White Paper

Quality of the Environment in Japan 1993

13-2-2 Environmental Research and Studies by National Institutions

  (1) Outline

  The fund appropriated in a lump sum in the Environment Agency in fiscal 1992 for environmental research and studies by national institu- tions was ¥1,918,043,000 for 92 themes (¥1,918,043,000 for 92 themes in the preceding fiscal year), and those research and studies were conduct- ed by the 45 institutions which belonged to 13 ministries and agencies.
  In respect of environmental research and studies with the fund, efforts have been continued to organize and promote comprehensive research projects in each research area with consideration given not only to immediate problems but to the formation of the basis for measures in a long-term perspective.

  (2) Comprehensive Research Projects

  In fiscal 1992, 10 comprehensive research projects were carried out as stated below:
 a. Study on air pollution prevention
 b. Study on the sophistication of effluent treatment
 c. Study on marine pollution prevention
 d. Study on landwaters pollution prevention
 e. Study on the treatment of wastes and recycling technology
 f. Study on the management and conservation of the natural environment
 g. Study on the development of planning methodologies for the conservation of the urban environment
 h. Study on the prevention and assessment of noise and vibration
 i. Study on the sophistication of monitoring technology on environmental pollutants
 j. Study on the assessment of the effects of environmental pollutants
  In addition the aforementioned 10 comprehensive research pro- jects, research was conducted on 2 themes in fiscal 1992.

13-2-3 Surveys and Research with Budget for Promotion and Coordination of Comprehensive Surveys and Research for Environment Conservation

  The main surveys and researches conducted with this budget in fiscal 1992 are as follows:
  The Environment Agency carried out a research project for the elevation of the recycling efficiency, a study project on effects of various economic measures on the conservation of environment, a research project on the conservation of the existin environment and creation of a better environment in the coastal areas of the Osaka Bay, an investigation into the actual state of habitation of wild fauna and flora with a view to selecting scarce species, an emergency project to study the actual state of habitation of bears, and a project to study impacts of methyl gromide on the ozone layer in the stratosphere. In the meanwhile, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries conduct- ed a research project on impediments caused by organic tin compounds to egg-laying of sea snails, and the Ministry of Transport carried out andinvestigation into the possibility of establishing guidelines for ration- alization of the use of automobiles. Moreover, the Environment Agency and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries jointly conduct- ed and ecological impact survey in connection with a fire in the Kushro Wetland and a study project for the conservation of natural environ- ment of the Shirakami Moutains and the utilization of the particular mountain area.

13-2-4 Surveys and Research with Budget for Surveys and Research on Prevention of Environment Pollution

  The Environment Agency is doing surveys and researches on particularly important issues for the promotion of environmental policy.

13-2-5 Other Research and Research Subsidization

  The Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Ministry of Post and Telecommunications are con- ducting research associated with their respective administrative roles.
  National universities are doing basic studies and training researchers in relation to environment conservation. With a subsidy for the budget for scientific research (priority study "Man and the Environ- ment--Changes and Controls") [100 subjects with ¥576,600,000 in grants-in-aid], basic and general studies on the environment were con- ducted.

13-2-6 Environmental Research by Local Governments

  The environmental research institutions of local governments play a role in supporting environmental aiministration by providing scientific information, and actively promoting research on regional environmental problems.
  The Environment Agency annually gets together the heads of those local institutions and explains the latest adninistrative activities of the agency, in order to make sure of communication and cooperation with the local institutions. Besides, the Environment Agency holds a annual conference where they presents their findings of the latest surveys and research on environmental conservation and pollution prevention to step up exchanges of information among them. In 1992, the conference was held in Fukuoka.
  The National Institute for Environmental Studies carried out joint research (60 subjects in fiscal 1992) with 29 local environmental experiment and research institutions.
Chapter 14. Other Environmental Administration

14-1 Upgrading Precision of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis

  A survey on the condition of the precision of environmental monitoring and analysis was carried out. The substantial problems posed for the execution of environmental monitoring and analysis were also surveyed. This survey is so designed that uniformly adjusted environmental materials are forwarded to environmental monitoring and analysis institutions (more than 400) across the nation to survey relations among the findings of the analysis, previously processed conditions and conditions for the use of monitoring equipment, and other substantial problems for the execution.
  In fiscal 1992, surveys were conducted on copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, chrome, wercury, arsenic in polluted soil, and copper, zinc, lead, arsenic in solution leached from the soil.

14-2 Training Government Officials in Charge of Environmental Protection

  Effective implentation of environmental policy demands constant efforts to enhance motivations and aptitudes of national and local government officials in charge of environmental protection. To this end the Environment Agency founded the National Environmental Training Institute (NETI) in March 1973. NETI was merged into the National Institute of Environmental Studies in July 1990.
  As of the end of fiscal 1991, a cumulstive total of 19,901 officials (of whom 16,237 were from administrative departments and 3,664 were from laboratories) have been trained
  Coursos, whose contents being further improved, were offered for administrative and laboratory personnel in fiscal 1992.

