White Paper

Quality of the Environment in Japan 1992

11-2-3 Designation of Natural Parks and Review of Park Programs

  (1) Designation of National and Quasi-National Parks

  The natural parks fall under the following three categories:
  A. Prominent natural scenic areas which represent Japan's scenic wonders are designated as national parks.
  B. Surpassing natural scenic areas which are almost as beautiful as national parks are designated as quasi-national parks
  C. Scenic areas which represent the scenic splendors of prefectures are designated as prefectural natural parks.
  Up to now, many natural parks have been designated, thus contributing to the conservation of the natural environment and playing an important role as places for communion with nature, such as the experiencing of wilderness, nature observation and outdoor recreation.
  The status of designation of natural parks as of the end of fiscal 1991 is indicated in Fig. 11-2-1. They consist of 28 national parks (2,050, 000 hectares), 55 quasi-national parks (1,330,000 hectares) and 299 prefec-tural natural parks (1,940,000 hectares). Their total area measures 5,330,000 hectares, accounting for 14% of the national land.

Fig. 11-2-1 Location of National and Quasi-National Parks

Fig. 11-2-1 Location of National and Quasi-National Parks

  (2) Designation of Marine Park Areas

  The Director General of the Environment Agency designates marine park areas in the national and quasi-national parks and takes necessary regulatory measures, thus working for their reasonable utili-zation.
  As of the end of fiscal 1991, a total of 58 areas measuring 2,419 hectares, which included 28 areas in national parks and 30 areas in quasi-national parks, were designated as submarine park areas.

  (3) Review of Park Schemes

  Park schemes are formulated to work for the reasonable protec-tion and utilization of natural parks, but in order to respond to social and other conditions that involve national parks, park schemes have been under review since fiscal 1973 with primary attention focused on the increased protection of nature. For parks where review has been completed, it is a practice to check their park schemes every five years in general. n fiscal 1991, a review was completed on the Setonaikai National Park (areas in the prefectures of Wakayama, Yamaguchi and Fukuoka).
  Park schemes at quasi-national parks are also under review by the State and prefectures in nearly the same manner as national parks. In fiscal 1991, park schemes were reviewed for the Abashiri Quasi-National Park, the Kurikoma Quasi-National Park, the Zao Quasi-National Park and the Okinawa-Kaigan Quasi-National Park.
  Prefectural natural parks do not have formulated park programs, but guidance was provided so that park programs could be formulated.

  (4) Designation of Areas with Controls on Admittance

  In conjunction with a revision of the Natural Parks Law in 1990, it was decided to take regulatory measures on the use of horses and vehicles or powerboats or on the take off and landing of aircraft.
  The idea is to prevent adverse effects on the habitat and growth of wild fauna and flora due to the rapidly increasing use of snowmobiles, off-the-road vehicles and so forth in recent years. By the end of fiscal 1991, 24 areas measuring 136,263 hectares in 17 national parks, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, had been designated as areas where admission restriction would be enforced.

  (5) Changes in Types of Park Works

  To cope with the diversified, compound and excessive utilization of natural parks due to increased attention on nature, the Ordinance for Enforcement of the Natural Parks Law was amended on July 5, 1991. For all park work facilities, the words "rope railway transport facil-ities" were changed to "railway transport facilities" and "fish culture facilities" to "animal culture facilities," thus paving the way for the installation of mountain-climbing cable cars and other railway facilities and cultural facilities related to all sorts of animals.

