White Paper

Quality of the Environment in Japan 1995

4. Spreading Knowledge about Wildlife Protection

  To enhance public awareness of wildlife protection, the 48th National Conference on Wildlife Protection was held in Miyagi Prefec-ture as a part of Bird Week activities. The Meeting for the Presentation on the Protection Activities of Wildlife was held to present the wildlife protection activities, conducted primarily at bird-loving model schools.

5. Promotion of Conservation and Management of Fishery Resources

  To promote conservation and management of fishery resources, in addition to the regulatory measures including the fishing capacity limitation through the Fisheries Law and the Fisheries Resources Protection Law and the catch limitation of protected rare aquatic fauna and flora, the following measures were implemented.
1) Holding the Annual Meeting on Propagation of Rare Fishes in Fresh and Brackish Waters attended by researchers of National Fish-eries Research Institutes and Prefectural Fisheries Experimental Sta-tions, to exchange information and knowledge about rare fresh and brackish water fish in Japan and to contribute to effective protection and cultivation of fish; research conducted by prefectural governments, consigned by the national government on the development of technology f or the breeding of rare fresh water fish and promoting the return of such fish to their natural habitats; data collection on the preservation of rare fishery fauna and flora.
2) Designation of Protected Waters in accordance with the Fisheries Resources Protection Law, and necessary control and research in order to protect and cultivate aquatic fauna and flora whose stock have decreased significantly.
3) Research on the entry of stocked sweetfish fry into agricultural waterways and drainage ways and the development of technology to prevent the entry of stocked fry into such areas and to promote the effective use of fishery resources.
4) Continuous application of the necessary regulations on sea turtle capture in accordance with the Prefectural Regulation for Fisheries Adjustment and the Instruction of the Sea-area Fisheries Adjustment Commission based on the Fisheries Law and th Fisheries Resources Protection Law to preserve sea turtles. New regulation of Ordinance of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to introduce necessary measures so as to preserve two species of sea turtle, three species of whale and the dugong. Grant assistance by the national government to projects undertaken by the prefectural governments to remove waste disposed such as plastic bags, to prevent poaching eggs and young turtles, and to preserve spawning areas and habitats for sea turtles, Research on the trace of marked sea turtles, sea turtle eating habits and hatching conditions. Research using satellite systems to specify their spawning areas around Japan. In addition, a project for returning Ryukyu sweetfish to their natural habitat.

Section5. Improving Facilities, etc. for Contact with Nature

1. Improving Facilities in Natural Park

  The people's demands for contact with nature are growing year-by-year. In order to achieve a relaxed, tasteful, and truly prosperous national life, it is necessary in the course of conserving a variety of natural environments to promote the improvement of core facilities in accordance with natural characteristics. The improvement system is as shown in Figure 12-5-1.

Fig. 12.5-1 System for Provision of Natural Parks

Fig. 12.5-1 System for Provision of Natural Parks

 (1) Facilities for national and quasi-national parks

  National and quasi-national parks are areas with excellent natu-ral environments. So, in response to the people's demands for contact with nature, while taking the natural environments into consideration, improvement of such core facilities as picnic sites, nature trails, camp-ing sites, and public toilets to promote safe and relaxed use of the parks was carried out. In particular, emergency work on public toilets has been pushed forward since fiscal 1991.
   Moreover, since fiscal 1993, work on camping sites where families can stay for long, being in relaxed contacts with nature (ecology camps) was promoted, and upgrading work on already existing camping sites was commenced in fiscal 1994. The state of work on facilities in national and quasi-national parks is shown in Table 12-5-1.

 (2) National vacation villages

  There are 33 sites now designated as national vacation villages, with development beginning with inexpensive, relaxing lodging facilities for leisure sites in the excellent natural environments of the national and quasi-national parks, and moving on to comprehensive work on all sorts of other facilities designed to bring nature closer.
   Among the facilities in the national vacation villages, either the national government or local governments are developing such public facilities as picnic sites, nature trails, and camping sites, while the National Vacation Village Association builds and operates the inns, lodges, ski lifts, and other facilities that require fees.
   Trends in the number of national vacation village users are shown, by fiscal year, in Table 12-5-2.

 (3) People's outdoor recreation areas

  People's outdoor recreation areas are part of prefectural nature parks. They are areas that let urban dwellers seek deeper contacts with nature through active interaction with nature and that emphasize how best to achieve harmonization between nature and mankind. During a five-year period, developments of such necessary facilities as museum exhibit halls (nature park centers), picnic sites, camping sites, and nature trails have been made. In fiscal 1994, development projects in five existing districts and in one new district were carried out.

Table 12-5-1 Development of Facilities in National Parks and Quasi-national Parks in Fiscal 1994

Table 12-5-1 Development of Facilities in National Parks and Quasi-national Parks in Fiscal 1994

Source; Environment Agency.

Table 12-5-2 Trend in Number of People Using National Vacation Villages

Table 12-5-2 Trend in Number of People Using National Vacation Villages

Source Environment Agency.

2. Work on Outdoor Activity and Recreation Facilities, and on Other Facilities for Close Contact with Nature

 (1) People's lodges

  People's lodges are facilities intended to provide inexpensive, relaxing lodging for the people in recreation areas that have blessed with natural environments. There were 283 sites with lodging facilities as of the end of March 1994, with the number of users that year reaching 8.7 million people (Table 12-5-3).

Table 12-5-3 Number of People's Lodges and Number of Users

Table 12-5-3 Number of People's Lodges and Number of Users

Note The difference between No. of Lodges and No. of Lodges in operation is the number of Lodges not open for business.

 (2) People's recreation centers

  People's recreation centers are facilities intended for day-trip recreation activities, mainly by local residents, found in the recreational areas of natural parks. There were 62 such centers as of the end of March 1994, with the number of users that year reaching 3.23 million people (Table 12-5-4).

Table 12-5-4 Number of People's Recreation Centers and Number of Users

Table 12-5-4 Number of People's Recreation Centers and Number of Users

 (3) Natural environment conservation activity centers

 --villages with natural surroundings and cultures, villages for communication with nature and living things, and villages with nature paths--
   In regions where such small animals as dragonflies and fireflies can still be found, and where village mountain greenery, watercourse environments, and other aspects of nature can still be seen spreading broadly across the landscape, we are promoting conservation of the environment even as work progresses on "villages with natural sur-roundings and culture" and "villages for communication with nature and living things" as centers for the promotion of nature education.
   Projects being worked on include activity-centered nature walks, animal and plant observation facilities, and ecology conservation facil-ities, with operation involving volunteers participating as nature inter-preters and guides. In fiscal 1994, we completed work in four districts for "environment and culture villages" and in three districts for "home-town villages with living things."
   Moreover, "hometown with nature paths" was established in three districts in fiscal 1994, as part of a new effort whereby a person to get closer to nature by walking, through the use of walking centers that offer walking paths designed to bring a person into contact with nature and culture, and also offer usage guides (Table 12-5-5).

 (4) Long-distance nature trails

  Long-distance nature trails are intended to nurture healthy bodies by having people go out on their own feet to visit nature and historical sites, and to deepen their understanding of nature protection. Work has progressed since fiscal 1970 on nature paths that organically link natural parks and cultural properties over long distances. Designed to be used throughout the four seasons, and to be used in safety and relaxation, these nature paths now extend for about 14,000 kilometers.
   The number of people using these paths reached 35.38 million in fiscal 1993. A summary of these users is shown in Table 12-5-6.

 (5) Protected forests for health, and recreational forests

  Designation of the protected forests for health with excellent living environment conservation and health recreation functions, have been done and assitance to the development of facilities for forest use was provided. The work on environmental conservation and protected forest projects were also carried out. Protected forests for health and scenic protected forests, both of which are intended to preserve the public health and scenery, encompass about 600,000 hectares. In addi-tion, to achieve appropriate forest dispositions, as well as the conserva-tion and formation of living environments, promoting forestry develop-ment (229 locations) for the formation or improvement of protected forests, purchasing forest lands (three locations), and developing facilities (20 locations) were carried out, as part of the basic development of protected forests for health.

Table 12-5-5 List of Centers for Nature Conservation Activities

Table 12-5-5 List of Centers for Nature Conservation Activities

Table 12-5-6 List of Long-distance Nature Trails

Table 12-5-6 List of Long-distance Nature Trails

Note: No. of users for Tohoku Nature Trail is for the sections completed.

