White Paper

Quality of the Environment in Japan 1993

12-1-2 Ozone Layer Protection

 (1) Outline of Problems

  The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the creatures by absorbing most of the hazardous solar ultraviolet rays. It has become evident in recent years that the ozone layer is destroyed by manmade chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and so forth. There is concern that the destruction of the ozone layer and the increase of harmful ultraviolet rays might not only lead man to suffer from health disorders, such as nom-melanoma skin cancer and cataracts but also hamper the growth of plants and plankton as well.
  Made up of carbon, fluorine and chlorine, CFCs are used as solvents, refrigerants, foaming agents and propellants, and bromine- containing halons are used primarily as fire extinguishing agents. These substances, when emitted, are so stable that they will reach the strato- sphere, where they are decomposed by strong solar ultraviolet rays, releasing the atoms of chloride or bromine. With those atoms serving as catalysts, the reaction in which ozone is decomposed takes place in a chain reaction.
  Once the ozone layer is depleted by CFCs, it will take much time for it to restore. Causing widespread damage around the world, it is an environmental issue of the global scale.

 (2) Ozone Layer Protection Measures

  In order to prevent depletion of the ozone layer, the "Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer" was adopted in March 1985 and the "Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer" in September 1987. As a system in which those accords could be appropriately and smoothly observed, the "Law Concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Sub- stances and Other Measures" (the Ozone Layer Protection Law) was promulgated in Japan in May 1988 (Fig. 12-1-1), and Japan became a Party to the convention and the protocol in September 1988.
  Given Amendment of the Montreal Protocol in June 1990, the Ozone Layer Protection Law was partially amended to strengthen measures and the amended law was promulgated in March 1991 and enforced in August 1992. In September 1991, Japan also acceded to the London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

Fig. 12-1-1 Outline of the "Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures"

Fig. 12-1-1 Outline of the

  Thereafter in the Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in November 1992, brought forward of the phase out schedule of the controlled substances, addition of hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, hydrobromofluorocarbons HBFCs and methyl bromide to the controlled substances, and so on were decided (Table 12-1-2).
  The following measures are taken in Japan to protect the ozone layer:

Table 12-1-2 Phase-out Schedule adopted by the fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (November 1992)

Table 12-1-2 Phase-out Schedule adopted by the fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (November 1992)

 (a) Controls on Production of CFCs, etc.

  In the Ozone Layer Protection Law, the substances which are controlled under the Montreal Protocol are categorized as "specified substances," and it is made a rule to phase out their production and consumption according to the phase out schedule under the Protocol. As regards specified substances, Japan began to control the productions of specified CFCs (CFC-11, 12, 113, 114, 115) in July 1989, that of halons in January 1992, and that of CFCs except "specified CFCs" and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane in January 1993.
  The productions and consumptions of specified CFCs in Japan are as follows:
             Production  Consumption (tons)
1986 (base year)     119,998     118,134
July 1991 December 1992  109,531     97,989
             (61 % of base year) (55% of base year)
(The value is sum of the gained value by multiplying the produc- tion and consumption of each CFC by its own Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP).)

 (b) Emission control and rational use of CFCs and others.

  The Guidelines for Emission Control and Rational Use of Speci- fied CFCs was promulgated on January 4, 1989 in order for entrepre- neurs using specified CFCs to curb their emission and rationalize their use, and attempts were made to let it be known. July of each year is designated as the Month for the Promotion of the Protection of Ozone Layer for an unerring and smooth promotion of measures for protection of the ozone layer, and the government and non-governmental sectors strive for its enhancement and propagation.
  As regards facilities to use specified CFCs and 1,1, 1-trichloro- ethane for cleaning purposes, for which the guidelines require to intro- duce emission control and recovery facilities, special tax and financial measures are available in introducing such facilities, including special redemption for the corporation and income taxes as well as the setting of exceptions in the application of taxable standards for the fixed property tax; and financial measures, such as low-interest loans avail- able from the Japan Development Bank, Japan Environment Corpora- tion and other institutions.
 (c) Promotion of Research and Studies on Ozone Layer Depletion
  Detailed studies are conducted on mechanisms for the depletion of the ozone layer, the impacts due to the depletion of the ozone layer, measurement of vertical profiles of ozone with an ozone laser radar, the development of technologies for the observation of ozone, the develop- ment of models for predictions on the increase and decrease of the ozone layer, and so on.

12-1-3 Acid Precipitation

 (1) Outline of Problems

  Acid precipitation is a typical global environmental issue. In the natural state, rain absorbs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thus adding to its acidity. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion of fossil fuels are converted into sulfur and nitric acid, turning into rain which features a higher degree of acidity.
  In North America and Europe, the fall of acidified rain is report- ed as having produced significant impacts on lakes, reservoirs, forests and so forth and historic remains and other structures, thus developing into a trans-boundary international issue.

 (2) Measures

  In Japan, the Committee on Acid Precipitation was established in fiscal 1983 and the first survey on measures against acid rain was performed (in fiscal 1983 to fiscal 1987). It was concluded in the survey:
 (A) pH 4 levels of rainfall and acid fallout on a par with or more than in Western nations were observed,
 (B) The precipitation of sulfuric ion were great primarily on the side of the Sea of Japan in the wintertime,
 (C) The existence of lakes and reservoirs was observed (those with low levels of alkalinity in the neighborhood of pH 5-7) which presumably tended to be affected by acid rain in the future,
 (D) Signs of a drop in pH of the soil were not observed in the survey period, but from the physicochemical properties of the soil, the degrees of resistance by the soil to acid rain could be classified, and
 (E) When buckwheat, which is considered relatively resistant to the acid soil, is planted in the soil where pH 3 of artificial acid rain was fallen, impacts were observed on its height.
  In response to those findings, the second five-year survey on measures against acid rain was begun in fiscal 1988.
  For establishment of a system of long-term acid fallout observa- tion, monitoring stations were established on offshore islands one by one from fiscal 1989 to 1991 made by 23 State-established air monitoring stations across the nation. In order to gather data for the analysis and assessment of interrelations among the air, soil, lake, reservoirs and vegetation, comprehensive monitoring is conducted. An interim report was prepared on the findings of the surveys performed before fiscal 1990. They are outlined below:
 (A) The precipitation of PH and ion was virtually at the same level as in Western countries. There had been no significant fluctuations since the first survey.
 (B) No significant impacts from acid snow were observed.
 (C) As regards the impacts of acid rain on vegetation, trees were decayed in some survey areas, but multilateral surveys and studies are required on the causes.
  The findings will be finally compiled after fiscal 1992. After fiscal 1993 the third suruer on measurcs against acid rain will be started, and the tolerable emission level computed in a simulation method and the formulation of a program for emission reductions studied.
  And continuous monitoring, study of influence to land water, soil and vegetation by acid rain and development of estimation model of influence to land water and soil will be proceeded. In addition, interna- tional coopematdon and spreading information of acid rain to nation will be went on and, especially, in fiscal 1993, The expert meeting on acid precipitation monitoring network in East Asia will be held.

12-1-4 Conservation of Forests, Particularly Tropical Forests

 (1) Outline of Problem

  In the world there are various types of forests under the influence of local climates, and total area of forests is about 4 billion hectares which is equivalent to about 31% of the land of the world. They are natural resources with various value such as environmental functions, for example provision of habitat for wild lives, conservatdon of soil and water sources, and absorption and fixation of carbon dioxide. They also serve as sources for the supply of timber, such as industrial wood and fuel wood, which is indispensable for human life, as well as of non- timber products such as medicines.
  Recently, the area of the forests in the developping countries in tropical zone is decreasing rapidly, while those in developped countries are stabilized. According to the report of the Forest Resources Assess- ment 1990 Project published by the United Nations Food and Agricul- tural Organiztion (FAO), it is conjectured that tropical forests have continued to decrease at an annual average rate of about 15.4 million hectares (equivalent to quarter of Japan's national land) in the last 10 years. As they are rich storehouses of genetic resources, and about half of all species of wildlife in the world inhabit tropical forests, it is afraid that the deforestation of the huge area of tropical forests would causes exitinction of many species. It is also pointed out that the deforestation of such huge area of forests is one of the causes for the acceleration of global warning with the massive emmission of carbon dioxide. It is pointed out that the causes of the deforestation of tropical forests, which differ with the area, are nontraditional sifting cultivation, the over exploitation for fuelwood, and the inappropriate commercial fel- ling and overgrazing. They are different and complicated, involved in social and economic factors, such as increase in population, poverty and land tenure systems.