11-2-4 Protection of Nature in Natural Parks

  (1) Protection of Scenic Beauties in Natural Parks

 a. Controls on Activities in Natural Parks

  In order to protect scenic beauties in the natural parks, special areas, special protection areas and marine park areas are designated (Table 11-2-2). For various activities in those areas, it is necessary to get permission from the Director General of the Environment Agency or the governor of the prefecture. Efforts are made for the reasonable protec-tion of scenic beauty, such as with the application of the Guideline to Assess on Various Development Activities in National Park Areas (excluding ordinary areas). The number of applications for permission, filed with the Director General of the Environment Agency, in the special areas and special protection areas of national parks is given in Table 11-2-3. Even in ordinary areas, reports must be filed with the governor of the prefecture when it comes to certain activities. As regards the development of golf courses in ordinary areas, a guideline is formulated and efforts are made for the reasonable protection of the scenery.

 b. Studies and Surveys on Methods for Management of Scenic Beauty

  In order to protect and manage the core of each natural parks where one finds invaluable nature, the core of each natural park, studies are conducted for the understanding of factors which will bring about changes in the inherent ecosystems of the areas, striving to establish protection and management methods. In fiscal 1991, studies on measures for environmental conservation of the spawning grounds of sea turtles in the Iriomote National Park were conducted.

Table 11-2-2 Classified Areas in Natural Parks

Table 11-2-2 Classified Areas in Natural Parks

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency. The national land area 37,771,961 hectares (as of October 1988by National Land Institute.)

Table 11-2-3 Application for Permission of Activities in Natural Parks

Table 11-2-3 Application for Permission of Activities in Natural Parks

Notes:1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
  2. "Others" changes in land configuration.
  3. Figures in parentheses are in the special protection areas.
  4. Number include deliberation by organization of national government.

  (2) Environmental Conservation Measures at Natural Parks

  The following measures are taken for environmental conserva-tion at natural parks:
  a. Beautification and Cleaning Projects
 * Nurturing and strengthening of groups for beautification and cleaning at high attendance national parks.
 * During the first Sunday of August designated as the Natural Park Cleaning Day, the cleaning of natural parts is simultaneously done across the nation.
 b. Projects for Conservation of Special Plants, Etc.
 * Some all precious plants which grow in the national parks, are protected along with their growth environment. In order to imple-ment measures for their protection and propagation, the costs required by related local governments for surveys on the restora-tion of vegetation, the environment and so forth were subsidized for the Oze Swamp (Nikko National Park) and other places
 c. Projects for Extermination of Acanthaster planci
 * In order to protect the scenic beauty of the under sea park areas in the national and quasi-national parks where Acanthaster planci and Drupella cornus were spreading, extermination costs required by local governments were subsidized.
 d. Measures to Improve Utilization of Automobiles
 * In accordance with the Outline on the Rationalization of the Utilization of Automobiles in National Parks (by the Environ-ment Agency in March 1974), measures are taken, such as traffic controls under the Road Traffic Law and the operation of buses in place of automobile and so forth.
 e. Measures for Conservation of Specified Natural Environment Areas
 * In order to reasonably protect the ecosystems of national parks, experiments and surveys were performed for conservation of the spruce forests in the Odaigahara area of the Yashino-Kumano National Park and the Sarobetsu wilderness of the Rishiri-Rebun-Sarobetsu National Park.
 f. Measures for Conservation of Lakes and Reservoirs
 * In order to conserve the water quality of lakes, reservoirs and rivers in natural parks, attempts were made to promote sewerage development and other projects, in particular specified public sewage systems for environmental conservation.

  (3) Measures Against Excessive Use of National and Quasi-National Parks

  In order to prevent noise and other types of pollution caused by overuse in some specific areas of national and quasi-national parks, the Japan Environment Corporation is carrying out construction projects in national and quasi-national parks.

  (4) Strengthening of Management Systems

  As regards the management of national parks, a national park office is established in each national park, and efforts are made to manage them in a reasonable manner with the cooperation of local governments and private organizations. In recent years, efforts have been made to strengthen the management of national parks in order to cope with changes in the various conditions which involve national parks.

 a. National Park Offices, Etc.