   Periodic development and maintenance work was conducted on the recreation forests (about 410,000 hectares), which are designated as one kind of nature recreation forest within the national forests for the promotion of health and leisure to the people, thus enhancing forests' health and recreation functions.
   Moreover, in order to bring out the health and cultural functions of forests, two places were newly designated in fiscal 1994 as "human green plan" sites for comprehensive development of various kinds of forest recreation facilities in national forest, bringing to 26 the number of places nationwide so developed.

 (6) Special policy implementation districts for "recreation in mountain villages"

  To encourage urban dwellers to spend leisure time in mountain villages, and to re-energize the mountain villages, development of the facilities that can become the foundation for space that allow walks and interaction in the forest was made in 20 districts.

 (7) Family camping villages

  Family camping villages are basic tourist facilities designed mainly as inexpensive automobile camping facilities for easy use by local residents, in response to heightened interest in nature by the people and to tourist recreation demands. Development with careful considera-tion for conservation of the natural environment was carried out, thus assuring people of places for making contact with nature as well as helping to promote regional development.
   In fiscal 1994, new camps in the Minami Furano district of Hokkaido, the Koguchi district of Wakayama Prefecture, and the Rakan Plateau district of Yamaguchi Prefecture were commenced.

 (8) Family vacation villages

  Development of family vacation villages is done to guarantee the availability to families of tourist recreation sites with blessings of nature that can be easily used, and also to help promote local develop-ment. Projects were in progress in five districts in fiscal 1994.

 (9) Homes for young people in nature

  Homes for young people in nature are social education institu-tions intended to improve young people's enthusiasm and sociability, to refine their sensibilities, and to bring them up healthy, through enjoy-ment of nature and organized lodging activities. There is a nationwide plan to develop 14 national homes for young people in nature, with construction completed in fiscal 1991. Works for refurbishing and upgrading the existing homes for young people in nature are under way.

3. Protection and Use of Hot Springs

 (1) Protection and use of hot springs

  Japan is a country with many hot springs, and hot springs have played an extremely important role as health and leisure spots for the people. There were 24,061 hot spring sources nationwide as of the end of fiscal 1993 (of which 5,084 locations were self-spouting, 11,291 places used power, and 7,686 places were still unused), with all sources putting out a calculated 3.42 million tons of water per day. The Hot Springs Law protects these hot springs, and is intended to provide for their appropri-ate use. The law requires that whenever a person plans to drill for a hot spring or to expand an existing one, and if using a power source to pump the water, the operator must receive permission from the prefectural governor, and if planning to use the hot spring for public bathing or for supply of drinking water, the person must receive permission from either the prefectural governor or from the city mayor if located in a designated city where a public health center is located. In fiscal 1993, the total number of licenses received included 779 drillings for hot springs, 70 drillings for hot spring expansion, 528 installations of power pumping equipment, and 2,076 implementation of bathing or drinking water use.

 (2) Hot spring health resorts

  Hot spring health resorts are those hot spring areas designated by the Director-General of the Environment Agency under the Hot Springs Law as having particularly excellent hot springs effects and which can be effectively used as a health recreation spot. As of the end of January 1995, there were 82 such designated places, covering 12,355,74 hectares.   For people's recuperation spa areas that received special designa-tions in fiscal 1991 (from among all hot spring health resorts as being hot spring resorts obtaining cooperation from doctors to fulfill the conditions for promotion of healthy hot springs use), we provided assistance was provided in fiscal 1994 for development of nature trails and picnic sites.
   Moreover, beginning in fiscal 1993, we designated seven hot spring resorts, from among all hot spring health resorts, as "nature-friendly, relaxing spa areas" to promote active use of natural resources, and to promote their serving as nature education centers that provide contact with nature and physical and mental refreshment. Provision of assistance to these districts was started in fiscal 1994 for development of nature contact hot spring centers, picnic sites, etc.

Section6. Conservation of Natural Environment in Urban Areas

1. Conservation of Natural Environment in Urban Areas

  Such natural environments as woods and grasslands in the city are essential elements in the creation of urban environments, including purification of the air, moderation of the weather, and prevention of undisciplined urbanization, in the playing of major roles in preventing pollution and disaster, and also in the provision of recreation space and formation of beautiful street scenes. For active protection, nurturing or restoration of these elements, the Urban Green Space Conservation Law was revised in June 1994, which resulted in the establishment of the Basic Plan for Conservation of Green Spaces and Promotion of Green-ery by municipalities in comprehensive and planned manner, the imple-mentation of policies based on the plan for guarantees of city greenery and open space, with the cooperation of both government and the people, as well as the implementation of the following policies in fiscal 1994.

 (1) Development of national gardens and national cemeteries for the war dead

  Former imperial gardens such the Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace, the Shinjuku Imperial Garden, and the Kyoto Imperial Garden came under the control of the Environment Agency as national gardens in fiscal 1971, and are widely used by the people.
   The Imperial Palace Outer Garden (including the Kitanomaru district) encompasses 114.9 hectares, of which the Imperial Palace Plaza is served mainly with Japanese black pines and lawns, while the Kitanomaru district is being developed as a forest park. Moreover, the Shinjuku Imperial Garden is a representative garden of the Meiji Era (1868-1912), with its western-style garden. The 58.3 hectare garden includes 1,500 flowering cherry trees, as well as many other flowering trees that can be viewed throughout the garden, and is visited by about one million people every year. Also, the Kyoto Imperial Garden is a 65.3 hectare garden located on the site of the Kyoto Imperial Palace grounds, a rectangular site 1,300 meters north and south and 700 meters east and west located in virtually the center of Kyoto, and it plays the role of a central park for the city of Kyoto. There are "mother and child forests" found in both the Shinjuku Imperial Garden and Kyoto Imperial Garden for the purpose of providing children with more opportunities for coming in contact with nature, and these are used for nature observa-tion.
   The Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery for the War Dead is a garden with an area of more than 1.6 hectares. There rest the remains of 336,045 war dead (as of March 1995) retrieved after the war from many sites overseas but which for whatever reason could not be handed over to surviving relatives.
   To facilitate the comfortable use of these gardens, in fiscal 1994 repair of garden roads, dredging of ponds, cleanups of the gardens, and planting of lawns and trees were carried out. Construction of a water purification facility for the moat in the Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace was completed, thus adopting measures for maintenance man-agement of water purity and other matters.
   In addition, taking the opportunity of the marriage of the Crown Prince, the Wadakura Fountain, which had been constructed in 1961 in commemoration of the marriage of the Emperor and Empress, and of the surrounding parkland were converted into a newly created Wada-kura Fountain Park.

 (2) Development of city parks

  City parks are essential open spaces that create good city envi-ronments, moderate the effects of pollution, function as evacuation points and routes during disasters, meet a variety of demands for sports and culture, and are basic public facilities for the city.
   City park development plans have proceeded with adoption of five-year plans for city park development based on the Law relating to Urgent Measures for Improvement of City Parks. Development has gone no further than the plan's target of 6.7 square meters of city parks, per person (as of end 1993). As a result, it will be necessary to promote further planned development in future that can firmly meet societal demands for city parks.
   Fiscal year 1994 was the fourth year of the 5th Five-Year Plan for the Development of City Parks (total investment 5 trillion yen (of which adjustment costs were 820 billion yen), of which general public project costs are 2.23 trillion yen, and the development goal by the end of March 1996 is about 7.0 square meters per person (planned total investment base of about 7.1 square meters)). Using the general public project costs of 385.5 billion yen, work were actively promoted for the development of city parks, etc. (Table 12-6-1).

Table 12-6-1 Achievements of 5th Five-year Plan for the Develop-ment of City Parks, etc.

Table 12-6-1 Achievements of 5th Five-year Plan for the Develop-ment of City Parks, etc.

 (3) Conservation of city green spaces

  Revision of the City Green Zone Conservation Law provided for additional green space where appropriate conservation of habitats for animals and plants found in green space conservation areas could be conducted, and also added the municipalities that could act to purchase land within the green space conservation areas, thus making it possible to conserve neighborhood greenery.
   Green space conservation areas are designated as being wood-lands, that form excellent natural environments. About 880 hectares were so designated as of the end of fiscal 1993 (excluding the suburban green space conservation areas found in (4) below). Development activ-ities inside the green space conservation areas are strictly limited, and lands may be purchased based on applications from existing land-owners. For the green space conservation areas, we purchased 3.7 hectares of land in fiscal 1993, excluding suburban green space conserva-tion areas, for a cumulative total of about 8& hectares.
   Assistance was given to local governments in order to purchase land and develop facilities for the conservation as green space conserva-tion projects.