14-3 Health Measures, Etc. At Schools

  The Ministry of Education carries out the following measures for the promotion of health measures:
 a. Projects to promote the greening of the school environment
 b. Projects for the promotion of nature classes
 c. Construction work for the prevention of environmental pollution at schools
 d. Loans for measures to cope with environmental pollution
 e. Comprehensive projects for social and educational activities

14-4 Environment Conservation by Local Governments

  Local governments take direct charge of control and guidance, the surveillance, monitoring and control of environmental pollution and so forth in accordance with laws and ordinances related to environment conservation. They also play a significant role in various projects against environmental pollution and nature protection.
  Local environment conservation measures are implemented com- prehensively in response to the needs of local residents, while taking account of the local natural features, environmental conditions and socioeconomic trends. Many prefectures and administrative ordinance- designated cities participate in the formulation of local environmental control programs which will promote local environment conservation measures in a planned and systematic manner and also in the develop- ment of an environmental information system.

14-4-1 Organizations and Staff Officials in Charge of Environmental Administration

  The situation of organizations and staff officials in charge of environmental administration in prefectures, administrative ordinance- designated cities and municipalities as of October 1, 1992, is as follows:
 (A) Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance-Designated Cities
  The situation of organizations and staff officials in charge of environmental administration is indicated in Table 14-4-1. The situation of staff officials in charge of nature protection is shown in Table 14-4-2.
 (B) Municipalities
  The situation of organizations in charge of environmental admin- istration is as follows:
   Municipalities having a bureau and a division (office) taking exclusive charge of environmental pollution  203
   Municipalities having a subdivision (team) taking exclusive charge of environmental pollution  454
   Municipalities having only staff officials taking exclusive charge of environmental pollution  248
  Total       27.9% of all municipalities
  Municipalities having outreach institutions     57
  The situation of staff officials taking exclusive charge of environ- mental pollution is indicated in Table 14-4-3.

Table 14-4-1 Staff Officials in Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance..Designated Cities by Organization in Charge of Environmental Pollution

Table 14-4-1 Staff Officials in Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance..Designated Cities by Organization in Charge of Environmental Pollution

Remarks: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The figures for concurrent staff officials are those for which the number of staff officials who are also in charge of another line of administrative work is proportinoally distributed, depending on the volume of their work.
   3. The number of staff officials who deal with wastes and sewer systems are excluded.

Table 14-4-2 Staff Officials in Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance-Designated Cities by Organization in Charge of Nature Protection

Table 14-4-2 Staff Officials in Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance-Designated Cities by Organization in Charge of Nature Protection

Remarks: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The figures for concurrent staff officials are those for which the number of staff officials who are in charge of another line of administrative work is proportionally distributed, depending on the volume of thesr work.

Table 14-4-3 Number of Staff Officials in Charge of Environmental Pollution in Municipalities (Full-time)

Table 14-4-3 Number of Staff Officials in Charge of Environmental Pollution in Municipalities (Full-time)

Remarks: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The number of staff officials in charge of wastes and sewer systems is excluded.

14-4-2 Enactment of Decrees

  Local governments' decrees related to environment conservation are instrumental in comprehensively promoting substantial local envi- ronment conservation measures. They may be classified into four areas (1) decrees for the pollution prevention decrees on, (2) decrees for environment conservation, (3) conservation of the natural environment, and (4) other decrees for environment conservation (including decrees on environmental impact assessments). The enactment of those decrees is as follows:
  Decrees Related to Environment Conservation (Prefectures and Administrative Ordinance-Designated Cities)
 (A) Decrees for the prevention of environmental pollution  54 organizations
 (B) Decrees for Environment Conservation  9
 (C) Decrees for Conservation of Natural Environment  47
  (Nature Protection)
  Other decrees related to environment conservation includes decrees on environmental impact assessments, decrees on natural parks, decrees on measures to cope with studded tires, decrees for prevention of lake and reservoir eutrophication, decrees for greening, decrees for prevention of the dispersion of empty cans
  Decrees related to environment conservation enacted by munici- palities as indicated in Table 14-4-4.

Table 14-4-4 Enactment of Ordinances Associated with Environment Conservation in Municipalities

Table 14-4-4 Enactment of Ordinances Associated with Environment Conservation in Municipalities

Remarks:Surveyed by the Environment Agency.

14-4-3 Conclusion of Environmental Pollution Prevention Agreements

  The following may be cited as reasons for the conclusion of agreements on the prevention of environmental pollution.
 (A) It is possible to take elaborate environmental pollution preven- tion measures in response to geographical and social conditions.
 (B) Businesses are aware that in locating a factory, it is essential to secure the consent of local residents for their smooth corporate perfor- mance.
  The conclusion of environmental pollution prevention agreements is as follows:
  Environmental pollution prevention agreements concluded from October 1991 to September 1992  2,500
  Environmental pollution prevention agreements valid as of September 30, 1992  39,800
  Environmental pollution prevention agreements valid on golf links  1,600
  The counterparts of the concluded agreements by line of business are shown in Table 14-4-5. By measure for the prevention of environ- mental pollution, they are indicated in Table 14-4-6.
  The number of environmental pollution prevention agreements to which residents are parties or witnesses is indicated in Table 14-4-7.