  In order to protect and control the scenic beauties of national parks and carry out a broad range of activities, such as guidance to park custodians and information on nature to park users, national park offices are established in 11 national parks. As of the end of fiscal 1991, there were 117 national park rangers.
  In order to carry out management in an appropriate manner in conformity with the actual conditions of each national park, a manage-ment program is formulated. As of the end of fiscal 1991, management programs were formulated for three national parks (for example Unzen-Amakusa) and other five areas.

 b. Private Organization Activities

  The National Park Beautification and Management Corporation, a foundation, carried out park beautification and clean up, the mainte-nance and management of park facilities and the enhancement and promotion of consideration to nature protection and other projects in the 18 national park areas, including the Kamikochi area of the Chubu Mountains National Park. The Honshu-Shikoku Linkage Bridge Fund for Natural Conservation, a foundation, performed beautification and clean up projects and projects for the promotion of consideration of nature protection as measures for conservation of the peripheral natural environment of the Honshu-Shikoku Linkage Bridge (Kojima-Sakaide route).

  (5) Promotion of Private Land Purchases for Nature Protection

  In order to balance the maintenance of scenic beauties in national and quasi-national parks and the protection of wild animals and birds in state-established wildlife protection areas, with the rights of private land owners in those areas, and on the other, prefectural governments have been financially assisted in their purchases of private land.

Table 11-2-4 Purchase of Privately Owned Land with Subsidies, Including Redemptions on Local Grant Bonds

Table 11-2-4 Purchase of Privately Owned Land with Subsidies, Including Redemptions on Local Grant Bonds

Note : SA : Special Area, SPA Special Protection Area Remarks:1. Surveyed by the Environment Agency.
  2. (*): quasi-national park, (* *) wildlife protection area, otherwise, the listed are national parks.
  The actual records in the last five years are shown in Table 11-2-4. Up to now, 55 plots covering a total area of 6,333 hectares (with a total project outlay of ¥10,350 million) have been purchased.

11-3 Conservation of Forests

  The following measures are implemented to conserve forests:

  (1) Forest Programs

  In order to address the multiphasic functions of forests, such as lumber production, conservation of the land and water sources, and formation and conservation of the natural environment in a comprehen-sive and sophisticated manner, the forest planning system has been appropriately enforced and appropriate forest projects have been promoted.

  (2) Forest Land Development Licensing System

  In order to assure reasonable utilization of forest land through the operation of a forest land development licensing system, detailed operating rules on the guidance and subsidization of prefectures and licensing standards were reviewed. Also in order to appropriately cope with increasingly large-scale development projects, modification and amendments were made to the licensing standards.

  (3) Protected Forests System

  In order to address the public-good functions of forests, including conservation of land and, the water sources, formation and conservation of the natural environment and offer of places for relaxation and rest, "protection forests" were systematically designated and "special protec-tion forests" were designated for forests with reduced functionality, both according to a protection forest development program to appropri-ately maintain and control protection forests. The area of designated protection forests as of the end of fiscal 1990 was about 8,820,000 hectares.

  (4) Conservation and Management of Forests

  The following measures were taken for conservation and man-agement of forests:
 (A) Forest Pest Control Measures
  Measures for the extermination of forest blight and measures to cope with damage done by pine weevils were implemented in accor-dance with the Forest Blight Extermination Law, the Special Measures Law on Measures to Cope With Damage Done by Pine Weevils,
 (B) A Measures Against Forest Fires
  Patrols for the conservation of forests, the installation of mate-rials and equipment for the prevention of forests fires, and the develop-ment of roads in fire prevention zones were subsidized.
 (C) Public Participation
  In order to promote the development of forests with public participation, the development of a Fund for Forests with Green and. Water was promoted. Additionally, the proceeds-sharing forest system was promoted.
 (D) Areas are designated for the protection of primeval ecosystems to conserve primeval natural forests in State owned forests. This will contribute to maintenance of the natural environment made up of primeval ecosystems. As of April 1991, 10 places with a total area of about 127,000 hectares were designated, including Shiretoko, the Shirakami Mountains and the island of Iriomote-jima, were designated.