 (4) Designation of suburban green space

  Based on the Law for the Conservation of Green Belts around the National Capital Region and on the Law for the Development of Conservation Areas in Kinki Region, we designated about 97,000 hec-tares of suburban green space conservation areas, in 24 districts, and set up standard applications for development activities. For the districts needing conservation, 19 districts covering about 2,744 hectares had been designated as suburban green space conservation areas as of the end of March 1995. Development activities are strictly restricted within these areas, and land of 2.3 hectares, have been purchased in fiscal 1993, making cumulative total land area of 168 hectares. In addition, assis-tance was given to local governments to develop facilities for the purchase, conservation, and use of lands for suburban green space conservation projects.

 (5) Designation of agricultural lands

  As of January 1995, about 15,000 hectares of agricultural land located within urbanized districts of the special designated cities in the three main metropolitan areas had been designated as agricultural lands, based on the Productive Green Land Law. The goal was appropri-ate conservation of valuable green space within urban areas.
   In addition to achieving effective utilization of the agricultural lands, citizens' farm development projects and specified citizens' farm systems places where families can come into contact with the soil together, and are established to provide development of citizens' farms are promoted.

2. Protection of Cultural Properties and Conservation of Historic Environments

 (1) Protection of historic sites, beauty spots, and natural monuments

  Burial mounds, shell mounds, castle ruins, and other sites with high historic or academic value are designated as historic sites, gardens and other famous places with high artistic or viewing enjoyment value are designated as beauty spots, and plants and animals, geologic minerals, and other things with high academic value are designated as natural monuments. In every case, limitations are placed on alterations to current conditions. The number of designated places as of the end of fiscal 1994 was 1,337 historic sites (of which 57 were special historic sites), 260 beauty spots (of which 28 were special beauty spots), and 915 natural monuments (of which 72 were special natural monuments). Moreover, development and other protection projects (assistance pro-jects) are carried out to promote public ownership where necessary for preservation of the sites, and to promote use of the sites.
   Concerning the Heijokyo and Asuka-Fujiwarakyo historical sites, works have been carried out toward public ownership of the land and in excavation surveys and development at the Nara National Cultural Institute.
   Furthermore, in response to decline in species of fauna and flora designated as natural monuments caused by advancing national land development of recent years, we are implementing projects to protect these species and their natural habitats and propagation programs to increase their numbers (assistance projects).

 (2) Protection of Traditional Architectures Preservation District

  Among districts of traditional architectures groups such as old post towns or castle towns, as well as the surrounding environments made valuable by the link with those towns, and which are designated as targets of conservation by municipalities, those districts deemed to be of particular value for Japan have been selected as important Traditional Architectures Preservation Districts, and assistance is provided for structure preservation maintenance projects, disaster prevention facility installation projects, and projects to transfer build-ings and land to public ownership. As of the end of fiscal 1994, 40 districts in 35 municipalities had been selected.

 (3) Preservation of historic landscape in ancient cities

  To preserve localities in ancient cities that embody and shape tradition and culture through historically significant buildings and site as well as their surrounding natural environments, we have, based on the Law concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of the Historical Features of Ancient Cities, selected six cities including Kyoto, one town, and one village as "ancient cities." About 13,000 hectares in these "ancient cities" (excluding Asuka Village) has been designated as preservation areas for historic landscape, of which partic-ularly important sectors amounting to about 4,532 hectares (39 districts) have been selected in city planning as special areas for the preservation of historic landscape.
   In Asuka Village, Takaichi-gun, Nara Prefecture, the entire village has been designated under the Law for Special Measures con-cerning the Preservation of Historical Features and the Development of the Living Environment in Asuka Village in city planning, with 125.6 hectares in the Category I preservation area for historic landscape and 2,278.4 hectares in the Category I preservation area for historic land-scape. Moreover, based on the Program for the Development of the Living Environment and Industrial Infrastructure in Asuka Village, adopted upon revision to the above-mentioned law, provision of special assistance for Asuka Village projects, and promotion of various projects for the preservation and harmonization of its historic landscape are done. The Asuka Village Development Fund was use to conduct preser-vation projects for historic landscape.
   In special preservation areas for historic landscape, new construc-tion and other structures that can affect the preservation of historic landscape or other activity that may threaten to do so is strictly limited. We are also engaged in purchases of land, acquiring about 10 hectares in fiscal 1993, for a cumulative total of about 333 hectares. We are also assisting in the development of facilities for the appropriate preserva-tion of historic landscape in those land that have been purchased for preservation purposes. Development work in fiscal 1994 included tree planting for the preservation of landscape. New construction activities in preservation areas for historic landscape requires application to the prefectural governor, even if they are outside the special preservation areas for historic landscape.

Section7. Environmental Development of Rivers, Harbors, Fishing Ports, and Coasts

1. Environmental Development of Rivers

 (1) Environmental development of rivers

  To collect basic information concerning river environments, river front census has been conducted, including surveys on habitats in rivers, dam reservoirs, and their surroundings, and surveys on the state of utilization of riparian space. Moreover, with the participation of many specialists with knowledge of the river environments in the local areas the River Environment Monitoring System for careful control on the river environments was established.
   The master plan for river environment management which stipu-lates basic points for integrated and planned implementation of policies for control of the river environment while maintaining the rivers' flood control and water use functions (was promoted and the plans had been drawn for 428 water systems by fiscal 1994). Also, with project spending of 5.9849 billion yen, river development projects were conducted with consideration for the environment on 203 rivers. And with project spending of 2.046 billion yen on 15 rivers, river environment develop-ment projects (river channel development projects) by building flood-gates and boat moorings were carried out to create excellent riverside space, and also river environment development projects (riparian utiliza-tion promotion projects) were done for the promotion of river use as recreation space. Various works were caned out in the Hometown River Development Project, which combined riparian maintenance and other work with development of surrounding scenery and local areas for creation of an excellent riverside space, in the My Town, My River Development Project, which involved parallel riparian maintenance and urban development, the Sakurazutzumi Model Project, which involved strengthening levees and tree planting on river banks, the Multi-Nature River Creation, which conserved or created beautiful natural scenery while considering an excellent habitat environment for life forms, the Model Project for Promoting Rivers that Fish Can Easily Rise, which reforms river-straddling facilities and creates fish ladders to improve the environment for fishes, and the Model Project for "Mahoroba" River Creation, which develops rivers easily accessible to everyone regardless of age or handicap.
   Concerning the Nagara River mouth dam construction project, which has attracted opposition activity in some quarters from the standpoint of environmental conservation, the Ministry of Construction and the Water Resources Development Corporation conducted addi-tional surveys in fiscal 1991 on the environment under the guidance of a panel of academics and in cooperation with the Environment Agency. The results of this additional survey were announced in April 1992, with the determination that no major effects would be seen on water quality or on migratory fish. The Ministry and the Corporation, following the advice of the panel of academics, spent one year in fiscal 1994 conduct-ing environmental and other surveys, and plan to continue their utmost in conducting future environmental conservation.

 (2) Environmental development of dam surroundings

  In addition to conservation of the surrounding environment for an important source of water resources, development of lands surrounding dam reservoirs has been conducted. And to create places for making contact with nature, as well as recreation space, the Environmental Development Project to Promote Activities at Dam Reservoirs (a combi-nation of the former Environmental Development Project for Dam Surroundings and the Project to Promote Activities at Dam Reservoirs) was carried out for three new dams including the Urushizawa Dam, for a total of 38 dam projects at a project cost of 3,250.85 billion yen.
   From the standpoint of ecosystem conservation and creation, the Dam Water Environment Improvement Project was implemented in the Arase-Setoishi Dam region, in a project that seeks to establish fish ladders and to improve water environment in the dam reservoirs and in areas downstream from the dam by eliminating waterless reaches directly below the dam. The new addition brings to five the number of dams in the project, at a cost of 941.5 million yen.
   Also, in a combination of countermeasures for sediment accumu-lation and water quality conservation, at a cost of 968 million yen, a recreation reservoir development dam project was carried out that creates a reservoir surface that is continually usable at a stable water depth, and which improves the friendliness of reservoirs through crea-tion of dam. There are also three multi-purpose recreation dam projects under way operated by local governments, at a cost of 2.94346 billion yen.