 (2) Measures

  In fiscal 1992, discussions were held at the Earth Summit and a number of other international conferences on the conservation and sustainable development of forests in the world, including tropical forests. Adopted at the Earth Summit were the first worldwide consen- sus on forests, the "Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests," and the Agenda 21 (chapter 11: combating deforestation).
  Japan made its efforts to promote these international discussions while continuing its cooperation under bilateral and multilateral arrangements.
  Conducted in bilateral cooperation are projects centering around afforestation, training of personnel, research related with forestry in Southeast Asia, Oceania, Africa, Middle and South America,and some other regions. Of these, 19 technical cooperation projects were carried out under the so-called project formula in 13 countries through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (as of March 31, 1993).
  In multilateral cooperation, Japan made the largest sum of contri- butions to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO, headquartered in Yokohama) of all its member states to continue assisting the body's activities. The ITTO, with its "Target by 2000" (to ensure that all trade in tropical timber be sourced from sustainably managed forests by the year 2000), has begun studies of concrete methods of attaining the target. As the duration of the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) is due to terminate on March 31, 1994, a preparatory committee meeting was held in November 1992 in Yokohama and another meeting was held in January 1993 in Quito, Ecuador. As for the Tropical Forest Action Plan (TFAP) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Japan made a contribution to a project aimed at elevating policy formulation capability of the countries in the Asia Pacific region. Also, improvement of the TFAP's manage- ment system, etc., is being studied. The actual state of shifting cultiva- tion and methods of rural development in Southeast Asia and other areas are being studied. Furthermore, the country is increasing its assistance to research projects on the forest conservation of the Con- sultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR).
  In research in the area of tropical forests, projects to shed light upon the ecosystem of tropical forests are being carried out by State- operated experimental stations and research institutes in rain forests in Malaysia chosen as the field out of the Global Environment Research Program Budgets. At the same time, observation of and research on changes of tropical forests and their impacts were conducted by State- run experimental stations and research institutes in tropical forests in Thailand.
  Some private groups as well extended support to experiments of planting seedling of diptercocarps for reforestation in Sarawak, Malaysia; put into action a 20,000-hectare afforestation plan in Papua New Guinea mainly with species grown in that country aiming at sustainable timber production, and made efforts in other ways for the conservation of tropical forests.

12-1-5 Wildlife Protection

  At a speed higher than at any time since the beginning of the earth's history, the loss of species of the wildlife is in progress due to the destruction and over-exploitation of their habitats by human activities, and it is predicted that between 5% and 15% of the wildlife will be extinct over a period of 30 years beginning 1990.
  The wildlife is a basic element of the ecosystem on the earth and they are indispensable as useful resources for mankind and as the beging giving human life charm and peace of mind. The prevention of the extinction of the species has thus become a pressing problem for the world.
  Efforts of the Environment Agency for the protection of the wildlife include those for the conclusion of multilateral pacts, including the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, adopted in March 1973, put into force from July 1975, and put into effect from November 1980 for Japan) and the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention, adopted in February 1971, put into effect from December 1975, and put into force from October 1980 for Japan). Efforts were also made to conclude bilateral pacts, and there are now treaties in force with the United States, Australia, China and Russia for the protection of migratory birds and their environment. Efforts were also made for the conclusion of the Convention on Biologi- cal Diversity which was opened at the Earth Summit for the signing.
  Of these pacts, it is decided that the Fifth Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention will be held in June 1993 in Japan (Kushiro City). Preparations for the conference have been made for its success, with a belief that it will raise interest at home in the importance of wetlands and provide Japan with an opportunity to display its positive efforts to contribute toward the conservation of natural environment in the world.
  As for CITES, new criteria for listing species to its appendices are being drafted on the basis of resolutions at the eighth conference of its contracting parties held in March 1992 in Japan.
  As to treaties for the protection of migratory birds, the third Japan-Russia Research Conference on the Protection of Migratory Birds was held in March 1993 in Moscow, based on the Convention between the Government of Japan and the Government of Russia for the Protection of Migratory Birds in Danger of Extinction and Their Environment. At this conference, delegates from the two countries presented reports on the state of protection measures for migratory birds, etc., and exchanged views and opinions on joint research, etc. Between February and March 1993, Russian experts were invited to Japan, and a joint survey was conducted of the hibernation of Steller's sea eagles in Hokkaido.
  The Convention on Biological Diversity sets an international framework aimed at a fair and equitable distribution of gains from the utilization of genetic resources, as well as the securing of sustainable utilization of biological resources by conserving biological diversity with its ecosystems and natural habitats. This convention was adopted at the seventh Negotiating Committee meeting in March 1992 in Nairobi, and Japan signed it during the Earth Summit in June of the same year. Following the signing, the Cabinet in March 1993 decided to seek National Diet approval of the convention.
  Other international efforts include cooperation with developing countries for the wildlife protection. The Japan International Coopera- tion Agency (JICA) as well is carrying out projects for the wildlife protection.

12-1-6 Measures for Conservation of Marine Environment

 (1) Outline

  The oceans, which constitute three-fourths of the entire surface of the earth, contain 90% of the world's water resources. They are important places for living things for production and also indispensable elements for maintenance of all life, such as bringing about impacts on the climate while interacting with the atmosphere.
  On the other hand, man has used the various properties and resources of the oceans, but it is now an important task to protect the marine environment as various forms of pollution have proliferated in recent years. The full picture of global marine pollution is not yet clear, because the well-surveyed seas are preferentially distributed in those enclosed seas surrounded by developed countries, such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, where generation of red tides spreads and pollution by heavy metals and other hazardous substances proliferate. Also in the open seas, oil pollution by tankers and other vessels is observed. Massive spills in accidents involving huge tankers and large-scale crude oil spills in the Gulf war in 1991 produced grave impacts on the marine environment, once again appealing to world opinion about importance of conserving the marine environment.

 (2) Measures

  Marine pollution is associated with such problems as the inflow of pollutants from the land, discharge of oil and so forth from ships on the seas and waste disposal. As measures to prevent marine pollution, international cooperation has been actively promoted, such as enact- ment of conventions in which the International Maritime Organization (IMO) played the leading role, and each country has developed measures against marine pollution.
  Japan streamlined domestic laws, such as revisions in the Law Relating to the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disaster. Japan became a signatory to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) in 1980 and the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the Interna- tional Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78 Convention) in 1989.
  As regards the MARPOL 73/78 Convention, the body and the regulations for the prevention of pollution by oil (Annex I) were put into force internationally in October 1983 with the inclusion of Japan, the regulations for the control of pollution by noxious liquid substances in bulk (Annex II) in April 1987, the regulations for the prevention of pollution by garbage from ships (Annex V) in December 1988, and the. regulations for the prevention of pollution by harmuful substances carried by sea in packaged froms, or freight containers, portable tanks or road and rail tank wagons (Annex III) in July 1992. The IMO continues to strive for an early effectuation of the regulations for the prevention of pollution by sewage from ships (Annex IV) with no prospects at present for coming into effect.
  The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dump- ing of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) was adopted in November 1972 and put into effect in August 1975. The convention was ratified by Japan in October 1980 and put into force for the country in November of the same year. Furthermore, the 15th Consutative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the Convention held in November 1992 continued to study the "Phasing out sea disposal of industrial waste" resolved at the 13th Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties held in November 1990. The 15th Meeting also discussed long-term strategies of this convention.
  As regional endeavors for the prevention of marine pollution, the Liaison meeting for the Conservation of Environment of the Sea of Japan was held at the Environment Agency, attended by delegates from the local governments concerned, in September 1992, whilst United Nations Environment Programme is making a study of the North-west Pacific in an attempt to formulate joint action programme as one of the regional sea programme to be carried out by the countries concerned for the conservation of environment of closed seas surrounded by more than one country. Furthermore, the Convention for a North Pacific Marine Sience Organization (PICES) adopted by Japan, the United States, China and the Soviet Union (then) in December 1990 was put into force in March 1992 with the purpose of promoting oceanics in the North Pahific and exchanges of relevant information, and its first annual meeting held in October of the same year discussed at its Marine Environmental Quality committee and three other committees the way international cooperation should be in future and other subjects.
  International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness Responses and Co-operation (OPRC Convention), the work of which began after an accident in which massive oil flowed out of the Exxon Valdez in March 1989 was adopted in November 1990. Furthermore, the large-scale crude oil spill caused by the Gulf war since January 1991, once again appealed that the international co-operation is important for the environmental recovery.
  The Ministry of Transport is promoting the development of a required domestic system for an early conclusion of the convention and the OSPAR Program for the establishment of a regional prevention and elimination system for the ASEAN seas. As part of this promotion, the ministry, held the second OSPAR Collaborative Conference in Djakarta in November 1992.