Table 14-4-5 Number of Establishments Concluding Environmental Pollution Prevention Agreements by Line of Business

Table 14-4-5 Number of Establishments Concluding Environmental Pollution Prevention Agreements by Line of Business

Remarks:1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The table represents a tabulation of agreements reached from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992

Table 14-4-6 Contents of Pollution Prevention Agreements

Table 14-4-6 Contents of Pollution Prevention Agreements

Remarks:1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The table represents a tabulation of agreements concluded from October 1, 1991, to September 30, 1992.

Table 14-4-7 Citizens' Participation in Pollution Prevention Agreements

Table 14-4-7 Citizens' Participation in Pollution Prevention Agreements

Remarks:1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The table represents a tabulation of agreements concluded from October 1,1991, to September 30, 1992.

14-4-4 Subsidization of Installation of Environmental Pollution Prevention Facilities

  The actual amount at loans provided by local governmental environmental pollution facilities are shown in Table 14-4-8, and the subsidization of environmental pollution facilities by local governments is indicated in Table 14-4-9.

Table 14-4-8 Loan Program of Local Government for Pollution Control Investment (FY 1991)

Table 14-4-8 Loan Program of Local Government for Pollution Control Investment (FY 1991)

Remarks:Surveyed by the Environment Agency Prefectural Government includes administrative ordinance-designated cities and municipalities include 23 wards in Tokyo.

Table 14-4-9 Subsidy Program of Local Government for Pollution Control Investment (FY 1991)

Table 14-4-9 Subsidy Program of Local Government for Pollution Control Investment (FY 1991)

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency Prefectural Government includes administratixe ordinance-designated cities and municipalities include 23 wards in Tokyo.

14-4-5 Outlays for Environmental Pollution Measures

  The outlays made by local governments (including those by local government-managed businesses) are shown in Table 14-4-10.

Table 14-4-10 Settled Accounts for Municipal Pollution Measures (FY 1991)

Table 14-4-10 Settled Accounts for Municipal Pollution Measures (FY 1991)

Remarks: 1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
   2. The settled accounts are those for which duplications between prefecturen and municipalities are deducted.

14-5 Environmental Pollution Prevention Systems in the Private Sector

14-5-1 Enforcement of Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Systems by the Private Sector

  In accordance with the Law Concerning the Development of Organizations for Environmental Pollution Prevention at Specified Factories, factories were obligated in 1972 to assign environmental pollution prevention controllers , environmental pollution prevention managers, etc., and attempts are being made to develop environmental pollution prevention organizations at about 20,000 specified factories.
  The assignment of environmental pollution prevention controllers (as of the end March 1992) is as follows:
  Environmental pollution prevention controllers (including proxies)  About 23,000 persons
  Environmental pollution prevention managers (including proxies)  About 40,000
  Persons qualified for control of environmental pollution  About 422,018

  (1) National Examination of Environmental Pollution Prevention Controllers

  A national examination of environmental pollution prevention managers has been carried out each year since 1971, and the number of applicants in fiscal 1991 was 24,141. The number of actual examinees was 19,803, out of whom 3,868 persons successfully passed the examina- tion. The number of successful examinees prior to fiscal 1992 was 229, 218.

  (2) Lectures for Certification of Qualifications

  The number of persons who had completed lectures for the certification of qualifications before fiscal 1992 was 192,800.

14-5-2 Improvement of Environmental Monitoring in the Private Sector

  Environmental pollution-related monitoring equipment is inspect- ed by designated inspection institutions.
  A system of environment monitors was established in 1974. As of the end of December 1992, the number of registered monitors was 6,853.

14-5-3 Establishment of Standards for Monitoring Methods

  The Ministry of International Trade and Industry is striving to develop and expand Japan Industrial Standards (JIS) on standard gases and standard liquids.