 (3) Environmental development around soil erosion control facilities

  To achieve harmonization with the natural environment in mountain streams that lie near urban areas, to assure green and water space in these areas, and to develop their living environments, projects were carried out in fiscal 1994 totaling 1.533 billion yen to develop high-water riverbeds and greenery along 23 mountain streams, including the Yomase River in Nagano Prefecture. Some of these projects includ-ed active preservation of soil erosion control facilities built in past centuries, conducted through the Soil Erosion Control Learning Zone Model Project.
   Moreover, the Mountain Stream Environment Development Plan was implemented on experimental basis to promote erosion control projects that conserve scenic natural environments and ecosystem near mountain streams while also preventing damage from soil erosion. And to develop collection of the basic information required for implementa-tion of these projects, the Survey on Creation of Water and Greenery Mountain Streams was conducted on the natural environment and actual utilization of mountain stream space.

2. Environmental Development of Harbors

 (1) Environmental development of harbors

  To promote the creation of harbors that coexist with the environ-ment (eco-ports), the Eco-port Model Project was established for the early formation of development projects spanning the entire country, and then implemented in Yokohama harbor. The Harbor Environment Plan was adopted in order to hasten environmental improvements for harbors located in the nation's three major bays.

 (2) Development of green spaces in harbors

  To create a relaxing environment in harbors, and to provide rest places for people who work in harbors or who visit them, we developed green spaces in 144 harbors in fiscal 1994 including Fushiki-Toyama Port. Moreover, projects were carried out protect and activate historic harbor facilities, and promote historic harbor environment creation that promote unified development with the surrounding environment.

 (3) Development of marinas, etc.

  Marinas are facilities built in response to increased marine recre-ation activities, and can themselves be considered facilities that create excellent scenery and spaces with high levels of amenities for water enjoyment. Development of marinas that actively creates relaxing environments is carried out while achieving harmony with conservation of the natural environment. In fiscal 1994, a public project was conduct-ed to develop a marina in the Amagasaki-Nishinomiya-Ashiya Port, as well as to develop pleasure boat spots (simple mooring facilities for yachts, motorboats, and other pleasure boats) at Shiogama Port and other places. Implementation of coastal resort projects was done to promote the development of safe, relaxing marine recreation bases, consisting mainly of marinas, that are in harmony with the surrounding environment, having worked on 53 locations across the country since fiscal 1986.

3. Environmental Development of Fishing Ports

  To maintain and beautify the scenery at fishing ports, and to form a relaxing, enjoyable fishing port environment, as well as to improve operating efficiency and safety, such developments as tree-planting, building of rest places, and installing garbage disposal ;facil-ities, as well as dredging operations to remove sludge from the waters inside the fishing port areas were conducted. For improvement of the water environment, the Fishing Port Environment Development Project was implemented with project costs of 6,284 billion yen.
   Moreover, the Fishing Port Utilization Adjustment Project ("Fi-sherina" Development Project) was implemented in 15 locations around the country, which by separating the mooring accommodations within the fishing port between commercial fishing boats and pleasure fishing craft creates marine recreation space to prevent trouble between the two types of fishing vessels within the fishing port, to make fishing industry activities go smoother, and to promote exchanges between the cities and the fishing villages.

4. Environmental Development of Coastlines

  To deal with the increased use of beaches as demand for various kinds of marine recreation increases, and to preserve or create relaxing, restful coastal environments, such coastal environmental development projects as building moderately sloped levees, offshore breakwaters, breakwaters, artificial reefs, beach building works, and walking paths were carried out. The work in fiscal 1994 covered 349 locations around the country, including Matsubara, Kasumi Fishing Port, Atami Port, and Katasoegahama, with project costs of 497.3465 billion yen.

Section8. Greening Promotion Campaigns

  All administrative organizations affiliated with greening of the national land maintain close contact with each other mainly through the Greening Promotion Council (chaired by the Chief Cabinet Secretary) which consists of nine ministries and agencies, promote comprehensive and efficient policies, and engage in the development of broadly based greening promotion campaigns across the country. A variety of such activities as "Greenery Day" and "Greenery Week" were conducted to promote communication with nature, the promotion of citizen participa-tion in the creation of forests, the use of greenery to activate local areas, the promotion of greenery in the cities, and preparation of the Greenery Promotion Campaigns in Fiscal 1994 in which the promotion of all sorts of policies for conservation of the global environment is stated, and have executed the following policies to further progress and solidify the campaigns.

 (1) Promotion of Campaign for Birds Warbling Woods

  Through conservation or planting in familiar places those woods that bear the kind of fruit that wild birds prefer, and through provision of bird-watching facilities, the Campaign for Birds Warbling Woods was promoted in order to create environments suited to bird habitats and develop places that wild birds are attracted to. Awards were given to those municipalities that have succeeded in creating particularly excel-lent forests.
   Moreover, to promote greening activities through private-sector capital, the Greenery by Golfers Group cooperated to promote greening campaigns by golfers.

 (2) Projects for promotion of the greening of the school environment

  Projects for promotion of the greening of the school environment, implemented to promote tree planting on school grounds at many public schools located in regions with air pollution problems, is being conduct-ed as one menu in the Special Project for Students' Health Promotion with a budget of 967.74 million yen in fiscal 1994.

 (3) Promotion of national land greening campaigns

  To boost the concept of national land greening among the people, and to promote greening of the national land, assistance was given to projects that promote nationwide tree-planting festivals, and are promoting projects were promoted to adopt plans for multiple use of forests, to build and popularize a framework for promoting the citizen participation in creating forests, and to popularize and enlighten youths on the greening concept through educational programs.
   Assistance was also given to such projects as, technology develop-ment, model forest development and improvement to use for health and recreation, culture, education, and other aspects of greenery, developing and popularizing tree varieties that can be used for environmental greening in different kinds of tree-planting spaces, training up and assuring cadres of tree doctors, establishing and popularizing big tree and old woods conservation technologies, and conduct tree registration surveys.
   Moreover, assistance was given to prefectures in model greenery formations, and conduct nationwide greenery activities and "Green Feather" fund raising campaign, mainly around "Greenery Day" and "Greenery Week."

 (4) Promotion of factory greenery

  Based on the Factory Location Law, promoting greenery in factories, guiding consultation on factory greenery through the prefec-tures, convening study groups, and distributing enlightenment and popularization books were carried out. Moreover, those factories that have shown particular success in improving the environment through greenery and other efforts receive awards from the Minister of Interna-tional Trade and Industry. In addition, those factories that establish green spaces are eligible for funding from the Japan Development Bank and the Smaller Business Finance Corporation.
   Also, to promote the collection and utilization of waste paper as a way to contribute to the protection of forest resources, the Waste Paper Recycling Promotion Center issues a trademark for products made out of waste paper materials and has also instituted a green mark system that awards with tree saplings, bulb roots, or products made out of waste paper those kindergartens, schools, and community groups that collect a certain amount of waste paper.

 (5) Promotion of greening in cities

  To promote greening in the cities, a number of nationwide greening promotion campaigns that encourage broad participation among the people have been held, including 1) various events concerning city greening, including such spring events as the Campaign for the Promotion of Greening in Cities (April-June), "Greenery Day" (29 April), and "Greenery Week" (23-29 April), as well as City Greening Month (October), 2) the 5th national "Greenery Protection" assembly held in the Asuka Historical Park, 3) the 11th National City Greening Fair and National City Greening Festival, 4) awards such the "Greenery Design Prize" and the "Flower Town Award," 5) establishment of greenery consultancies, 6) development of greening agreement systems after the revision of the City Green Zone Conservation Law, 7) development of the Fund for Greening in Cities and the Fund for Greening in Local Cities, and 8) surveys for the promotion of local greening activities (groundwork) conducted in concert by residents, companies, and admis-istration.
   In addition, when taking measures to prevent erosion in city areas, efforts were made to protect existing trees and to introduce new tree plantings as part of slope greenery activities, for the double purpose of increasing city greenery and improving disaster prevention.