12-1-7 Trans Boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes

 (1) Outline of Problems

  Trans boundary movement of hazardous wastes was routinely done in regions where many countries lie close by and there is brisk commercial traffic as Europe. After an explosion at an Italian pesticide plant (1976), the nearby soil which had been polluted by dioxin was found missing in 1982 and later discovered in France (the Seveso case in which the polluted soil was moved out). With this case as a turning point, concern was expressed and the European Community (EC) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) began institutionalization of counter measures.
  Furthermore in the latter half of the 1980s, as was the case with the KOKO case involving the dumping of discarded transformers containing PCB from Italy, Norway and other countries, there were many cases in which environmental pollution took place in developing countries as hazardous wastes had been exported from developed countries to developing countries. As one of the causes of those inci- dents, it is conceivable that hazardous substances were difficult or costly to dispose in developed countries, and were apt to be exported to developing countries where the controls were more lenient and the disposal costs cheaper. There has been an increasing recognition that the whole issue requires responses in a global perspective.

 (2) Measures

  Under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Program, the Basel Convention on the Control of the Trans Boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal was adopted in March 1989 and came into effect in May 1992.
  The problem of transfrontier movements of hazardous wastes was taken up as an important global environmental issue at the Earth Summit held in 1992 in Brazil and the importance of efforts against this problem was pointed out in the Agenda 21 as well.
  Based on the recognition that Japan should become a contracting party to the Basel Convention early, the country has studied legislation in response to the convention, as a result of which the 125th Extraordi- nary Session of the National Diet passed the Law concerning Regulation of Exports and Imports, Etc. of Specified Hazardous Wastes, Etc. (as presented by the Government to the 123rd Session of the National Diet), and it was promulgated on December 16, 1992.
  This is a law intended to implement at home the provisions of the Basel Convention and it is intended to control exports and imports as well as transportation and disposal of specified hazardous wastes (which mean hazardous wastes designated by the Basel Convention, etc., as those which fall into the objects of their controls) to protect the human health and the conservation of environment for living. The principal contents of the law follow:
 (A) The Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency; Minister of Health and Welfcre, and Minister of International Trade and Industry are to decide upon necessary basic matters and announce them in order to facilitate smooth enforcement of the conven- tion.
 (B) To require approval of the Minister of International Trade and Industry of exports and imports of the specified hazardous wastes under the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law.
 (C) In the Minister of International Trade and Industry' granting approval of exports, the Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency is to confirm certain cases from the viewpoint of the prevention of environmental pollution, and the Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency may state his opinions on approval of imports.
 (D) The Minister of International Trade and Industry is to issue documents certifying permission of tfansfers, in which certain specified matters are to be entered, to those who have been granted export or import approval. In transportation or disposal of the specified hazard- ous wastes, for which the movement documents have been issued, those who have been issued the documents are required to carry them.
 (E) Where exports and imports, transportation or disposal of the specified hazardous wastes have not been properly conducted, the Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry (as for wastes falling under the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, the three ministers of state, including the Minister of Health and Welfcre) may order those who have committed such conducts to make collection or take measures for proper disposal, etc.
  Moreover, the same 125th Session of the National Diet passed the Law for the amendment of the Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law and it was promulgated on December 16, 1992. With this revision, those who import wastes are now liable to properly dispose of the wastes on their own responsibility. In addition, a system of confirmation by the Minister of Health and Welfare for exports of wastes and a system of permission by the same minister for imports of wastes were established.

12-1-8 Prevention of Desertification

 (1) Outline of Issues

  According to the definition in the Agenda 21 adopted during the Earth Summit in June 1992, "desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, in- chuding climatic variations and human activities." In this definition, "land" meaus the conception of soil water sources, land surface and vegetation, and "degradation," implies reduction of resource potential by one or a combination of processes acting on the land, such as water erosion, sedimentation by those agents, long-term reduction in the amount or diversity of natural vegetation, land salinization and so forth. According to the UNEP assessment in 1991, the areas affected by desertification account for about one quarter of the total land area of the world, and about 70% of the total drylands, measuring about 3.6 billion hectares, and desertification affects about one sixth of the world' s poputation.
  Presumably, the main causes consist of drops in soil fertility due to overgrazing and the shortening of the period in which cultivation is suspended beyond the renewability of grassland, the excessive collection of fuelwood, and rises in the concentrations of minerals in farmland due to inappropriate irrigation. Against that background, there are social and economic factors, such as poverty of rural residents and population increases in developing countries, making the issue of desertification all the more complex.

 (2) Measures

  Taking the opportunity of a drought begun in 1968 in the Sahel area at the southern end of Sahara, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) took the initiatives in organizing the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) in 1977 as part of endeavors against desertification. Furthermore, the 47th United Nations General Assembly, based on the Agenda 21 adopted at the Earth Summit, resolved to set up an intergovernmental negotiating committee to draft a convention to combat desertification. Following these actions, an organizational session sat in Junuary 1993 and decided on the organiza- tion, schedule, etc. of the negotiating conferences.
  Japan is now taking measures against desertification in the following manner in a perspective of afforestation and farming at the drylands:
  Government Level
  * Surveys, such as on the development of water sources to cope with desertification in the basin of the Niger River.
  * Joint international studies at the Takla Makan Desert in China
  * Surveys on forest rehabilitation technology
  * Joint Japanese-Chinese studies on interaction of the land sur- face and the atmosphere in the basin of the Heihe River
  * Development of water retaining materials for land improvement (Egypt) Nongovernmental Level
  * Cooperation in afforestation in Africa by the Sahel Society and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

12-1-9 Efforts against Environmental Pollution in Developing Countries

  In developing Countries, deforestation and desertification are in progress against the background of poverty and population pressures, etc., while air pollution, water pollution and other kinds of environmen- tal pollution are becoming serious. Moreover, it has become clear with the end to the Cold War that serious environmental problems arose in East European countries and the Soviet Union (by then) which slighted environmental conservation measures under the planned economy sys- tem. Environmental pollution problems have thus arisen everywhere in the world, and Environmental Pollution problems in developing coun- tries can no longer be said as those limited to specific regions from the global point of view.
  However, many of these developing countries are not possessed of economic, technical, human or institutional bases to tackle the environmental pollution problems, and the cooperation of industrialized countries, etc., is indispensable in addition to their own endeavors in pushing effective countermeasures.
  In these situations, the Council of Ministers for Global Environ- mental Conservation of Japan has taken up environmental pollution problems in developing countries as an issue against which international efforts must be made, and the country has positively tackled with them through official development assistance, etc. (Ref. Section 4 "Coopera- tion with Devepoling Countries, Etc. against Environment Pollution).

12-2 Endeavors of International Organizations

12-2-1 Achievement of the Earth Summit

 (1) Outline of the Earth Summit

  Against the background of rises in interest worldwide in global environmental problems, the "United Nations Conference on Environ- mental and Development (UNCED/Earth Summit)" was held in June 1992 in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil with the purpose of integrating environ- ment and development to realize sustainable development, The Earth Summit was also significant in that it marked the 20th anniversary of the "United Nations Conference on the Human Environment" held in 1972 which was the first international conference to discuss environmen- tal problems.
  Just as its name implies, the Earth Summit was the largest international conference, attended by delegates from almost all coun- tries in the world (about 180 countries), heads of state or government fror about 100 countries and approximately 10,000 members of govern- ment delegations. Also a parallel meeting of non-governmental organi- zations (NGO's) has been attended by about 24,000 represoutatives from all over the world incleeding Japan.
  The Earth Summit adopted the "Rio Declaration on Environment and Development" setting forth action principles of people and States, the "Agenda 21" and the "the Statement of Forest Principles." In addition, the "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change" and the "Convention on Biological Diversity", which had been separetely negotiated, were opened for the signing through the Earth Summit, and more than 150 countries signed each of the conventions.