11-4 Protection of Wildlife

11-4-1 Promotion of Wildlife Protection and Management

  As a result of the Environment Agency's Study on threatened Fauna and Flora in Japan, it was found that many species were in danger of extinction. Globally it has globally become an urgent task to protect the endangered species of fauna and flora. In addition to stren-gthening the existing measures for the protection of birds and mam-mals, it is now a task to promote systematic protection measures which will cover all taxonomic groups of wild fauna and flora that inhabit Japan.

  (1) Development of A New Legal System for Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

  On October 1,1991, the Nature Conservation Council was inquir-ed about protection measures which would urgently have to be taken for the protection of wildlife. On February 24, 1992, the council presented a basic concept on the conservation of species and recommended that it would be urgently necessary to develop legislation for their protection. Given this recommendation, a Bill for the Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was submitted to the 123th Diet session.

  (2) Protection of Endangered Species

  The following studies and projects are carried out as measures to protect fauna and flora in danger of extinction:
 a. Monitoring surveys were conducted on habitation of about 70 species listed in the Red Data Book prepared by the Environment Agency, in the cooperation with local specialists and scientific societies.
 b. Surveys were conducted on the habitation of Amami wood cocks, emerald doves and fairy pittas designated as special birds.
 c. Japan is inhabited by only two Japanese ibises. One of them, a male ibis born in Japan, was sent to the Beijing zoo in March 1990 and the other ibis is bred along with an ibis of Chinese origin in a joint Japan-China ibis protection and propagation project. In fiscal 1991 and 1992, a Sado crested ibis protection center was newly constructed.
 d. The feeding and monitoring of Iriomote wild cats and Tsushima wild cats in the wintertime were conducted.
 e. An urgent survey was conducted to understand the habitats of Japanese river otters and study measures for their protection and propagation in the future.
 f. Japanese cranes were fed in the wintertime. The Habitats of 557 Japanese cranes were confirmed.
 g. Blakiston's fish owls were provided with nest boxes and feed. And a special habitation survey was performed to grasp their distribu-tion in Hokkaido and formulate a policy of protection in the future.
 h. Surveillance was done of Japanese macaques in the Shimokita Peninsula and the conservation of their habitat environment and other protection measures were taken.
 i. Projects for artificial propagation were conducted for freshwater pearl mussels and Euryale ferox, a plant.

11-4-2 Measures for Protection and Control of Wildlife

  (1) Formulation of the Seventh Wildlife Protection Project Program

  The Environment Agency formulated the standard for the Sev-enth Wildlife Protection Program which would start from fiscal 1992. According to this standard, each prefecture formulated a project pro-gram.

  (2) Establishment of Wildlife Protection Areas

  National wildlife protection areas were newly established at Sarobetsu, Daisetsuzan and Iriomote, and Sarobetsu and Iriomote were designated as special protection areas. Each prefecture established prefectural wildlife protection areas according to the Sixth Wildlife Protection Project Program. (Table 11-4-1)

Table 11-4-1 Present State of Wildlife Protection Area

Table 11-4-1 Present State of Wildlife Protection Area

  (3) Measures for Protection of Migratory Birds

  On December 12, 1991, Lake Utonai was newly designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention.
  Important points where many migratory birds visit were designated as Class I (10 locations) and Class II(50 locations) observa-tion stations and bird-banding surveys were conducted. In order to develop the basic data on the wintering of wild geese, wild ducks and the visiting of sandpipers and plovers, surveys on habitation of those wild birds and fixed observation were conducted. Also by satellite tracking, the routes for the migration of swans and points for their propagation were surveyed.

  (4) Amendment to Wildlife Protection and Hunting Law

  The law was amended to prohibit possession, sale and distribu-tion of Japanese mist nets for hunting purposes in addition to the exiting ban on their use. The Month for Strengthening of Prevention of Poach-ing with Mist Nets was established to work for propagation and enhan-cement, and illegal hunting was controlled.