Chapter13. International Efforts Concerning Global Environmental Conservation

Section1. Efforts toward Global Environmental Problems

 (1) Progress of international efforts

  Global environmental problems have surfaced in recent years in the midst of a general upgrading of economic activity standards in the advanced countries paralleled by rapid growth of poverty, population, and of concentration in the cities in the less developed countries, as well as by a broadening of mutually dependent international relationships. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED/Earth Summit) was convened in June 1992, which, among other events, marked the end of the East-West Cold War framework that had existed since the end of World War II, and allowed the interna-tional entry into a stage when specific actions could be taken.
   The Earth Summit formulated such worldwide agreements for sustainable development as the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21, and a number of efforts relating to agreements made at this Earth Summit were conducted in fiscal 1994. In May 1994, the second meeting of the Commission on Sustainable Devel-opment (CSD), which is established at the U.N. Economic and Social Council in order to follow up to the Earth Summit, was held, and, in line with the Multi-Year Theme Study Plan that was decided upon in the first meeting in 1993, they conducted studies on the problems of trade and the environment and of hazardous chemical substances. And in late April and early May of that year, the Global Conference on the Sus-tainable Development of Small Island Developing States was held, in line with a decision taken at the Earth Summit, and the Barbados Declaration and an action plan were adopted.
   There have also been various efforts to pursue treaties in each field of global environmental problems. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, which was agreed upon at the Earth Summit as needing adoption, was ratified at the fifth substantive meeting of the intergovernmental negotiating conference in June 1994, and the signing ceremony was held in October of that year. And for the new Interna-tional Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) adopted in January 1994, Japan took steps in December of that year to apply the new agreement on a temporary basis. Also, the U. N. Convention on the Law of the Sea went into effect in November 1994. In addition, the sixth meeting of member states of the Montreal Protocol was held in October 1994, while the first meeting of member states of the Convention on Biological Diversity was held in November of that year, and the first conference of the parties to the U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change was held in March and April of 1995.

 (2) Progress of efforts in Japan

  In Japan, as well, Ad Hoc Group on Global Environmental Problems (current chairman: Dr. Jiro Kondo, chairman of the Central Environment Council), consisting of academics and experts, has been meeting under the auspices of the director general of the Environment Agency since September 1980. The Ad Hoc Group has issued five reports to date, and the second report issued in April 1982, "On International Efforts in Solving Global Environmental Problems," was linked to the establishment of the World Committee on Environment and Development (WCED). In March 1992 the Ad Hoc Group issued its fifth report, "Basic Stance on the Earth Charter" in order to contribute to the adoption of the Earth Charter at the Earth Summit and the development of new environmental policy after the Earth Summit.
In May 1989, to promote effective and comprehensive policies on global environmental problems, the Cabinet gave its assent to the convening of the Council of Ministers for Global Environmental Conser-vation (Chairman: Prime Minister/Members: minist&s from 19 minis-tries and agencies), and at the first meeting held in June of that year, agreement was reached on "policies for global environmental conserva-tion," with confirmation of the following points.
1) Active participation in the creation of international frameworks
2) Promotion of monitoring, observation, and research
3) Promotion of the development and spread of technology
4) Improved assistance in the environmental field for less developed countries
5) More consideration of the environment when implementing offi-cial development assistance, etc.
6) Exertion of efforts to reduce the burdens of socioeconomic activities on the global environment, and promotion of efforts to enlighten and seek the understanding and cooperation of all the people in all walks of life
 Moreover, the post of minister in charge of global environmental problems was set up in July 1989, and the post has since been filled by the director general of the Environment Agency.
   Again, at the second meeting of the Council of Ministers for Global Environmental Conservation, held in October 1989, agreement was reached "On Comprehensive Promotion of Research, Monitoring, and Technology Development for Global Environmental Conservation," and since that time have, based on this agreement, adopted each year Comprehensive Promotion Program for Global Environment Research, Monitoring, and Technology Development. The fourth meeting of the council, held in October 1990, decided on Action Program to Arrest Global Warming, which included goals to stabilize carbon dioxide emission volumes.
   The sixth council meeting, held in May 1992, discussed what policies the government should take concerning the Earth Summit and acceded to "Japan's Efforts toward the Earth Summit."
   In December 1993, ministers from three ministries and agencies were joined to that Council of Ministers, which then agreed upon National Action Plan for Agenda 21
   In September 1994, the council agreed upon the "National Report Based upon the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change."
   Moreover, to facilitate effective promotion of unified government policies related to global environmental conservation, the budget related to global environmental conservation from all concerned ministries and agencies were tabulated reaching a total of 548.1 billion yen in fiscal 1994. The total for fiscal 1995 is 578 billion yen, an increase of 5.5% over the previous fiscal year (Table 13-1-1).

1. Countermeasures for global warming

 (1) Summary of the problem

  The atmosphere includes carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases, and their activity creates a livable environ-ment for humans, and plants and animals. In recent years, however, human activity has resulted in the release into the atmosphere large volumes of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. As a result, the greenhouse effect has been bolstered and the threat of global warming has arisen.

Table 13-1-1 Budgets related to Global Environmental Conservation in FY1994 and FY1995
1. The overall budgets related to global environmental conservation for the relevant ministries and agencies in FY1994 and FY1995, are as follows.
   FY 1994 budget   548.1 billion yen
   FY 1995 budget   578.0 billion yen
    (5.5% increase over previous fiscal year)

2. Breakdown by activities

2. Breakdown by activities

(Table 13-1-1 continued)

(Table 13-1-1 continued)

Notes: 1. The category of global environmental conservation-oriented socio-economic activities, popularization, and enlightenment, in Group 1, includes those activities, projects, etc., that result in social and economic activities that promote resource and energy saving with methods that result in the least burden on the global environment.
   2. In this table, expenses for promoting and coordination of science and technology within the Science and Technology Agency budget are not included because it is impossible to distinguish what part of the expenses is concerned with global environmental conservation.
   3. As for the Ministry of Foreign Affair's grant aid, the technology coopera-tion conducted by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the loan cooperation conducted by the Overseas Economic Coopera-tion Fund (QECE) are not included in this table, because it is impossible to distinguish what part of those budgets is concerned with global envi-ronmental conservation.
   4. The general expenses related to global environmental conservation, in Group 3, is composed of such things as contributions to international institutions, surveys and research, and policy expenses for environmental ODA.

  According to reports released in 1990 and 1992 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), if the current rate of increase of greenhouse gases continues, the average air temperature at ground level is forecasted to rise by about 3 degree C by the end of the 21st century. This temperature rise is believed to an extremely rapid change of a sort not seen in the last 10,000 years. Moreover, sea levels are expected to rise by about 65 centimeters (and a maximum of 1 meter) by the end of the 21st century.
   A report titled "Effects of Global Warming on Japan" that was prepared by the Environment Agency in September 1994 was based on the IPCC's forecast results to point out the various effects of global warming on Japan's water resources, agriculture, forests, ecologies, coastal regions, energy, urban facilities, health, and other sectors.
   Before the effects of global warming begin to appear and it is too late to do anything about them, it is important to immediately promote those, policies that are implementable.