 (2) Outline of the Achievement

 (a) Rio Declaration on Environment and Developmet

  A declaration to establish international principles on environment and development. Consisting of a preamble and 27 principles, it pre- scribes human being's rights concerning sustainable development, har- mony with nature, equitable development for present and future genera- tions, the establishment of global partnership, etc. (Table 12-2-1).

Table 12-2-1 Composition of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Table 12-2-1 Composition of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

 (b) Agenda 21

  Concrete action programs for the integration of environmental and developmental concerns for the 21st century. They are composed of a Preamble, (A) Social and Economic Dimensions, (B) Conservation and Management of Resources for Development, (C) Strengthening the Role of Major Groups, and (D) Means of Implementation. Prescribed in the agenda are programs for the protection of the atmosphere, prevention of deforestation, that of desertification, concervation of the biological diversity, that of freshwater resources, and environmentally sound management of wastes, etc. as sectoralissnes, as well as financial resources and mechanisms, transfer of technology international institu- tional arrangements and international legal instruments and mecha- nisms as means of implementation (Table 12-2-2).

Table 12-2-2 Contents of AGENDA 21

Table 12-2-2 Contents of AGENDA 21

 (c) the Statement of Forest Principles

  Made up a preamble and 15 principles, the statement, the first of its kind ever issude in the world, sets forth principles for the manage- ment, conservation and sustainable development of forests to provide for their multiple and complementary functions and uses.
  The outlines of two conventions opened at the Earth Summit for the signing follow:

 a) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  With the purpose of fulfiling the stabilization of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, this convention sets an interna- tional framework to cope with climate change.

 b) Convention on Biological Diversity

  This convention is intended for the conservation of the biological diversity, sustainable use of biological elements and a fair and equitable distribution of gains from use of genetic resources.

 (3) Follow-up Efforts

  At the Summit Meeting of Major Industrialized Countries held in July 1992 in Munich immediately following the Earth Summit, the leaders of the seven industrialized countries urged all other states to take actions for the conservation of global environment, including the follow-up of the Earth Summit, etc., keeping the momentum that rose at the Earth Summit (Ref. Section 2-4).
  Moreover, the 47th United Nations General Assembly discussed the follow-uzp of the Earth Summit, and (A) agreed upon the organiza- tion etc. of the "Commission on Sustainable Development" and the role of the commission of monitoring progress of the Agenda 21 and the integration of environmental and developmental concerns and studying reports submitted by member states on activities for the implementa- tion of the Agenda 21, (B) agreed to establish the "Jntergovermental Negotiating Committee for the Elaboration of an International Conven- tion to Combat Desertification" with the target of completing the pact by June 1994, and (C) resolved to hold a special session of the United Nations General Assembly on environment and development by 1997 at the latest.
  Based on these resolutions, the "Organizational Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the Elaboration of an International Convention to Combat Desertification" sat to initiate negotiations on the pact in January 1993. In the meantime, the "Commis- sion on Sustaiinable Development" was established in February of the same year and it was scheduled to hold its first meeting in June.

 (4) Japan's Contribution toward the Earth Summit

  Japan has made positive efforts for the formation of a consensus at the Earth Summit since its preparatory stage. Japan has positively participated in preparatory meetings for the Earth Summit, negotiating conferences for the Framework Convention on Climate Change, those for the Convention on Biological Diversity, the "G7 Environment Ministers Meeting," the "Second Ministerial Conference of Developing Countries on Environment and Development" and other international conferences. Japan also played host to the "Environment Congress for Asia and the Pacific," playing a leading role in coordinating policies of the countries in this region. In April 1992, Japan cooperated with other nations in holding the "Eminent Person Meeting on an Financing Global Environment" to promote discussions on the way financial cooperation should be for the solution of global environmental issues.
  A Japanese Govenment delegation led by the then Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency Kishiro Nakarura attended the Earth Summit. Although Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa was not able to attend the world conference, an address by him was distributed at the conference as an official record, in which he expressde Japan's determination to play as important role in the conservation of global environment, declaring that the country has a target of raising official development assistance in the field of environment to a level of between ¥900 million and ¥1 trillion over a period of five years begin- ning fiscal 1992.
  On june 5, Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency Nakamura delivered an address representing the Government in which he stated the conservation of environment and economic develop- ment are compatible as viewed from Japan's experiences in the past and made a pledge for Japan to make maximun efforts for the solution of global warming and other global environmental problems.
  Furthermore, Japan on June 13, 1992 signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Cange and the Convention on Biological Diversity to make clear that Japan will make endeavors for the conservation of global environment, joining other countries contracting to the two conventions.
  As for international efforts for the follow-up of the Earth Summit as well, Minister of State, Director-General of the Environment Agency Nakamura attended the 47th United Nations Genaral Assembly, where he deliverde an address in its general debate session on the Earth Summit. Japan made positive efforts to contribute toward international efforts to follow up achievement of the Earth Summit.

12-2-2 Activities of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Etc.

  Following the U. N. Human Environment Conference held in Stockholm in 1972, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established to comprehensively coordinate environmetal activities within the U. N. syster and broadly cooperate with other international organizations, governments and non-governmental organi- zations.
  The programs carried out by the UNEP are roughly classified into three types--environmental managements, environmental assess- ments and suppor measures. Japan has been taking part in UNEP since its establishment as a member of its Governing Council. Japan has made significant contributions, such as the offer of $8 million in contributions to the Environmental Fund in 1992 (the world's third biggest donor following the United States and United Kingdom).
  UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre (UNEP/ IETC), an organization of UNEP, was formally established in October 1992 in Osaka city and Shiga prefecture as the first UN organization in Japan to deal with environmental issues.
  The Centre is dedicated to the transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries and countries with economies in transition by means of providing training and consulting services, carrying out research, constructing a database of envirosmental infor- mation, and accumulating and dissminating related information with a special focus on environmentally sustainable management of big cities (Osaka Centre) and freshwater lakes/reservoir basins (Shiga Centre).
  The Centre was proposed to establish as the Japan's contribution to the global environmental conservation by the then Prime Minister Kaihu at the Houston Summit in July 1990, and was approved for its establishment at the Governing Council at its sixteenth session in May 1991.

12-2-3 Activities of the Organization for Econoric Cooperation and Development (OECD)

  The OECD is an international cooperation body among industrial- ized countries in the field of economy. It has 24 countries as its members and its highest decision-making organ is the Council, which has a Ministerial-level meeting once a year.
  In the history of the OECD, environmental issues had originally been handled by the Committee for Science and Technology Policy (CSTP). Reflecting the increasing world-wide interest in environmental affairs in the late 1960s, however, the Environmental Committee was established to deepen the OECD's activities on environment, The Envi- ronment Committee, which had been very active since its entablishment, was restructured in March 1992 into the Environment Policy Committee (EPOC).
  At the EPOC, work is undertaken for those issues which are important for member countries in formulating their respective environ- mental policies, Some of the results are adopoed at the Council as OECD Decisions or OECD Recommendations, while are published in the form of reports,
  In recent years, other Committees of the OECD are dealing with environmental issues from their respective perspectives, Joint work between the EPOC and other Committes has been increasing, such as with the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) for guidelines on development assistance and environment, with the Trada Committer for guidelines on trade and environment and with the Fiscal Affairs Com- mittee for taxation and environment. The EPOC meets at Ministerial- level approximately once in five years. In January 1991, the Fourth Environment Ministers Meeting agreed on an "OECD Environmental Strategy for the 1990s", which is based on three pillars of work: Integra- tion of environment and economic decision-making, in particular by the promotion of the use of economic instruments as well as the develop- ment and diffusion of environmental indicators; Improving environmen- tal performance at home (by, inter alia, commencing environmental performance reviews of member countries; International copperation (Strengthening of environmental assistance to non-member countries as well as actively addussing global environmental issues). As for the environmental performance reviews mentioned above, several countries including Japan are sheduled to be revilwed in 1992 and 1993 as the pilot phase.

