local experimental research institutions dealing with pollution, and also held a meeting in Osaka Prefecture for presenting results of research on environmental conservation and pollution prevention, which provides researchers of local pollution-related research institutions an opportu-nity to present the results of their latest surveys and research. The Agency also encouraged information exchanges among researchers. In addition, the National Institute for Environmental Studies has conduct-ed joint research with 24 local research institutions on pollution on over 40 different themes.

Chapter15. Promotion of Other Environmental Administration

Section1. Improved Accuracy of Environment Measurement and Analysis

1. Improved Accuracy of Environment Measurement and Analysis

  To improve certainty in all kinds of measurement operations, which for the basis for monitoring, surveys, and research into environ-mental pollution, a quality assurance survey for environmental measure-ment and analysis was conducted.
   This survey entailed sending a carefully prepared environmental sample to institutions for environment measurement and analysis all over the country, and then studing specific problems encountered in the course of analyzing the relationships between the analysis results, pre-treatment conditions, and the conditions of measuring equipment utilization, for the purpose of 1) understanding the degree of dispersion and accuracy of the data at analytical institutions, 2) having analysts at the analytical institutions show objective awareness of their own tech-nique and gain opportunities to further improve environmental measure-ment and analysis technologies, and 3) seeking to understand the pluses and minuses of each method of analysis to improve analysis methods and technologies, and to contribute to improve the accuracy of environ-ment measurement and analysis and to assure reliability.
   In fiscal 1994, the survey consisted of a artificial waste water sample containing six substances including cadmium, lead, chrome, arsenic, selenium, and phosphorus, and of a artificial environmental water sample containing four substances, namely trichloroethane, tetra-chloroethylene, dichloromethane, and 1,2-dichloroethane.

2. Establishment of Standards for Measurement Methods

  Based on the Industrial Standardization Law, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry worked in fiscal 1994 to improve the methods of analysis for pollutants, reagents that are the basic substance for analysis, standard liquids for making calibration of measuring instruments, general rules for instrumental analysis, and Japan Indus-trial Standards concerning automated measuring instruments.

Section2. Training of Personnel for Environmental Administration

  An important topic in the effective promotion of environmental administration is the improvement of the disposition and capabilities of personnel in environmental administration at Pollution Control national and local levels. The Environment Agency, therefore, instituted a National Environmental Training Institute in March 1973, and reorgan-ized it in July 1990 as the Training Center for Environmental Affairs affiliated with the National Institute for Environmental Studies, to work toward improvement of training for personnel at national and local governments concerning various kinds of environmental issues.
   To improve training effectiveness still further in fiscal 1994, works to improve the training content in response to the growth of environmental administration and to the demands of the local govern-ments had been done, instituting 18 courses in administration-related training and eight courses in analysis-related training, for a total of 26 courses. A total of 1,221 people (1,007 administration-related and 214 analysis-related) received training.
   The total number of people who had received training by the end of fiscal 1994 was 23,459 people (of which 19,198 were administration -related and 4,261 were analysis-related).