 (2) Countermeasures

 1) Promotion of action plans to arrest global warming

  Japan is promoting a number of countermeasures to global warming, based on the Action Plan to Arrest Global Warming (October 1989, decision of the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation), which is the basic stance now being taken by Japan in regards to global warming countermeasures. And, based on this same action plan, in September 1994 the report was submitted to the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation on the amount of carbon dioxide emissions in fiscal 1992 and on the policies related to the Action Plan to Arrest Global Warming that were taken in fiscal 1993 by the ministries and agencies concerned.
   The major countermeasures taken for global warming in fiscal 1994 were as follows.
i. To promote countermeasures. in local areas to prevent global warming, assistance was provided to local public groups for adoption of the master plan (Plan for Local Promotion of Countermeasures to Global Warming), etc., concerning countermeasures to global warming.
ii. To strengthen efforts by businesses to save energy, etc., guidance was given to businesses for saving energy at factories and other places with determination standards based on the Law for Rationalization of Energy Utilization, and also provided low-interest financing and tax incentives to specific business activities (introduction of energy-saving facilities at factories, etc.) recognized under the Law of Provisional Measures for Projects and Activities to Rationalize Use of Energy, etc., and Utilize Recycled Resources.
iii. To reduce and recycle wastes, and to effectively utilize excess heat from garbage incineration and sewage, a model project for sewage channel heat utilization was promoted and also a power generation project involving solid garbage fuel was become a subject to the flota-tion of a loan.
iv. To form transport systems that can reduce and restrict carbon dioxide emissions, promotion of modal shifts (persuasion to switch to rail transport or to coastal sea transport) in the main transport lines between distribution centers of medium and long distances, development of more efficient distribution system configurations, and development of bypass roads were conducted.
   Also conducted were technology evaluations and practical utiliza-tion surveys on low-pollution vehicles for the purpose of achieving broader use of low-pollution vehicles, and studies into policies on how to spread them through society over the medium-and long-term. Assis-tance was provided for the introduction of low-pollution vehicles by implementing aid for the introduction of low-pollution vehicles as pollution patrol cars.
v. To form supply structures for energy that emits few greenhouse gases, the development and utilization of nuclear power were promoted, with the presumption of guaranteed safety, the utilization of hydrop-ower and geothermal power, and the introduction of combined cycle power generation and of solar power generation. Moreover, the Long-Term Energy Supply and Demand Forecast was revised in June 1994 after considering changes in the energy supply and demand situation and taking into account the coming into effect of the Framework Conven-tion on Climate Change. And to promote the introduction and spread of energy sources that leave few burdens on the environment, such as solar power and other natural energy, and fuel cells, so as to achieve the Supply Targets for Energy Alternatives to Oil (Cabinet decision of September 1994), the Council of Ministers for the Promotion of Compre-hensive Energy Policy decided in December 1994 on a General Outline for Introduction of New Energy.
vi. To reduce the uncertainties related to global warming, and to adopt appropriate policies based on scientific knowledge, research was conducted into elucidating phenomena, forecasting the future, and measures for evaluating effects, monitored greenhouse gases, and devel-oped monitoring technologies utilizing satellites, etc. In addition, steps were taken to expand the Global Environment Research Program Budget to promote surveys and research in these areas.
vii. Research into the New Sunshine Plan was also actively promoted to find ways to restrict greenhouse gas emissions, such as through development of advanced new energy technologies, of energy saving technologies, and of revolutionary technologies such as fixing or effec-tive utilization of carbon dioxide.
viii. To make people aware of the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming and of the policies based on that program, pamphlets were distributed and various kinds of meetings were organized with local governments.
ix. In the area of international cooperation, in addition to continuing to provide support for the institutions concerned, the Fourth Asia-Pacific Regional Seminar on Global Warming was convened in March 1995 in Bangkok to provide support for warming countermeasures in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Also support was provided for the adoption of strategies for each country in response to warming that were undertaken by the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region.

 2) Response to the Framework Convention on Climate Change

  The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change went into effect on 21 March 1994. This convention sets as its ultimate objective a standard to stabilize greenhouse gas densities in the atmo-sphere so as to prevent dangerous human interference in the climate system, and makes various requirements on member states, including preparation of a list of emission and absorption sources for greenhouse gases and drawing up of national programs for countermeasures to warming. In particular, Japan and other advanced member states must be taking policies and actions with the awareness that reducing emis-sion volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases at the end of the 1990s to levels at the beginning of the decade would contribute to the goals of the convention, and should report those policies and actions to the Conference of the Parties within six months after the country has ratified the convention, and then send further reports on a periodic basis.
&nnbsp; Based on these stipulations, the Government of Japan in Septem-ber 1994 adopted a Japan's national report at the Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation and sent it to the temporary secretariat of the convention. Note that in the preparation of Japan's report the government draft was publicized, and many citizens took the opportunity of hearings to give opinions.
   As of December 1994, 15 countries,-including Japan, had sent in information. In December of that year, the temporary secretariat of the convention prepared a combined report based on the reports from these advanced countries, with detailed examinations of these country reports to be completed for each country by the end of 1995.
   And in the moves toward smooth implementation of the conven-tion, the 10th meeting of the convention negotiating committee was held in August 1994 and the 11th meeting in February 1995. The first Conference of the Parties was held in Berlin in March and April, where the participants agreed on policies and measures and also aimed for the establishment of numerical restraint and reduction goals within the specific time periods of 2005, 2010, and 2020. They also set in motion of the process of studying what conclusions to reach at the third Confer-ence of the Parties to be held in 1997, and to consider efforts for the periods beyond 2000 that do not yet have clear stipulations under the convention. These efforts are to be strengthened by including them as promises in protocols and other documents to be ratified. Moreover, a number of contracting parties agreed to introduce the concept of "Activ-ities Implemented Jointly" in efforts toward arresting global warming, and to establish a permanent secretariat. Furthermore, the advanced nations proposed the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) as a first step toward serious implementation of the convention.

 3) Study cooperation on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  The IPCC is an international organization established jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose goal is to make forecasts on global warming, to gather the latest knowledge about its effects and countermeasures, and to provide a basis for scientific policies for arresting global warming. IPCC's first evaluation report was prepared in August 1990, while a supplementary report came out in February 1992. Later on, it underwent a reorganization, and is now engaged in preparing a second evaluation report by the end of 1995. A portion of the second evaluation report was prepared in October 1994 and included in a special 1994 report that incorporated the latest knowledge on the warming effects of greenhouse gases and on possible emission scenarios. This report was prepared at the request of the negotiating committee for the Framework Convention on Climate Change, and was presented at the first Conference of the Parties of the Framework Convention on Climate Change held in March and April 1995.
   Japan hosted a workshop in Tsukuba City in January 1994 on policy methods in arresting global warming, and their effectiveness. Moreover, Japan served as vice-chairman of the Working Group II dealing with countermeasures for warming effects, even under the new system, and with many other activities, including the many contribu-tions of Japanese authors to the second evaluation report, is actively participating and cooperating in IPCC activities.

2. Countermeasures for Protection of the Ozone Layer

 (1) Summary of the problem

  Most of the Earth's ozone exists in the stratosphere, in the region called the ozone layer. The ozone layer absorbs most of the harmful ultraviolet rays in solar light, protecting life on the Earth. It has become apparent that this ozone is being depleted by artificial chemical sub-stances such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halon. It is worried that the depletion of the ozone layer and the accompanying increase in ultraviolet rays will result in such health risks to people as skin cancers and cataracts, and also hinder the growth of plants and plankton.
   CFCs are the substances made up of carbon, fluorine, and chlorine that are useful for such things as solvents, refrigerants, foaming agents, and propellasts, while halon, which includes bromine, is mainly used as a fire extinguisher. Since these are chemically stable substances, when they are released into the atmosphere they fail to get broken down in the troposphere and so reach the stratosphere where they are decomposed under the strong ultraviolet rays from the sun. This releases chlorine and bromine atoms, which then in a chain reaction response serve as catalysts to break down the ozone.
   Once the depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other sub-stances occurs, recovery of the layer requires a long period of time. Moreover, the damage inflicted is an environmental problem on a global scale that affects the whole world.

 (2) Measures to protect the ozone layer

  To prevent depletion of the ozone layer, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted in March 1985, and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was in September 1987. In Japan, the Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures (referred to as "Ozone Layer Protection Law" hereafter) was promulgated in May 1988 as a system for assured, smooth implementa-tion of these accords (Figure 13-1-1), and Japan ratified the Convention and the Protocol in September 1988.
   Later, with the amendment to the Montreal Protocol in June 1990, the government also partially amended the Ozone Layer Protection Law in March 1991 to strengthen measures.
   The Montreal Protocol was again amended in November 1992, and Japan acceded the amendment in December 1994. In response to these protocol amendments, the government partially amended the Ozone Layer Protection Law in June 1994, and brought forward of the phase-out schedule of CFCs and other existing specified substances, while adding hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HOFC), hydrobromofluorocar-bons (HBFC), and methyl bromide to the list of specified substances (Table 13-1-2).
   With the focus on the Ozone Layer Protection Law, Japan has implemented the following policies actively to deal with global-scale air pollution problems.

 1) Controls on production of CFCs, etc.