12-2-4 Environmental Issues at Economic Summits

  Environmental issues have been taken up in the Economic Decla- rations issude at the successive meetings of the leaders of the seven major industrialized countries since the Ottawa Summit in 1981. It is one of the outstanding features of the Summit that global environmental problems have been positioned as an important issue since the Arche Summit.
  The Munich Summit held in July 1992 upon the heel of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED/Earth Summit) defined the Earth Summit as historic in that it raised con- sciousness of tasks of combatting global environmental problems and it gathered momenta for the ongoing process of formulating wordwide parthership on environment and developing. Asserting that prompt and concrete actions are required for the fulfilment of comitments against climate change, those for the protection of forests and seas, conserva- tion of marine resources and maintenance of the biological diversity, the Summit made an appeal to all countries, industrialized as well as developing, for policies and resources to be directed toward sustainable development to protect benefits for present and future generations. The seven leaders also urged other countries to join them to sustain the momenta that gathered at the Earth Summit and take the following actions.
 (a) To make efforts to ratify the Framework Convention on Climate Change by the end of 1993.
 (b) To formulate and make public nationa action plans by the end of 1993 as opined at the UNCED.
 (c) To make efforts to protect species and their habitats.
 (d) To extend additional financial and technical assistance to devel- oping countries for sustainable development with official development assistance through an increase of the fund of the International Develo- prent Association (IDA) and take steps to bring about benefits world- wide through the Global Environment Facility (GEF) by establishing the GEF as a permanent fund supply mechanism.
 (e) To establish the "Commission on Sustainable Development" at the United Nations General Assembly in 1992 for the commission to play an important role in monitoring the implementation of the Agenda 21.
 (f) To establish an international process to examine the principles on forests, carry out dialogs early on appropriate arrangements inter- sationally agreed as feasible on the basis of the implementation of these principles, and expand international assistance.
 (g) To improve further the monitoring of global environment through effective use of data from space satellites and other earth observation programs.
 (h) To promote development and wider use of energy and environ- mental technologies, including proposals for programs of innovative technologies.
 (i) To ensure that an international conference be convened at the earliest possible stage on fishery resources crossing between the 200- mile economic zones and staddling and highly migratory fish stocks.

12-3 International Cooperation under Other Treaties and Agreements

 (1) On the Antarctic Treaty

  Japan in September 1992 signed the Protocol on the Conservation of the Antarctic Environment which was adopted in October 1991 as a comprehensive framework for the environmental protection of the Antarctic Continent against the backdrop of emphasis increasingly placed upon the importance of building global environmental conserva- tion system.
  In addition, an Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting held in Italy (Venice) in November 1992 on the basis of the Antarctic Treaty, which came into effect in June 1961, decided to hold its next conference in Japan in the spring of 1994.

 (2) On the World Heritage Convention

  The Convention for the Protection of the World Culture and Nature Heritage (World Heritage Convention) was adopted in Novem- ber 1972 and put into effect in December 1975. Japan accepted the convention in June 1992, and it came into force in the country in September of the same year.
  In October 1992, Japan recommended 2 areas, Shirakami- mountains and Yaku Island to the World Heritage Committee as the of nature heritage on the basis of this treaty following coordination among the Environment Agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Forestry Agency and some other Government depart- ments concerned.

 (3) Activities Based on U. S.-Japan Environmental Protection Cooperation Agreement

  The ministerial-level Joint Planning and Coordination Committee has held meetings since the agreement was reached in 1975. In 1989, the ninth meeting was held in Washingtos, D. C. Cooperation in being stepped up in 15 projects.

 (4) Activities Under U. S.-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR)

  The 14th plenary session of the U. S. -Japan Conference on the Development and Utilization of Natural Resources established in 1964 was held in Seattle in July 1993. The specialists' groups on conservation, recreation and parks have held 15 meetings.

 (5) Activities Based on U. S. -Japan Science and Technology Agreement

  A new U.S.-Japan scientific and technical cooperation agreement was concluded in June 1988. In Appendix 1 to this agreement, seven major fields of cooperation are addressed, including earth science and the global environment. On the basis of this agreement, 47 projects were agreed and joint studies were begun.

 (6) EC-Japan High-Level Consultations on the Environment

  In a Joint Declaration on relations between the European Commu- nity and its member states and Japan in the Hague in July 1991, the need for cooperation between Japan and the EC in the environment fields was stressed. Based on this declaration, the First Conference of Japan-EC High-level Consultations of the Environment was held in Tokyo in January 1992, and the conference discussed concrete cooperation pro- jects. The second conference was held in Brussels in December, and steady progress is being made in cooperation between Japan and the EC.

 (7) Activities Based on Germany-Japan Science and Technology Agreement

  A panel on technology for environmental protection under the Japanese-German Technical Cooperation Agreement concluded in 1974 was held in Tokyo in 1991 to exchange views on five themes on coopera- tion.

 (8) Activities Based on the Japan-China Scientific and Technological Cooperation Agreement

  Based on the Japan-China Scientific and Technological Coopera- tion Agreement concluded in 1980, the Sixth Meeting of the Japanese- Chineses Joint Commitee on Cooperation in Science and Technology was held in Tokyo in June 1992. The two countries agreed to continue "Study on the Prevention of Environmental Pollution such as Air Pollution" and other existing projects. The two countries also agreed to intiate "Acid Rain Study in East Asia" and some other new projects.

 (9) Activities Based on the Japan-Republic of Korea Scientific and Technological Cooperation Agreement

  On the basis of the Japan-Republic of Korea Scdentific and Technological Cooperation Agreement concluded in 1985, the Sixth Meeting of the Japanese-Korean Joint Committee on Cooperation on Science and Technology was held in Februaly 1993 in Tokyo. The two countries agreed to continue "Cooperation on Acid Precipitation Suevey" and other existing projects. The two countries also agreed to launch "A Study on Smog Phenomena and Transport Model in Urban Area" and some other new projects.

 (10) Some of Major Activities Based on Science and Technology Agreements with Other Countries

  Based on the Canada-Japan Science and Techsology Agreement concluded in 1986, the 4th Meeting was held in Tokyo in October 1992, where environment experts from the two countries carried out active discussions on various issues of common concern.
  On the basis of the Soviet-Japan Science and Technology Agree- ment concluded in 1973, the First Meeting of the Russia-Japan Science and Technology Committee was held in Moscow in February 1993, and the delegates from the two countries agreed upon the theme of the "Reconstruction of Global Environmental Changes in Lake Baikal" and other subjects for joint studies.

12-4 Environmental Cooperation with Developing Countries.

  In developing countries, forests and other vegetation decrease or their qualities degenerate due to population pressure and poverty in rural areas. In this conjunction, they are confronted with the destruction of natural resources, the degradation of their qualities and other prob- lems, such as soil erosion, the depletion of water sources, ongoing desertification and decreasing wildlife. Also due to the increase and concentration of population, especially in urban areas, problems are arising up on the living environment. Severe environmental pollution and nature disruption, which has surpassed the Japanese experiences, are observed due to rapid industrialization and other factors. While they are confronted with those conventional environmental issues, they have to cope with environmental issues common to the entire earth, such as the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming. However, these countries are so short of funds, technology, personnel and other resources that it is difficult for them to fully cope with these issues. Therefore, it has become essential for developed countries to extend support to them. It is also important to give support to central and eastern European countries where environmental measures have been neglected in the past.
  Given those circumstances, requests for cooperation from Japan are rapidly rising. In response, Japan agreed to strengthen its support at the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, as a pillar of international contribution in the international society in which interdependence advances rapidly. While taking advantage of its experi- ences in achieving economic growth and environmental polution mea- sures, Japan is strengthening cooperation in the environmental fields, particularly for technical cooperation. As a result, Japan had provided ¥407.5 billion ODA in the environmental fields for three years from FY 1989 to FY 1991 and accomplished its commitment, made at the Arches Summit in 1989, to expand and strengthen up to the approximate amount of ¥300 billion in that terms. As mentioned above, ODA in the field of environment has been rapidly expanding as a whole.
  At the same time, related ministries and agencies are trying to develop a system in which environmental factors will be taken into consideration in offering cooperation in the environmental fields and in extending development assistance.
  It was agreed in the "Agenda 21" adopted at the Earth Summit in June 1992 to strengthen assistance to developing countries through technology transfer, improvement of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and other means. Japan, in the form of an announcement by the Prime Minister, made a pledge to exert efforts to expand and strengthen official development assistance (ODA) in the field of environ- ment to around ¥900 million to ¥1 trillion during 5-year period starting from FY 1992.
  "Strengthening International Environmental Cooperation", sub- mitted by the Central Council for Environmental Pollution Control and the Nature Conservation Council stressed the importance of strengthen- ing assistance to developing countries in the fields of environment. Reports subsequently issued by the Economic Council and the Industrial Structure Council likewise emphasized the importance of aid in the environmental fields.
  "Japan's Official Development Assistance Charter" decided upon by the Cabinet on June 30, 1992 as a guideline of Japan's official development assistance defines envimonmental conservation as one of the basic philosophy in implementing ODA, and Japan resolved to help realize sustainable development on a global dimension through its assistance to developing countries in helping themselves. As a result, it has now become a task to materialize these policies by establishing policy dialogs with developing countries and attempting to strengthen efforts to discover appropriate projects.
  In fiscal 1992, Japan carried out various projects in cooperation with developing countries in the environmental fields, some of which are as follows:

12-4-1 Official Development Assistance and Other Forms of Cooperation

 (1) Surveys and Exploration of Projects

  In expanding and strengthening assistance in the environmental fields, Japan has been trying to discover appropriate projects to be undertaken in developing countries by attempting to accurately grasp the situation of environmental problems and the socioeconomic condi- tions, constituting their backgrounds, and to deepen policy dialogs with them. As part of this attempt, the Government sent a policy dialog survey mission on the environment to India in January l993 to carry out discussions with the Indian Government agencies concerned and aid agencies concerned on a broad range of issues. This followed a mission sent to Southeast Asia in 1989 and another one to eastern Africa in 1991. In the meantime, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), in cooperation with the ministries and agencies concerned, sent in Novem- ber 1992 a project formation survey team to China primarily on Study on Air Pollution Control Plan for Linzhou City in China, and it was followed by a project formation survey team sent to Egypt in December of the same year. The JICA positively put into action other survey plans elsewhere to discover and formulate other projects.

 (2) Development Surveys

  Shown on Table 12-4-1 are some of the major development survey projects carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in FY 1992 for the formulation of master plans, etc. in developing countries for the environmental conservation.

Table 12-4-1 Development Study Projects

Table 12-4-1 Development Study Projects

 (3) Dispatch of Experts

  In cooperation with ministers and agencies concerned, as well as local governments and other organizations, the Japan International Cooperation Agency carried out a program to send experts to extend technical assistance to the administrative organs and research institutes in developing countries. The dispatching of experts in the environmental field has been rapidly increasing. For example, a total of 85 experts in the field with which the Environment Agency was concerned were sent to Thailand, China, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea and some other countries in FY 1992 (Fig. 12-4-1). Requests from developing countries for the dispatching of environmental experts have been increasing in recent years, and it is now an important task for Japan to train and secure experts in the field to send to those countries. The Japan Interna- tional Cooperation Agency, ministries and agencies concerned, and other organizations concerned are now making attempts to train such pernonnels in cooperation with local governments. Systems have also been launched by some of these bodies whereby appropriately-trained personnel are registered so that they may quickly respond to the requ- ests from developing countries for the dispatching of such personnel.

Fig. 12-4-1 Trends in the dispatch of specialists in the environmental sector (recommended by Environment Agency)

Fig. 12-4-1 Trends in the dispatch of specialists in the environmental sector (recommended by Environment Agency)

 (4) Acceptance of Traineens

  There are many developing countries faced with the problem of shortage of administrators and engineers possessed of special knowl- edge and experiences in the environmental conservation as a whole. In order to help them cope with this problem, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), in cooperation with the ministries and agencies concerned, local governments and other organizations, carry- ing out a program of giving group training. In FY 1992, the JICA conducted special country-by-country training programs for East Eur- opean countries, Brazil and some other countries, in addition to group training in environmental administration, environmental engineering (Water Pollution Control), environmental engineering (Air Pollution Control) and some other areas. In response to requests from developing countries, training courses tailored to the needs of individual nations are also opened occasionally (Table 12-4-2 and Table 12-4-3).
  Also increasing is the number of trainees coming over to Japan under arrangements made by the World Bank and other international organizations.

Table 12-4-2 Group Training in Environmental Fields

Table 12-4-2 Group Training in Environmental Fields

Table 12-4-3 Acceptance of Individual Trainees in Environment Fields

Table 12-4-3 Acceptance of Individual Trainees in Environment Fields

 (5) Project-Type Technical Cooperation

  Project-Type technical cooperation, which combines the dispatch- ing of experts, acceptance of trainees and other means, is also carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency in cooperation with the ministries and agencies concerned. Shown on Table 12-4-4 are some of the major projects being carried out. Additional assistance is also given some of the projects the formal cooperation periods of which are expired, depending upon the needs.
  In response to requests for project-type technical cooperation, a basic survey team on the environment center was sent to Chile in FY 1992.

Table 12-4-4 Major Project Type Technical Cooperations

Table 12-4-4 Major Project Type Technical Cooperations

  * represents a project for which research and/or training facilities have been constructed with grant aid.

 (6) Roles of Local Governments, Etc.

  Local governments and other organizations which have ample experience and skilled manpower in the environmental sector play an important role in rendering envimonmental cooperation, such as the dispatching of experts and acceptance of trainees. In FY 1991,' local governments dispatched a total of 26 environmental experts.

 (7) Cooperation with Grant Aid

  A number of cooperation projects were carried out with grant aid. Some of which were combined with project-type technical coopera- tion for installation and management of various facilities so that cooper- ation with grant aid could be more effective (Table 12-4-5).

Table 12-4-5 Major Grant Aid Cooperation Projects in Environment Fields

Table 12-4-5 Major Grant Aid Cooperation Projects in Environment Fields

 (8) Cooperation with ODA Loans

  Aas proved to be highly effective in Japan for reconstruction of its war-devastated economy, loan assistance extended for construction of economic infrastructures and other similar projects displays significant effects in helping developing countries in realizing sustainable develop- ment and achieving economic takeoffs.
  It is the same in the enviroment fields, and Japan is positively providing ODA loans the particular areas.
  The projects for which ODA loans are provided include construc- tion of water treatments, sewage systems, afforestation and air pollu- tion control. Grant aid or technical cooperation alone cannot easily meet the financial and technical needs of these projects because of the large scales of them.
  As shown on Table 12-4-6, ODA loans were given for various projects in the environmental field in FY 1992, beginning with three projects being carried out in Brazil at a combined sum of ¥99 billion.
  In addition, twt-step loan arrangements were concluded with Indonesia and Thailand in FY 1992 for the purposes of preventing industrial pollution of private enterprises for the first time.

Table 12-4-6 Major Loans in Environmental Fields

Table 12-4-6 Major Loans in Environmental Fields

 (9) Basic Surveys, Etc.

  With a view to carrying out these projects in a smooth manner, the ministries and agencies concerned conducted surveys of environmen- tal problems in developing countries and their backgrounds.

 (10) Cooperation through International Organizations

  Cooperation through various international organizations is important from the viewpoints of global environmental issues which bilateral cooperation alone cannot sufficiently cope with and the formu- lation of guidelines common to the countries concerned for joint endeavors is essential again. It is also necessary for the countries and fields about which sufficient information is not available to the Japanese officials concerned.
  In FY 1992, Japan contributed ¥1,177 million to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), which is playing the central role in combating environmental problems, for its United Nations Environment Fund and Technical Cooperation Trust Fund for UNEP's International Environmental Cooperation Center. Japan also contribut- ed ¥1,468 million to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), which is making serious efforts for the conservation and sus- tainable use of tropical forests. Japan also contributed ¥3,475 million to the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which is conducting research on sustainable agriculture, for- estry and fisheries in developing countries on a global scale. Moreover, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and other multilateral aid organizations are strengthening endeavors in the environmental field (for instance, cases containing environmental elements account for 40% of the World Bank finances), and it is increasingly important to cooperate through these organizations in the environmental field. Japan contributed a total of ¥5,650 million to the World Bank (including a contribution to the Global Environmental Facility mentioned below) and the Asian Develop- ment Bank, both of which are playing increasingly important roles in the environmental field. Japan contributed ¥3 billion to the Core Fund (Global Environment Trust Fund) of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). In addition to US$10 million pledged before, the Core Fund, which was launched in 1991 under a coordinated arrangement of the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP to put into action a three-year pilot program with 1 billion SDR of the International Monetary Fund for efforts in developing countries against the issues of global warming, reduction in biological diversity, environmental deterioration of interna- tional waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Japan is also contributing funds to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and various other international bodies for environmental protection projects.