Appendix

AChronology of Major Events in FY 1992

  Date        Events

1992
Apr. 1 * The Environment Agency (EA) announced a revision of the registration standards of residues of farm chemicals in crops.
    * The Ministry of Construction announced a report on its additional research on a project to build a barrage at the mouth of the River Nagara.
  10 * The Office of Environmental Activities was established within the Planning and Coordination Division of the EA Planning and Coordination Bureau.
  15 * Eminent Persons' Meeting on Financing Global Environment and Development was held (Tokyo, Apr. 15-17).
  27 * The 2nd Ministerial Conference of Developing Countries on Environment and Development was held (Kuala Lumpur, May 27-29). The Japanese Minister of State, EA Director-General attended.
  28 *The 1st meeting of the Environment Policy Committee of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was held (Paris, Apr. 28-30).
  29 * The 3rd Participant Meeting of the Global Environment Facility (CEF) was held (Washington, Apr. 29-30).
    * Greenery Day Rallies to Commune with Nature were held nationwide.
  30 * The 5th Session of the International Negotiation Committee for the Framework Convention on Climate Change was held (New York, Apr. 30-May 9). The convention was adopted by consensus on the final day.
    * The EA notified the prefectures concerned of the Enforcement Guidelines of the Comprehensive Measures against Minamata Disease.
May 6 * The Law to Revise a Part of the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation Law was promulgated (to reorganize the Environmental pollution Control Service Corporation into the Japan Environmental Corporation and to add new businesses to the reorganized corporation). The law was put into effect on October 1,1992.
  8 * The ceremony of inaugurating the construction of the Japan-China Friendship Environmental Protection Center was held (Beijing).
  10 * The 46th Bird Week was observed nationwide (May 10-16).
    * The National Rally for the Protection of Wild Birds was held (Hadano City, Prefecture).
    * The 7th Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Convention on Biological Diversity (including diplomatic negotiation sessions) was held (Nairobi, May 11-22). The text of the convention was adopted on its final day.
  15 * An unofficial ministerial-level conference of the Group of Seven was held on environment (Bonn, May 15-17).
    * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control and the Nature Conservation Council submitted a recommendation on "the way international cooperation ought to be in the environment fields."
    * The Nature Conservation Council recommended that the Shiragami-sanchi be designated as a nature conservation area.
  17 * The Katano Communities with Nature and Native Living Things were opend (Katano City, Osaka Prefecture).
  18 * The Nature Conservation Council recommended additions of some rare wild fauna and flora species as those to be protected.
  21 * An alteration was made in the park area and park plan of the Lake Biwa Quasi National Park.
    * The FY 1992 Global Environment Monitoring Program was announced.
  22 * The Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation approved "Japan's Policy toward the Earth Summit," formulated the "FY 1992 Comprehensive Promotion Program for Global Environment Research, Monitoring and Technology Development," and received a report on measures taken in FY 1991 under the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming.
    * The ceremony of inaugurating the construction of the Environment Management Center was held in Serpong, West Java, Indonesia.
  23 * The 7th Lew-Emission Vehicle Fair was held (in which a total of 58 units of electrically-operated cars,etc. were exhibited).
  25 * A meeting of the Liaison Council on Empty Can Issues (a liaison organ of 11 ministries and agencies) was held.
  26 * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control recommended "The Way Environmental Pollution Prevention Plans Should Be in Response to Changes of Socio-economic Conditions and Situations of Environmental Problems."
  28 * World Urban Forum Curitiba '92 was held (Curitiba, May 28-29).
  29 * The EA promulgated the "Method of Computing Amounts of Medical Fees in Accordance with the Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation Law."
June 1 * The Environmental Conservation Month of the Seto Inland Sea was observed (June 1-30).
    * The EA conducted the Checks on the Ability of Trees to Purity the Atmosphere (June 1-Sept. 30).
    * Various events were held to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the enforcement of the Offensive Odor Control Law (including official commendations of those who have contributed toward the conservation of the atmosphere, and speeches at the 2nd Floor Auditorium of the Fifth Complex of Government Offices, June 1-2).
  3 * The Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Regulation of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas (Automobile NOx Regulation Law) was promulgated (as measures to control NOx in big cities).
    * The Earth Summit (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) was held (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-14). The Japanese Minister of State, EA Director-General attended.
    Jun. 3 : Plenary Sessions, Government Statements (June 3-11).
     4 : Japan Day
     5 : The Japanese EA Director-General made a statement.
     13 : A round-table conference was held by the heads of state and government of 102 countries.
     13 : Japan signed the Framework Convention on Cli- mate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity at the Earth Summit.
     14: The Earth Summit was concluded by adopting the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests.
  4 * The Odaishiyama Communities with Nature and Native Living Things were opened (Kuriyama Town, Hokkaido).
    * The Ecolife Fair '92 (Environment Exhibition) was held at the Science Museum (Tokyo, June 4-10).
    * A ceremony was held to present official commendations to those who have made meritorious services for the environmental conservation (Science Museum).
  5 * The Law for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was promulgated (some provisions of the law were immediately put into force and other were to be put into effect on April 1,1993).
    * A meeting was held to make public achievements of the National Institute for Environmental Studies.
  6 * International Environmental Technology Exhibition (ECO Brazil) was held (San Paulo, June 6-12).