  In the Ozone Layer Protection Law production and consumption amounts of "specified substances" (CFCs, halon, Carbon tetrachloride, 1, 1,1-trichloroethane, HCFC, HBFC, and methyl bromide), are controlled according to the regulation schedule based on the Montreal Protocol amended in November 1992.
   Production and consumption volume in Japan in 1994 was 28,392 tons and 26,455 tons, respectively, for CFC-ll, 12, 113, 114, and 115 (referred to as specified CFCs hereafter), reductions of about 19.8% and 185%, respectively, from the base year (1986). The figures for CFCs other than the specified CFCs was 136 tons and 136 tons, reductions of about 23.2% and 5.8%, respectively, from the base year (1989) (Values are sum of the gained values by multiplying the production and con-sumption of each substance by its own Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP)).

Fig. 13-1-1 Outline of the Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures

Fig. 13-1-1 Outline of the Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures

Table 13-1-2 Regulation Schedule Based on Montreal Protocol (Amended in November 1992)

Table 13-1-2 Regulation Schedule Based on Montreal Protocol (Amended in November 1992)

(1) CFC-ll,12,113,114,115
(2) halon-l2ll,1301,2402
(3) CFC-ls,11 1,112,211,212,213,214,21 5,216,217
(4) Standard volume: Calculated value of HOEC consumption in 1989 +calculated value of CEC (Annex A Group I )consumption in 1989 X 0.031
(5) HCFC-2l,22,31,121422,123 ,124,131,132,133,141,142,151,221,222, 223,224,225,226,231,

 2) Emission control and rational use of CFCs, etc.

  The Guidelines for Emission Control and Rational Use of Speci-fied Substances was promulgated in order for entrepreneurs using specified substances to curb their emission and rationalize their use, and attempts were made to let it be known. July of each year is designated as the Month for the Promotion of the Protection of Ozone Layer for an unerring and smooth promotion of measures for protection of the ozone layer, and the government and non-governmental sectors strive for its enhancement and propagation.
   An regards refrigerator and air conditioning equipment, etc. to use substitutes for specified CFCs, and emission control and recovery facilities of specified CFCs for cleaning equipment, special tax and financial measures are available in introducing such facilities, including special redemption for the corporation and income taxes as well as the setting of exceptions in the application of taxable standards for the fixed property tax; and financial measures, such as low-interest loans available from the Japan Development Bank, Japan Environment Corpo-ration and other institutions.

 3) Promotion of recovery, recycling, and destruction of CFCs, etc.

  On the fourth meeting of Conference of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, held in November 1992, it was decided that the Parties should promote the recovery, recycling and destruction of CFCs and other substances. To promote further control of emissions and to rationalize the use of CFCs and other substances, with this decision development, evaluation, and related surveys and research were com-menced in destruction and disposal technologies for recovered CFCs and other substances, and CFCs recovery model project was instituted with the cooperation of local governments. In addition, at the Council for Promoting the Protection of the Ozone Layer established by concerned ministries and agencies in April 1994, study on the policies for promot-ing the recovery, recycling, and destruction of CFCs and other sub-stances such as the social system related to CFCs recovery, etc. is conducted.

 4) Promotion of monitoring, observation, and research on ozone layer depletion

  To ensure adequate protection of the ozone layer, monitoring and observation of the ozone layer and of the atmospheric concentrations of CFCs and other substances are promoted. Also conducted are detailed research into the mechanisms for depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs and other substances, as well as the effects due to ozone 1 ayer depletion, and monitoring of ozone distribution through the use of ozone laser radar, and development of ozone monitoring technology as well as models for forecasting future fluctuations in the ozone layer.

3. Countermeasures for Acid Deposition

 (1) Summary of the issue

  Acid deposition results primarily from the presence of sulfuric and/or nitric acids in the atmosphere. These acids are formed in the atmosphere from pollutants, such as sulfur oxides (SOX) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), generated mainly from combustion of fossil fuels. Acid deposition includes deposition in various forms of precipitation, such as rain, fog, mist or snow (wet deposition), and deposition of acidic gases and aerosols without the intervention of precipitation (dry deposition). The principle problems induced by acid deposition occur when air pollutants such as SOX and NOX pass from the air into precipitation and are wet deposited on water, soil or plant surfaces, or when such pollut-ants are directly dry deposited on such surfaces, and result in acidifica-tion of the associated aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems.
  Acid deposition has far-reaching impacts. It affects fish and other aquatic life forms as a result of the progressive acidification of inland water bodies, including marshes, lakes, rivers and streams. It threatens forests as a result of the acidification of the soil. It accelerates and aggravates the decline and decay of monuments and buildings of cul-tural importance. For these reasons the problem of acid deposition is of deep concern. The problem first came to worldwide attention in North-ern Europe and North America. Here the problems of acidification of lakes and the decline or dieback of forests has been especially promi-nent.
   One of the distinctive features of the acid deposition problem is the fact that deposition of acidifying substances can occur thousands of kilometers from the original sources of precursor emissions. Thus, acid deposition does not respect national boundaries, and as such has become an international problem. In Europe the transnational aspect of the problem led to the signing of the Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP) in 1979. This convention expressed a common commitment on the part of the signing parties to reduce acid precursor emissions and jointly monitoring emissions and precipitation chemistry.
   In the past, acid deposition was considered a problem specific to industrial nations. However, in recent years air pollutant emissions have increased dramatically in many developing countries as a result of their rapid rate of economic growth and industrialization. This will almost certainly have the effect of aggravating already existing local-scale air pollution problems, and creating regional-scale ones.
   In 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro the document known as "Agenda 21" enjoined both advanced industrial and develop-ing nations to make a stronger commitment to tackling large-scale environmental problems such as acid deposition. In the spirit of Agenda 21, this document is presented with the goal of promoting worldwide understanding of, and solutions to, the acid deposition problem.

 (2) Measures

  Following the Acid Deposition Survey Phase 1 (fiscal years 1983-1987), the Acid Deposition Survey Phase 2 (fiscal years 1988-1992) was implemented.
   The results of the Acid Deposition Survey Phase 2 are summar-ized as follows.
1) Precipitation pH and ion deposition were roughly on the same levels as in Europe and North America, and no remarkable changes were observed during the survey.
2) Snowmelt water had a slightly lower pH temporarily. However, no evidence was found showing that the acidic meltwater had a notice-able affection on river and stream water pH.
3) Vegetation surveys indicated that there is evidence of tree decline in some locations. Although no clear relationship between tree decline and acid deposition was observed, it is still not possible to rule out the acid deposition as a cause of forest decline. Therefore, further detailed long-and short-term studies will need to be conducted.
   As can be seen, the effects of acid deposition on ecological systems in Japan is not yet clear so far. However, if acid deposition continues at present level, it is quite possible that adverse effects on ecosystems may emerge in the future.
   Thus, the Acid Deposition Survey Phase 3 was launched in fiscal 1993, which is a five-year plan and consists of continuous monitoring of the soil and vegetation and development of numerical models. In addi-tion, acid deposition monitoring stations have been established annually to survey the status quo of precipitation pH, to obtain data for consider-ing the mechanism of long range transport of air pollutants and to monitor the adverse effects of acid deposition on ecosystems. In fiscal 1994, three monitoring stations were established.
   Comprehensive survey on precipitation, air pollutants, soil and vegetation was conducted in the regions where forest decline and the effects of acid deposition were pointed out, for the purpose of elucidat-ing the relation of forest decline and acid deposition. Besides, monitor-ing for forest decline caused by acid deposition was started in fiscal 1990. This investigation was carried out in order to grasp the actual condition of forest decline which is caused by acid deposition on a nationwide scale.
   The Expert Meeting on Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia was held in October 1993, attended by experts from 10 East Asian countries and concerned international organizations, as a first step towards the international cooperative and collaborative action against acid deposition. Results of the meeting were summarized in the chairman's summary, and the main points are as follows:
1) It was recognized that acid deposition was observed in many countries in East Asia.
2) The participants shared the view that, considering expanding economy and energy consumption, adverse effects of acid deposition would become critical problem in the future.
3) It was agreed that more efforts should be made for the monitor-ing of acid deposition as well as modelling and emission inventory in each country.
4) It was expressed that an "Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia" should be established in the near future.