 (11) Cooperation with Government Funds Other than Official Development Assistance

  The World Bank and the Export-Import Bank of Japan in Sep- tember 1992 concluded an agreement to provide the Brazilian National Economic and Social Development Bank with a syndicated, united loan with a credit line of ¥6.5 billion. This loan is the second major loan of the Export-Import Bank of Japan for environment improvement pro- jects following the one loaned Mexico in June 1991 for a project to remove lead from gasoline. It is also significant as cooperation with Government funds other than official development assistance.

 (12) Cooperation for Environment in the Gulf Area

  The Gulf area has been brought face-to-fcce with a serious environmental problem since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 or especially since January 1991 when Iraq ran off crude oil and set fire to oil wells in Kuwait. Japan provided the countries facing the Gulf with emergency measures; and, following the conflict, sent experts of the Japan Disaster Relief Team and those of the Japan International Cooperation Agency. Japan also made contributions to international organizations. Some private bodies of Japan as well provided the countries concerned with various forms of assistance. In FY 1992, the Government held Seminar on Environment in the Middle East as a special training course primarily for engineers from the countries concerned. (Seven persons attended it.)

 (13) Cooperation for Environment in Eastern Europe

  Based on a pledge made by the then Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu on his trip to Eastern Europe in Jasuary 1991 of Japan's coopera- tion with the countries in the region plagued by serious environmental issues, the Japan International Cooperation Agency and other bodies are providing the countries concerned with technical assistanced. Japan accepted trainees from Eastern European countries in FY 1992. The country is also carrying out Study on an Intergrated Air Pollution Control Plan for Sajo Valley Area in the Republic of Hungary and on Study on Flue Gas Desulfurization for Melnic Power Station in Czechos- lovakia. Japan also contributed US$800,000 to the Regional Environ- mental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (Budapest) in FY 1992, following the same amount contributed in FY 1991.

12-4-2 Roles of the Private Secter

 (1) Roles of Businesses

  Many of the environment conservation technologies, such as environmental pollution systems, have been developed by private corpo- rations in response to regulations and guidances of the government, rising public awareness, and so on. They are also playing a significant role in the transfer of technology, including direct investments in developing countries. More than 40% of personnel sent overseas by Japanese companies are engaged in works concerned in one way or another with technology transfers, of whom nearly a half are providing the areas, where they are stationed, with information concerning countermaesures to environmental pollution (according to an Environ- ment Agency survey). However, Japan and other industrialized coun- tries were called upon at the Earth Summit for even more technology transfers, and it is a task for the coutry's private sector, as well as the State, to promote further technology transfers in the environment conservation fields.

 (2) Roles of Private Organizations

  Private Organizations are playing an important role in promoting environmental cooperation with developing countries and in promoting the spread of the importance of international cooperation. For example, international exchanges of skills and information with developing coun- tries have become andimportant task for the Japan Committee on the Global Environment established as a lateral arganization for each circle of Japanese society in fiscal 1991. The International Center for Envirtn- mental Technology Transfer, the International Lake Environment Committee, the Overseas Environmental Cooperation Center, the Orga- nization for Industrial Spiritual and Cultural Advancement Interna- tional (OISCA) and other bodies corporate for the public good, and the Japan International Volunteers' Center, the Buddhist Soto Sect Volun- teers' Society and other voluntary organizations carry out environment conservation projects ranging from the government level to the grass- roots level and hold symposia, lecture meetings and seminars. In addi- tion, there are many organizations energetically engaged in interna- tional cooperation in the environment areas. And, these activities are becoming increasingly active with subsidies granted non-governmental organizations by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, grants given private organizations out of the International Volunteer Savings administered by the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, and mounting inter- est of the people as a whole in international cooperation in the environ- ment fields.

 (3) Dept for Nature Swap

  The Debt for Nature Swap (DNS) is a system in which nongover- nmental organizations (NGOs) purchase unrecoverable debts of develop- ing countries and, instead of demanding the repayment of the debts, call on the respective governments to implement nature protection mea- sures, such as the conservation of tropical forests, utilizing their own currency. The Debt for Nature Swap (DNS) has in the late years drawn keen interest at international forums including the Summit Meeting of Major Industrialized Countries, and it is called in the Agenda 21 agreed upon at the Earth Summit a revolutionary new means of raising funds.
  In Japan, the subsidiary in the United States of The Bank of Tokyo, Ltd. and The Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank, Ltd. decided on DNS arrangements for the conservation of nature in the Philippines, Galapagos and some other areas. Furthermore, the Overseas Environ- mental Cooperation Center, Inc. (OECC) has built a DNS information network for the conservation of nature with the objective of smooth operation of the new arrangement.
  Prompted by these moves, Japan's economic organizations, pri- vate enterprises, banks and non-governmental organizations carrying out environmental protection activities at home showed keen interest in initiating actions under DNS arrangements.

12-4-3 Environmental Considerations in Official Development Assistance

 (1) Environmental Considerations in Official Development Assistance

  It is extremely important to consider the conservation of environ- ment in the areas where projects are to be undertaken under official development assistance (ODA) programs, and the Council of the Organi- zation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consecutive- ly issued in 1985 and 1986 recommendations concerning environmental impact assessments of development assistance projects. The Japanese Government at the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conser- vation agreed to place emphasis on the environment aspects in im- plementing ODA prtjects.
  In line with the trends. the Japan International Cooperation Agency formulated the Guideline for Environmental Impact Assess- ments Concerning Dam Construction in February 1990, and the Guide- line for Consideration for Environment in Socioeconomic Infrantructure Construction and Improvement Projects and the Guidelines for consider- ation for Environment Concerning Agricultural Development Studies between fiscal 1991 and fiscal 1992. Based on a guideline established in October 1989, the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund, which is charged with the granting of yen credits, is giving consideration to the envirtnmental facets of developmet projects to be carried out with yen credits. The OECF expanded a section in charge of environmental affairs and had its environment specialists participate in development study missions of the Japan International Cooperation Agency. It will be increasingly important to effctively implement the guidelines thus for- mulated.

 (2) Environmental Considerations in Overseas Corporate Ventures

  It is equally important for Japanese businesses operating abroad to give sufficient consideration for environment in the areas where they operate, and the Government, with understanding reached at the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation, is making attempts so that appropriate consideration may be given by them for environ- ment.
  As for Japanese companies planning to do busisess abroad, two- thirds replied in an Environment Agency survey that they would serious- ly consider environment of the areas where they would operate, and 40% of Japanese businesses already overseas have conducted environ- mental impact assessments, of which a half have carried out follow-up surveys. As seen in these figures, Japanese businesses in general are serious in giving consideration for environment of the areas where they operate. It should also be noted that the Japan Federation of Economic Organizations (Keizai Dantai Rengo-kai = Keidanren), the country's leading body of businessmen and industrialists, in April 1991 issude the Keidanren Charter on the Global Environment, in which 10 clauses are stipulated on consideration for environment, including the observance of environmental standards of the countries where Japanese businesses operate and further efforts for the conservation of environment.
  It is imperative that these efforts will continue to be made, and the Government as well has made studies on and investigations into consideration for environment by Japanese businesses planning to operate overseas.

 (3) Multilateral Consultations on Development Assistance

  The OECD'S Development Assistance Committee (DAC) has begun studying guidelines concerning development aid and environment in relation to natural disasters, agricultural chemicals, etc. This follows guidelines established in October 1991 for "Good Practices for Country Environmental Surveys and Strategies," "Good Practices for Environ- mental Impact Assessment of Development Projects." "Aid Agencies on Involuntary Displacement and Resettlement in Development Projects" and "Aid Agencies on Global Environmental Problems."

12-5 Surveys and Researches on Global Environment

  The follwing scientific activies were conducted under Compre- hensive Promotion Program for Global Environment Research, Monitoring and Technology Development for the FY 1992. (June 1992) and the Basic Plans for the Research and Development on Earth Science and Technology (August 1990), Etc.