    * The open house of the National Institute for Environmental Studies was held, in which special lectures were given.
  13 * Japan signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  15 * The Prefectural Plans for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea were revised.
  16 * The 5th Environmental Education Symposium was held (Metropolis of Tokyo).
  19 * The EA formulated the Technical Guidelines Concerning Exhaust Gas of Methonol-Fueled Motor Vehicles.
    * The EA made public a report on the 2nd Assessment of Motor Vecicle Excaust Emission Control Technology.
  24 * The EA released the Annual Report on Results of Surveillance of the Ozone Layer, Etc. for FY 1991.
  25 * The ceremony for the completion of the Hateruma Global Environmental Monitoring Station of the National Institute for Environmental Studies was held.
  26 * A Cabinet Order was promulgated to implement amendments of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law and the Law for Special Measures for the Improvement and Construction of Waste Treatment Facilities (to establish minimum standards for the final disposal of some specially-controlled wastes).
  29 * The EA made public results of its surveys of water quality bat principal sea bathing resorts throughout the country.
  30 * The '92 Forum on the Water Environment was held (Tokyo).
    * Japan accepted the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Culture and Natural Heritage.
    * The Cabinet decided upon the Outline of Official Development Assistance.
July 1 * The Month for the Promotion of Protective Measures for the Ozone Layer observed (July 1-31).
  3 * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control instructed its Planning Division to discuss the Way Environmental Policies Should Be in the Age of Globalization (for a Basic Law for Environmental Conservation).
  4 * The Kuchiki Communities with Nature and Native Living Things were opened (Kuchiki Village, Shiga Prefecture).
    * The Law to Revise a Part of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law mas put into effect.
  6 * The Economic Summit was held (Munich, Juqy 6-8).
    * The Global Environment Research Program for FY 1992 was announced.
  10 * The Shiragami-sanchi was designated as a satural environment conservation area.
  11 * A judicial decision was made by the Ipo High Court of Malaysia over the Asian Rare Earth case (first trial).
  14 * The park plan for the Nikko National Park (Nusu-Kashi and Shiobara areas) was revised.
    * The park plan of the Chubu Sangaku National Park was revised (to control the use of motor- and horse-driven vehicles in the Tsugaike area).
    * The Sanagochi Communities with Nature and Native Living Things were opened (Sanagochi Village, Tokushima Prefecture).
  16 * A general meeting of the National Association for the Promotion of Amenities was held.
  17 * The EA made public results of its 1990 survey of the designated chemical substances.
  21 * The Campaign for Communication with Nature was carried out (July 21-Aug. 20).
  22 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Tokyo). The EA Director-General atteded.
    * Various events of the "Star Watching Network (Summer)" were organized by the EA throughout the country (July 22-Aug. 2).
  28 * The EA released results of its FY 1991 questionnaire survey on "neighborhood noise."
  29 * The Japan-Australia Environment Consultations was held (Tokyo, July 29-30).
  31 * The EA made publdh results of its surveys conducted under the Interim Guideline on the Quality of Water in and near Golf Links that May Have Been Adversely Affected by Agricultural Chemicals.
    * The EA formulated the "Guidelines of Countermeasures to Soil Pollution in State-Owned Land."
Aug. 2 * The Natural Park Cleaning Day was observed.
  3 * The park plan was revised for the Okinawa-senseki Quasi-National Park.
  5 * The 34th Natural Park Rally was held (by the Lake Shikotsu in the Shikotsa-Toya National Park, Hokkaido, Aug. 5-6).
  7 * The EA released results of its FY 1991 environment monitoring questionnaire survey on offensive odors.
  10 * The Law to Revire a Part of the Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures was put into force.
    * The EA made public results of its FY 1991 Survey of Quality of Water by Aquatic Organisms.
  11 * The 22nd General Meeting of the Association of Prefectural Governors and Municipal Mayors for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea was held (Kobe City).
  12 * A Cabinet Order to Revise a Part of the Enforcement Ordinance of the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation Law was issued (to be put into effect Oct. 1).
  26 * The park plans were revised as a result of reviews of long-distance nature trails in the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Seto Inland Sea National Park, Saikai National Park, Unzen-Amakusa National Park, Aso-Kuju National Park and Kirishima-Yaku National Park.
    * The EA disclosed results of its FY 1991 monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the districts where areawide controls of nitrogen oxides are enforced.
  31 * The Prime Minister instructed the formulation of pollution prevention programs in FY 1992 (in 12 urban areas including metropolitan Tokyo).
Sep. 1 * A technical cooperation project was initiated for the Japan-China Frieddship Environmental Protection Center.
  2 * '92 Seoul Symposium: UNCED and Prospect on the Environmental Regime in the 21st Century was held (Seoul, Sep. 1-5).
  14 * The 47th General Assembly of the United Nations was held (New York, Sep. 14-Dec. 23). The EA Director-General participated in its general debates (in November). Matters relevant to the Earth Summit were taken up beginning in November.
  16 * Achievements made with the FY 1991 comprehensive promotion expense for research on the global environment were revealed.
  17 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Gunma).
  18 * The Nature Conservation Council recommended the establishment of prefectural wildlife protection areas, prohibition of designfted hunting methods, and prohibition of hunting of designated species of wildlife.
  25 * The EA Director-General consulted the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control on additions of substances to the Environment Standards Concerning the Protection of Human Health against Water Pollution and the establishment of the Environment Standards Concerning Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Coastal Water Bodies.