  (5) Measures for Protection of Wildlife and Prevention of Damage

  Japanese Macaques and Asian black bears were surveyed in order to establish methods for the control of population and preventive technology. Crows, Domestic pigeons and deer were surveyed to work out measures against their damages to agriculture and forestry.
  Measures are taken for the protection of Japanese serows and the prevention of their damages. As part of the measures, the numbers of population are controlled in areas where their damages are serious (the prefectures of Gifu, Nagano, Aichi and Yamagata).

11-4-3 Control of Hunting

  (1) Present Situation of Hunting

  At present, wild ducks, pheasants and 30 other birds and wild boars, male deer and 17 other animals are designated as game species. The number of hunting licenses issued and that of wildlife hunted are indicated in a separate table (Table 11-4-2).

  (2) Assurance of Safety Hunting

  Guidance was given to prefectures and hunting-related organiza-tions to prevent accidents in hunting and illegal activities and assure safety hunting.

Table 11-4-2 Number of Hunting Licenses Lssued and Wildlife Hunted

Table 11-4-2 Number of Hunting Licenses Lssued and Wildlife Hunted

  (3) Establishment of Hunting Areas

  The "hunting areas" are a system which is designed to pave the way for an orderly and controlled hunting by demarcating areas where hunting may be done and the number of hunters, the duration of hunting, the types of game species and their number are restricted, while attempts are made to work for the positive protection and propagation of game species, such as with the release of wildlife. Establishment of hunting areas are shown in Table 11-4-3.

11-4-4 Propagation and Enhancement of Understandings About Protection of Wildlife

  In order to promote the propagation and enhancement of under-standings about protection of wildlife, the Meeting for the Presentation on the Protection Activities of Wildlife, those such as at the Model School conserving wild bird, was held.

11-5 Provision of Facilities for Communing with Nature

11-5-1 Provision of Natural Park Facilities

  The number of persons who used natural parks in 1990 reached about 998 million. In order to protect natural parks in a reasonable manner and enable people to safely and comfortably use them in response to the people's such desire to commune with nature, the provision of the following core facilities in conformity with the quality of nature is promoted. The system is indicated in Fig. 11-5-1.

Fig. 11-5-1 System for Provision of Natural Parks

Fig. 11-5-1 System for Provision of Natural Parks

  (1) Facilities in National and Quasi-National Parks

  National and quasi-national parks feature the excellent natural environment, picnic site, nature trail, camping sites, public toilets and other facilities provided in order to promote their safe and comfortable utilization in response to people's calls for communion with nature. Particularly as regards public toilets, emergency renewal projects were begun in fiscal 1991 for more appropriate facilities, such as flush toilets. Provision of facilities in national and quasi-national parks in fiscal 1991 is outlined in Table 11-5-1.

Table 11-5-1 Provision of National and Quasi-national Parks in FY 1991

Table 11-5-1 Provision of National and Quasi-national Parks in FY 1991

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency.

  (2) People's Vacation Village

  People's Vacation Villages are established at the places suitable for recreation within National Parks or Quasi-National Parks where natural environment is excellent. In the Villages, lodging facilities, which are healthy, neat and not expensive, as well as other facilities for outdoor activities are provided and well organized synthetically. 32 Villages were already established and well managed.
  Non profit public facilities such as picnic sites, trails, camping sites, etc. among the facilities of People's Vacation Villages, are arran-ged by the Environment Agency or local public bodies concerned. On the other hand, profitable facilities such as hotels, lodges, skiers' lifts, etc., are ranged and managed by the People's Vacation Village Association. Trends in the number of people's vacation village users are shown in Table 11-5-2.

Table 11-5-2 Trends in Number of Users of the People's Vacation Villages

Table 11-5-2 Trends in Number of Users of the People's Vacation Villages

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency.

  (3) People's Outdoor Recreation Areas

  The people's outdoor recreation areas are those which are pro-vided with priority given to enabling suburban visitors to come in deeper communion with nature through their activities to positively work on nature and to get themselves acquainted with harmony between nature and man. Facilities for display of exhibits (community natural parks and centers), picnic site, camping grounds, trail and other facilities are to be provided in five years. In fiscal 1991, construction in six areas was continued.