12-5-1 Promotion of Surveys and Researches on Global Environment

 (1) Promotion of Surveys and Researches

  When it comes to problems on the global environment, the scale of subjects is greater than conventional environmental problems, the associated sectors are diversified and there remain many points which have yet to be clarified, such as mechanisms and impacts, so that there is the need to comprehensively promote surveys and research on the global environment. There is the need to take part in international research programs related to the global environment, such as Interna- tional Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and step up surveys and research.
  Based on these positions, research activities, such as those con- ducted with the Blobal Environment Research Program Fund were enhanced in order to promote them both multidisciplinarily and interna- tionally, under the cooperation of related national institutes and univer- sities in various scientific areas.
  In December 1992, "The Workshop on the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research" was held and the participants from the Asia-Pacific countries discussed the establishment of a regional net- work to promote collaborative research related to the global change among the countries.
  Futhermore, researh systems in universities were improved in the field of global environmental science through the establishment of Research Center for Carbon Recycling and Utilization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, and so forth.
  The major surveys and research conducted in fiscal 1992 are shown in Table 12-5-1.

Table 12-5-1 Magor Research and Survey Activities in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

Table 12-5-1 Magor Research and Survey Activities in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

 (2) Promotion of Technology Development

  For the purpose of mitigating global change and approaching "Sustainable Development", technology development, such an "pollutant treatment and reduction technology" and, "resources and energy effi- cient utilization" should be promoted.
  It should be ensured in developing a technology to arrest global environmental problems that it must not cause other environment problems.
  It is also important to promote development of technologies that are suitable for the natural and social conditions of developing coun- tries.
  Major technology developments made in fiscal 1992 are indicated in Table 12-5-2.

Table 12-5-2 Major Technology Developments in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

Table 12-5-2 Major Technology Developments in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

12-5-2 Monitoring and Surveillance of Global Environment

  Recognizing that global environment monitoring and surveillance include various areas, items, fields and measures, they were performed while taking part in and coordinating with some international monitor- ing Programs, such as the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the WMO/IOC All-World Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). The results and data were mutually exchanged among related agencies.
  Because of the needs for monitoring on the global scale, develop- ment of effective measurements, such as satellite instruments, were positively promoted.
  For the observation of the concentration of greenhouse gases, a observation post has been established on Hateruma Island in Okinawa Prefecture. Furthermore, a Global Station for GAW/Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN) has been established and the measurement was started on Minamitorishima (Marcus) Island.
  The major monitoring and surveillance activities conducted in FY 1992 include those shown in Table 12-5-3.

Table 12-5-3 Major Monitoring Activities in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

Table 12-5-3 Major Monitoring Activities in the Fields of Global Environment in FY 1992

12-6 Overseas Public Information

  Japan is possessed of much experience and technological capabil- ity in the field of environmental protection and now occupies an impor- tant position in the international community. As a result, Japan's actions for the global environment are drawing international attention.
  Therefore, it is believed to help the international community in understanding Japan's environment policy and help making contribution toward the international society if Japan dissminates information over- seas on her experiences of environmental pollution and knowledge acquired in the process of attempting to overcome it.
  From this point of view, the Environment Agency created the position Assistant Director for Overseas Public Relations in FY 1992 to strengthen overseas public information. The Agency also publishes such periodicals as "Quality of the Environment in Japan", "Environmental Research in Japan", and "Japan Environment Summary", and it also puts out various public information materials intended for dintribution abroad. These materials are distributed to foreign governments, interna- tional organizations, intellectuals and academics, the press, etc.
  The Environment Agency also took the initiatives to designate 1992 as the "Earth Year '92" with the objective of contributing toward the promotion of a new environment policy by disseminating informa- tion on achievement of the Earth Summit as widely as possible. Its main events included the "Earth Summit Seminars" held in a total of seven cities over the country in cooperation with the local autonomies con- cerned and other organizations. In each of the seminars, keynote addres- ses were delivered and discussions were held by officials of the minis- tries and agencies concerned, leaders of business and induntry, those of nongovernmental organizations and intellectuals. As a result, various constructive proposals were put forward for action for the Government, business circles and citizens to take for the environmental protection of this only one earth.
Chapter 13. Surveys and Research on Environment protection

13-1 Research by National Institute for Environmental Studies

13-1-1 Strengthening of Research System

  The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), estab- lished in 1974, was reorganized in July 1990, in order to incorporate natural environment conservation to the domain of its research, and to reinforce research associated with both global and local environments. The Environmental Training Institute was merged into the National Institute for Environmental Studies as the Environmental Training Center.
  In October 1990, the Center for Global Environment Research was established in the National Institute for Environmental Studies to support studies on the global environment and promote global environ- mental monitoring. In fiscal 1992, major reform of the facilities includ- ing Energy Center was made.
  As of the end of fiscal 1992, the institute was made up of two research groups, seven departments and three centers. The number of employees is 274.

13-1-2 Research Activities

 (1) Research Work

  In fiscal 1992, current researches were made on 137 subjects, special researches on 9 subjects and global environment researches with the Global Environment Research Program Budget on 40 subjects. The subjects of special researches made in fiscal 1992 are as follows:
 (A) Experimental studies on the health effects of air pollutants containing aiesel exhaust
 (B) Multiplier effects of chemical pollutants at ecosystem level in aquatic environments
 (C) Studies on countermeasures to various environmental pollution caused by the change of industrial structure and life style
 (D) Studies on aquatic ecosystem mechanism and environmental conservation in enclosed coastal seas
 (E) Studies on application of biotechnology to preservation of the environment and on evaluation of its effects
 (F) Characteristics of wetland ecosystems and their stability against environmental changes
 (G) Studies on exposure to halogenated organic compounds and its human health effects
 (H) Studies on lake environment index and nuisance picoplankton bloom
 (I) A study on stress and health effects due to environmental sounds and air pollution in highly urbanized areas

 (2) Environment Information Service

  Having developed the Comprehensive Data Base for Natural Environment Conservatdon in which information on properties of the atmosphere and water quality in the country is stored on file, the Environmental Information Center has made efforts to expand and sophisticate the data base by collecting documented information such as books and other materials at home and abroad. Of the data thus stored, the Center in October 1992 initiated the service of providing any inter- ested parties with information on the atmospheric environment and water quality through the Environmental Information Dissemination Center, Inc.
  The Environmental Information Center also continued to serve as the country's contact point with the International Referral System for Sources for Environmental Information (INFOTERRA) of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).

 (3) Support to Global Environment Research

  The Center for Global Environment Research acquired a super- computer in fiscal 1991 and strived to reinforce its research support system, including the holding of an information exchange and confer- ence of researchers on the global environment.

 (4) Monitoring of Global Environment

  The Center for Global Environmental Research continued its ofservation of the ozone layer in the stratosphere with ozone laser radars, measurement of nutrient salts, chlorophylls and other sub- stances in the oceans from regular livers, development of processing systems of data which will be collected by sensors installed on the Advanced Earth Observing Satellitj (ADEOS) scheduled to be launched in 1996, and measurement of greenhouse gases over Siberia by airplane.
  Monitoring Station-Hateruma-completed in fiscal 1991 on the Island of Hateruma in Okinawa Prefecture began its experimental monitoring of greenhouse gases and other otmospheric trace gases.

13-2 Surveys and Research on Environment Conservation

13-2-1 Surveys and Research at Present

  Studies on environment protection are broadly promoted by the State,local governments and the nongovernmental sector at present.
  In stepping up these studies, it is necessary for the State to work for close coordination among the related research institutions and researchers now that the related sectors of science and technology are broad and the research sectors are closely tied in with one another. For this reason, the Environment Agency appropriates in a lump sum the costs of researches and studies on the prevention of environmental pollution undertaken by the research and study institutions of the related ministries and agencies and others, and then allocates those funds for a comprehensive coordination of the surveys and researches which form the basis for promotion of national policy measures. In addition, the agency carries out surveys and research with the Coordina- tion Fund for Encouragement of Comprehensive Surveys and Research for Conservation of the Environment in order to efficiently take emer- gent actions.
  In regard to the development of large-scale and comprehensive technologies, or those for which there are particularly significant admin- istrative needs, or that of drastically new technologies which would encourage non-pollution, efforts are made for their promotion by organ- izing large-scale projects with the involvement of the private sector or the formulation of subsidization measures to the private sector.
  The environmental institutions of local governments carry out surveys and research which are closely tied in with the environmental administration of their respective areas, so that the Environment Agency continues to promote their activities.

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