    * A report was published on the Environment Guidelines for Construction and Operation of Golf Links.
  29 * Japan signed the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
Oct. 1 * A Prime Minister's Office order was issued to revise a part of the Enforcement Order of the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation Law.
    * An order was issued to revise a part of the Order Concerning Working Procedures of the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation.
    * The Month for the Promotion of Recycling was observed (Oct. 1-31).
    * The Day for Purifiers was observed.
    * Shiragami-sanchi and Yaku Island were nominated for the registration as natural heritage to the Secretariat for the World Heritage Committee on the basis of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.
    * The "Let's Walk Nature Trails" Month was observed (Oct. 1-31).
  2 * The International Symposium on Epidemiological Studies on Health Effects of Environmental Pollution by Methyl Mercury (National Research Center on Minamata Disease).
  5 * The park facilities designated by the EA Director-General were announced in accordance with Article 2 Paragraph 2 of the Enforcement Regulation of the Japan Environmental Corporation Law.
  9 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Ishikawa). 13 * The 1st Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation was held (Niigata City, Oct. 13-16).
  14 * The 10th National Convention of the National Trust of Japan was held (Oct. 14-15).
  15 * The Panel of the Towns of Starry Skies and Blue Skies held the 4th meeting of the Towns of Starry Skies and Blue Skies (Anamizu Town, Ishikawa Prefecture, Oct. 15-16).
  16 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Kita-Kyushu City).
  17 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Kobe City).
  18 * The Central Convention of the 11th National Conventions of Natural Trail Hikers Societies (Mt. Takao, Tokyo).
  20 * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control and the Nature Conservation Council submitted a joint report entitled "The Way Basic Environment Legislation Should Be" to the Government.
    * The EA made public a report titled "The Protect to Transfer Blakiston's Fish-owl to New Habitats."
  21 * The EA revealed results of its survey of emergency protection measures for Japanese river otter.
    * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Miyagi).
    * The Cabinet Order to Revise a Part of the Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Protecting Lake Water Quality was promulgated. (Nitrogen and phosphorus were added to the list of object items of pollutant load controls as for the reservoir of the Kamafusa Dam and the Lake Sumwa, and the step was immediately put into effect).
  23 * The Cabinet gave oral understanding to a report entitled "On Drafting the Bill of the Basic Environment Law (provisional name)."
  27 * The International Symposium on Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology was held (Osaka City and Shiga Prefecture, Oct. 27-30).
  28 * The 13th Symposium on Comfortable Environment was held, centering around the theme of "Comfortable Environment To Be Left Behind for Future Generations--Concerning Amenities in the Globalization Age" (Kure City, Hiro-shima Prefecture, Oct. 28-29).
    * The 3rd Commendation of Amenity Towns--which performed meritorious services for the building of communities full of amenity--was made. (The award recipient autonomies: Abashiri City, Hokkaido; Sendai City Miyagi Prefecture; Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture; Kobe City, Hyogo prefecture, and Fukuoka City, Fukuoka prefecture).
  30 * The United Nations Environment Program's international environmental technology centers were opened (Osaka City and Shiga Prefecture). Nov. 4 * The EA announced a revision of the registration standards of residues of agricultural chemicals in crops.
    * The EA made public "An Outline of Ground Subsidence Areas throughout the Country in FY 1991.
  11 * The 8th Plenary Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was held (Harare, Zimbabwe, Nov. 11-13).
    * The 1st Preparatory Committee for the Renegation of the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) and the 13th International Tropical Timber Council were held (Yokohama, Nov. 11-24).
  12 * The EA announced the areas designated as those where the use of studded tires is to be controlled under the Law Concerning the Prevention of Studded Tire Dusts (the second such designation).
    * The EA disclosed "Results of a Survey of the State of Offensive Odors in FY 1991," "Results of a Survey of the State of Enforcement of the Noise Regulation Law in FY 1991," and "Results of the State of Enforcement of the Vibration Regulation Law in FY 1991." 20 * The EA issued a report entitled "The Project for the Regulation of the Number of Serows in FY 1992."
    * The EA released the following three reports: "On Results of the Water Quality Tests in Public Waters in FY 1991," "Results of Tests of Quality of Underground Water in FY 1991," and "On the State of Enforcement of the Water Pollution Control Law in FY 1991."
    * The EA made public a report titled "On Results of a Survey of the Emission of 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane, Etc. and Results of a Survey of Water Quality in Public Waters."
  23 * The 4th Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was held. The EA Parliamentary Vice Minister attended. The phasing out of CFC etc. was moved up to 1996, and the addition of HCFC etc. to the controlled substances under the protocol was adopted (Copenhagen, Nov. 23-15).
  25 * The Earth Summit Seminar was held (Kagawa).
    * The Nature Conservation Council made its recommendation on the National Guideline for the Conservatdon of Endangered Species to the Government.
  26 * The 19th Meeting for Reading Research Papers on Environmental Conservation and Pollution Prevention was held (Nov. 26-27).
    * The EA released An Outline of Photochemical Air Pollution in 1992 (Issuance of warnings and reported damage).
    * The Cabinet Order to Determine the Enforcement Date of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Regulation of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas was promulgated (the part concerned with the control of the types of vehicles is to be put into effect on December 1, 1992, and the part on the types of vehicles is to be put into force on Decembem 1, 1993).