4. Conservation of Forests, Particularly Tropical Forests

 (1) Summary of the problem

  Various types of forests are distributed around the world accord-ing to the climate characteristics of each region. Total forest area is about 3.88 billion hectares, covering about 29% of total land area (including inland waters) (FAO. "Production Yearbook, 1993"). The forests are a natural resource with multiple value, including the supply of habitat for much wildlife, possession of such environmental adjust-ment functions as conservation of the soil, fostering of water sources, and absorption and fixing of carbon dioxide, and supply sources for wood, an essential source for lumber, charcoal, and other items for human life, as well as supply sources for such non-lumber products as raw resources for pharmaceuticals.
   In recent years, however, while forest areas in the advanced regions have either leveled off or increased, forests in the tropical regions of developing countries have declined drastically. According to the final report of the Forest Resources Assessment Project, the latest report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), an estimated annual average of 15.4 million hectares (about 40% of Japan's land area) of tropical forest was lost in the 10 years from 1981 to 1990. The tropical forests are said to support about half of the world's wildlife species, making them a storehouse of genetic resources. But the loss of large swathes of area threatens many wildlife species with the danger of extinction. Moreover, it has also been pointed out that loss of forest releases large amounts of carbon dioxide, thus becoming a factor in the acceleration of global warming. Causes of tropical forest loss vary depending on the region, including non-traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, excessive collection of wood for fuel, inappropriate com-mercial logging, and overgrazing. In the background of these causes lurks various socioeconomic factors, including population growth, pov-erty, and land control systems.

 (2) Countermeasures

  Building on countermeasures for forest decline agreed upon in the Statement of Forest Principles, the first global agreement on forests which was reached at the Earth Summit, and in Agenda 21 debates on conservation and sustainable management of the world's forests, includ-ing tropical forests, were conducted in a number of international fora in fiscal 1994. At any rate, the new International Tropical Timber Agree-ment (ITTA) concluded in 1994, which replaced the 1983 International Tropical Timber Agreement, was the first agreement adopted following the end of the Earth Summit, with one objective being to provide support for producer countries so as to implement "the Year 2000 Objective," which is a strategy for achieving exports of tropical timber and timber products from sustainably managed sources by the year 2000, and thereby strengthening the international framework for tropi-cal forest conservation. Japan, aiming for early ratification of the new agreement, conducted administrative efforts in December 1994 to ensure temporary application of the new agreement. The International Tropi-cal Timber Organization (ITTO ; headquarters in Yokohama) that was set up by the ITTA is actively seeking the cooperation of both producer and consumer countries for conservation, sustainable management, and utilization of tropical timber. And in addition to the planning of strategy for "The Year 2000 Objective," and the drawing up of guidelines, the organization has implemented more than 200 projects.
   In addition, preparations of criteria and indicators to understand and study the sustainability of forest management other than tropical forests are being debated by European countries and also by non-European countries.
   First, studies into criteria and indicators for forests within the European region have been proceeding in European countries since June 1993, with temporary agreement reached on criteria and quantitative indicators in June 1994. Studies have continued since that time into descriptive indicators.
   And in the non-European countries, including Japan, Canada, the United States, and others, work had been progressing since June 1994 on the preparation of criteria and indicators that target all forests other than tropical forests, and a final agreement was reached at the Sixth International Working Group Meeting held in Chile in February 1995.
   Again, in preparation for the third meeting of the U. N. Commis-sion on Sustainable Development (CSD) held in April 1995, the Inter-governmental Working Group on Forests (IWGF) met twice at the behest of Canada and Malaysia, in April and October 1994. Many countries, including Japan, and international organizations participated in the IWGF to deal with such issues to be debated at the CSD as forest conservation, improvement of forest covering and forest conservation and trade.
   Japan has participated in these international debates, and has also continued to promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation from past years.
   In the area of bilateral cooperation, Japan conducted forestry cooperation, in such areas as afforestation, personnel development, and forest-related research, in Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Central and South America. Of these projects, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) is currently engaged in 19 project-type technology cooperation ventures in 11 countries as of 31 March 1995.
   In multilateral cooperation, Japan continued to support the activ-ities of the ITTO providing the most funds of any member country.
   For FAO, Japan has participated in projects for improvement of forestry planning policy adoption capacity in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. Moreover, Japan also participates in the Center for International Forestry and Orchard Research (CIFOR), established in 1993 under the umbrella of the Consulting Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), thus expanding the support for forest conservation research.
   For surveys and research into tropical forests, national expert-mental research institutions are conducting research into tropical forest ecologies at field sites in the Malaysian rain forest, using the Global Environment Research Fund. The national experimental research insti-tutions are also conducting monitoring and research into changes in the tropical forest and their effects at field sites in the Thai tropical forest, using the Ocean Development and Earth Science Research Fund.
   The private sector, as well, is working to conserve the tropical forest by providing support for a sapling experiment to plant Dipter-ocarpaceae trees to rejuvenate the tropical forests in Sarawak State, Malaysia, and also by plans to plant 15,000 hectares of native tree varieties in Papua New Guinea, for the purpose of sustainable forest production.

5. Protection of Wildlife

 (1) Summary of the problem

  At the present time, decline in wildlife species is proceeding at a speed never before seen in the history of the world because of habitat destruction through human activity, and because of over hunting, and it is predicted that 5-15% of the world's total species could go extinct in the 30 years from 1990.
   Wildlife is a basic structural component forming the global ecosystem, and its existence is essential as an important resource for humans and for making life more pleasant and relaxing. Prevention of species extinction is a worldwide emergency issue.

 (2) Countermeasures

  Japan's current efforts for international wildlife protection include taking efforts for protection through such multilateral fora as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, adopted March 1973, went into effect July 1975, and went into effect in Japan in November 1980), and the Conven-tion on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention, adopted February 1971, went into effect in December 1975, and went into effect in Japan in October 1980), and through bilateral treaties with the United States, Australia, China, and Russia for the protection of migratory birds. We have also signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.  Of these agreements, the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties of the Ramsar Convention was held in Kushiro city, Hokkaido, in June 1993. Based on resolutions and recommendations taken at that time, in order to further promote conservation of wetlands and protec-tion of waterfowl in East Asia, training courses in wetland conservation and protection of migratory birds were then held in September and October 1994, while the international workshop for the conservation of migratory waterfowl and their habitats in the East Asian-Australian flyway was held in late November to early December.   At the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties of CITES, held in the United States in November 1994, the new criteria for amendment of Appendix that covers regulated species was passed. In addition, Japan was selected to chair the standing committee, boosting the importance of her role.   In a project based on the Japan-Russia Convention for the Protec-tion of Migratory Birds, Russian researchers were invited to Japan in February and March 1995, in succession to last year, and joint surveys in Hokkaido to study the migratory route of the Steller's Sea-eagle using satellite transmitters were conducted.   The objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity defined the international framework to conserve the variable living organisms with their habitats and environments on the Earth and assured sustaina-ble use of biological resources, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. The conven-tion went into effect in December 1993, and the first conference of parties was held in November 1994. At that conference, it was decided to further strengthen the implementation structure, heralding serious application of the convention for the future. And here in Japan, work was started to make a national strategy based on the convention at a committee consisting of officials from ministries and agencies con-cerned.   For other international efforts, Japan engaged in cooperative projects to assist wildlife protection in the developing countries, and JICA, as well, is involved in wildlife protection projects.

6. Conservation Countermeasures for the Marine Environment

 (1) Summary of the problem

  The ocean covers three-fourths of the Earth's total surface, holds 90% of the world's water resources, is an important location for life form production, and also has an effect on climate, through mutual interaction with the atmosphere, making it an essential element in maintaining all life on th&Earth.
   The characteristics and resources that the ocean possesses have been utilized and developed by humans since ancient times. But in recent times, in particular, with the increasing reliance on marine resources and increases in all types of pollution that occur with human activities, conservation of the marine environment has become an important issue. Since ocean region surveys tend to be conducted in seas near developed countries, the overall picture of the state of global marine pollution is not necessarily clear. Nevertheless, in closed seas such as the North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Mediterranean seas, the occurrence of red tide is increasing, along with pollution from hazardous substances such as heavy metals. Moreover, because the threat of major marine pollution exists from supertanker navigation and the development of sea bottom oil fields, and because damage incurred from the occurrence of a single accident can spread over large areas for long period of time, conserva-tion of the marine environment has become an important issue. In particular, a succession of major oil spills in recent years caused by supertanker accidents, and large-scale oil spills that occurred during the Gulf War in 1991, have had serious effects on the marine environment, again reminding international opinion of the importance of marine environment conservation.

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