    * The Enforcement Order of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas was promulgated (the specified areas under the Automobile NOx Reduction Law were designated).
    * The EA released a report entitled "On the State of Air Pollution in FY 1991."
  27 * The 3rd Environmental Conservation Leaders' Study Meeting was held (Kochi Prefecture, Nov. 27-29).
    * The Cabinet decided upon "The National Guideline for the Conservation of Endangered Species."
  30  * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control submitted an interim report entitled "The Way the Number of Motor Vehicles Should Be Reduced" in reply to a question from the EA Director-General.
    * The 1st Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Global Convention on the Control of Thansboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes (Basel Convention) was held (Piriapolis in the suburbs of Montevideo, Nov. 30-Dec. 4).
    * The 3rd Conference on Global Environmental Research was held (National Institute for Environmental Studies).
Dec. 1 * The Anti-Studded Tire Month was observed (Dec. 1-31).
    * The Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Regulation of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas was promulgated (to determine the method of computing total emission of nitrogen oxides to be used in total emission control programs).
    * The 5th Anti-Air Pollution Month was observed (Dec. 1-31).
  3 * The 4th Participant Meeting of the GEF was held (Abidjan, Dec. 3-5).
    * The 2nd Japan-EC High-Level Consultation on the Environment was held (Brussels, Dec. 3-4).
    * The Workshop on the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN) was held (Tokyo, Dec. 3-4).
    * Centering around the theme "Living as Citizens of the Earth," the Environmental Conservation Vision Symposium was held (Tokyo).
  4 * The EA released the "Chemicals in the Environment: 1992."
  7 * The EA issued "Results of FY 1991 Surveys of Uncontrolled Air Pollutants."
    * The 6th Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change was held (Geneva, Dec. 7-10).
    * The 27th Conference on Wildlife Protection was held.
    * The Osaka District Court recommended a reconciliation on a lawsuit lodged by patients of Minamata Disease residing in the Kansai area.
  9 * The Study Group on Long-Term Strategy for the Training of Environmental Experts was established.
  10 * The State and Trends of Countermeasures to Noises from Motor Vehicle Traffic in 1991 was released.
  11 * The Soil Environment Purification Forum was established.
  14 * The EA made public results of its surveys of the "State of Enforcement of the Air Pollution Control Law."
  16 *The Law Concerning Exports and Imports, Etc. of Specified Hazardous Wastes, Etc. was promulgated (to secure proper and smooth implementation of the Basel Convention, etc. with a view to contributing toward the protection of human health and the conservation of living environment by taking control measures against exports. imports, transportation and disposal of specified hazardous wastes).
    * The EA released "An Outline of Results of FY 1991 Detailed Surveys of and Countermeasures to Soil Pollution of Agricultural Land."
  17 * The EA issued results of its survey of visitors to natural parks in 1991.
  18 * The EA made public "Results of FY 1992 Simultaneous Surveys of Habitation of Japanese Cranes."
  21 *The EA designfted the areas where the use of studded tires is to be controlled in accordance with the Law Concerning the Prevention of Studded Tire Dusts (the 8th designation of specified areas). The EA revised a part of the Interim Guideline Concerning the Prevention of Water Pollution by Agricultural Chemicals Used at Golf Links.
  22 * The EA designated the areas where the use of studded tires is to be controlled in accordance with the Law Concerning the Prevention of Studded Tire Dusts (the 9th designation).
  24 * The EA announced the Regulation Concerning the Authorization of Qualification Project of Knowledge and Ability Concerning the Adjudication of Odors with the Olfactory Sense.
    * The EA promulgated the Methods of Adjudication of Odors with the Olfactory Sense.
1993
Jan. 1 *Technological cooperation was initiated with Indonesia under the project formula for the establishment of the Environment Manbgement Center.
  12 * The 2nd meeting of the OECD Environment Policy Committee was held (Paris, Jan. 12-13).
    * Various events were staged over the land by the "Star Watching Network (Winter)" organized on the EA initiative.
  17 * A survey mission for policy dialog environmental conservation was sent to India (Jan. 17-24).
  18 * The EA announced its authorization as of January 14 of the Qualification Project of the Technical Operator with Olfactory Test carried out by the Odor Countermeasures Research and Engineering Association, Inc.
    * The Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control in reply to a question from the EA Director-General submitted a report entitled "Additions Etc. of Items to the Environ- mental Quality Standards Concerning the Protection of Human Health against Water Pollution."
    * The EA Director-General made an inspection tour to the Inba-numa and Tega-numa swamps.
  19 * The EA Director-General made an inspection of the National Institute for Environmental Studies.
  20 * The EA designated the areas where the use of motor vecicles and horse-driven vecicles is to be controlled in the Tango Sandhills in the Sanin Coast National Park.
  21 * The Study Group on the Advancement of Technology for the Prevention of Pollution of Underground Water at Final Processing Facilities was established as an advisory organ to the director-general of the FA Water Quality Bureau.
  22 * The 2nd Preparatory Committee for the Renegation of the ITTA was held (Quito, Ecuader, Jan. 22-30).
  26 * The Cabinet deciede upon the "Fundamental Policy Regarding the Total Volume Reduction of Automobile-Emitted Nitrogen Oxides" (to lay down basic control measures to be adopted for a reduction of total volumes of nitrogen oxides exhausted from automobiles in accordance with the Auto-mobile NOx Reduction Law).
    * An organizational session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Convention to Control Desertification was held (New York, Jan. 26-29).
    * A preparatory meeting of the Japan-France Amenity Conference (the 2nd Conference of the Japan-France Amenity Cooperation Policy Committee) was held in France (Jan. 26-29).
  27 * The park scheme of the Sade-Yahiko-Yoneyama Quasi-National Park was changed.
    * The park area and scheme of the Nippo Coast Quasi-National Park (on the Miyazaki Prefecture side) was changed.
    * The Nature Conservation Council submitted a report entitled "On the Designation of Endangered Species."
  28 * The park scheme of the Akan National Park was changed.
Feb. 2 * The 2nd Asia-Pacific Regional Consultative Meeting on Biodiversity Conservation was held (Bangkok, Feb. 2-6).
    * The Fundamental Policy Regarding the Total Volumes of Automobile-Emitted Nitrogen Oxides was promulgated (to prescribe basic measures to be adopted for reduction of nitrogen oxides exhausted from automobiles under the Automobile NOx Reduction Law).
  5 * An organizational session of the UN Economic and Social Council was held (New York, Feb. 5-12).
  8 * The 1st Meeting of Senior Officials on Environmental Cooperation in Northeast Asia of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) was held (Seoul, Jan. 7-11).
    * The Preparation Office for the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention was established.
  10 *The Cabinet Order for the Implementation of the Law for the Conservation of the Endangered Wildlife Species was promulgated (in preparation for the enforcement of the law on April 1, 1993).
    * The EA made public "Results of FY 1992 Simultaneous Surveys (Additional Surveys) of Habitation of Japanese Cranes."
    * The EA designated the areas where the use of studded tires is to be controlled under the Law Concerning the Prevention of Studded Tire Dusts (the 10th designation).
  12 * The UN Commission on Sustainable Development was established.
    * The Cabinet decided upon the Bill to Revise a Part of the Japan Environmental Corporation Law, and presented it to the National Diet.
  15 *An ESCAP/UNDP High-level Meeting on Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific was held (Kuala Lumpur, Feb. 15-19).
  16 * An election was held to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Japan was elected as a member of the commission.
  19 * The EA released a report entitled "On the Formation of a Short-Tailed Albatrosses' New Breeding Colony on the Torishima Island."
Mar. 3 * The Prime Minister approved the FY 1992 Pollution Prevention Plans (in 12 areas including Tokyo and its vicinity).
  4 * A GEF Replenishment Meeting was hjld (Rome, Mar. 4-5).
  8 * The Prime Minister requested that the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control draft a Basic Environment Law," and the council submitted a draft.
    * The EA promulgated a revision of a part of the Environmental Quality Standards Concerning Water Pollution (to add some items to the Health Items of the Water Luality Standards).
    * The EA announced a revision of a part of the Standards of Registration of Residues of Agricultural Chemicals Concerning Water Pollution.
  10 * The EA released a report entitled "On Air Pollution by Organochlorine Compounds" (prepared by the Study Group on Countermeasures to Organochlorine Compounds).
    * The EA Director-General requested that the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control submit a report "On the Designation of Offensive Odor Substances and the Establishment of the Scope of Regulatory Standards."
  11 * The Prime Minister agreed on the 2nd-term Plans for the Conservation of Lake Water Quality concerning the reservoir of the Kamafusa Dam and the Lake Suwa.
  12 * The Cabinet decided upon the Bill of the Basic Environment Law and the Bill of the Law to Place Relevant Laws in order with the enactment of the Basic Environment Law, and presented the bills to the National Diet.
    * The Prime Minister issued a statement on the Bill of the Basic Environment Law.
    * The Cabinet decided to seek National Diet approval of the Conclusion of the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity
  15 * The 7th Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change was held (New York, Mar. 15-20).
  22 * The UN World Day for Water was observed (the EA and the Japan Society on Water Environment, Inc. held a Memorial of the UN World Day for Water Public Symposium and the society held its 27th Annual Meeting).
  25 * A court decision was made on the second froup of the third suit on kumamoto Minamata Disease (Kumamoto District Court).
  26 * The Cabinet Order to Revise a Part of the Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Specified Areas and other relevant ordems were promulgated (to stipulate the controls over the types of vehicles to come under the Automobile NOx Reduction Law).
    * The Prime Minister's Office Order to Revise a Part of the Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas was promulgated (to stipulate the controls over the types of vehicles to come under the Automobil NOx Reduction Law).
    * The Designation by the Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency of the Special Types of Automobiles and the Time Period by Type of Automobiles on the Basis of Provisions of the Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides from Automobiles in Specified Areas was promulgated.
  29 * The EA made public a report entitled "Results of the 24th Survery on Habitation of Waterfowls"
    * The Enforcement Regulation of the Law for the Conservation of the Endangered Wildlife Species, Order Concerning Procedures for Permissions for the Capture Concerned with Specified Businesses, and Order Concerning the Collection Methods of the Fees As Stipulated in Article 52 of the Law for the Conservation of the Endangered Wildlife Species were promulgated. 31 * The Law to Revise a Part of the Law Concerning the Compensation for the Pollution-related Patients was promulgated (to extend by five years the allotment of the Motor Vehicle Tonnage Tax to the compensation mea- sures).
    * The Cabinet Order to Revise a Part of the Enforcement Regulation of the Law Concerning the Compensation for the Pollution-related Patients was promulgated (to increase the extra amounts for nursing, amounts of child compensation allowances, medical care allowances fuseral expenses, and to determine the rate of pollutant load levies for FY 1993).
  31 * The EA made public the Basic Monthly Amounts of Standard Payments of Compensation for the Pollution-related Patients and Bereaved Families for FY 1993 on the basis of the Law Concerning the Compensation for the Pollutionrelated Patients.
    * The EA announced the amount of contribution in FY 1993 per unit of discharging volume of causative substances for air pollution to the fund of the Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation and Prevention Association.

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