11-5-2 Provision of for Recreation and Facilities Communion with Nature

  (1) People's Lodges

  The people's lodges are facilities which are designed to enable people to have healthy, neat and not expensive lodging at nature spots and fit for rest. As of the end of fiscal 1990, the number of people's lodges was 297 and that of users was 8,640,000 (Table 11-5-3).

Table 11-5-3 Trends in Number of People Using People's Lodges

Table 11-5-3 Trends in Number of People Using People's Lodges

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency.

  (2) People's Recreation Centers

  The people's recreation centers are facilities which are designed primarily to enable community residents to engage in day recreation activities and rest for health care at places suitable for rest. As of the end of fiscal 1991, the number of centers was 69 and that of users was 2,880,000 (Table 11-5-4).

Table 11-5-4 Number of National Recreation Centers and Users

Table 11-5-4 Number of National Recreation Centers and Users

Remarks: Surveyed by the Environment Agency.

  (3) Communities for Communication with Nature and Native Living Things

  Communities for communion with nature and native living things is designed to conserve places for communion with features of nature unique to native areas, such as dragonflies, cicadae, frogs and other small animals, and to maintain them as places for nature education. Facilities are developed and also briefings and guidances on nature are provided with participation of volunteers with a view to promoting nature education. The places for communion with living things in native districts are classified into two types, depending on the diversity of nature; one type is the wide area type in which different kinds of nature observation spots are connected by trails; and the other is the small area type in which the integral development of nature observation points and so forth as pivots for activities in the district is done. In either type, nature centers, observation facilities, ecosystem conservation facilities and so on are provided. In fiscal 1991, a total of seven districts, including three of the wide area type and four of the small area types, were provided (Table 11-5-5).

Table 11-5-5 Communities for Communication with Nature and Native Living Things

Table 11-5-5 Communities for Communication with Nature and Native Living Things

Remarks: Surveyd by the Environment Agency.

  (4) Long-Distance Nature Trail

  The system of long-distance nature trail is designed to enable people to physically and mentally develop themselves in a sound manner and deepen their understanding about nature by coming in contact with nature and visiting historic remains by themselves. The development of long-distance nature trail was started in fiscal 1970 to organically link natural parks and cultural assets. Their aggregate length is 12,999 kilometers. Provision of the Tohoku Nature Trail was started in fiscal 1990. The number of users in fiscal 1991 was 30,490,000 (Table 11-5-6).

  (5) Protected Forests for Health, Protected Forests for Rest, Etc.

  Forests with significant functions for conservation of the nature environment and for health and rest were designated as, "protected forests for health." The "protected forests for health" and the "scenic protected forests" measure about 580,000 hectares.
  Of all State-owned forests, forests for rest in nature and other recreation forests (about 550,000 hectares) were developed, maintained and managed for health and rest. Also were developed the Human Green Plan under which a wide variety of forest recreation facilities would be comprehensively developed in State-owned forests.

  (6) Villages for Family Vacation

  The system of villages for family vacation is designed to secure sightseeing and recreation places in nature which may readily be used primarily by families, thus contributing to local development. In fiscal 1991, the development of 11 areas were carried on, and surveys were newly performed in three areas to facilitate design.

Table 11-5-6 Outline of Long-Distance Nature Trails

Table 11-5-6 Outline of Long-Distance Nature Trails

  (7) Homes for Young People in Nature

  Homes for young people in nature are facilities for social educa-tion with a view to encouraging them to familiarize themselves with nature and work for their sound growth. 64 national homes for young people in nature across the nation had been completed by fiscal 1991.

11-5-3 Protection and Utilization of Hot Springs

  (1) Protection and Utilization of Hot Springs

  Japan is a country prominent with hot springs in the world, and the places where hot springs are available play an exceedingly impor-tant role as places of health and rest for people. As of the end of fiscal 1990, there were 22,353 hot springs (including 5,040 self-gushing hot springs and 10,277 pump-up hot springs), and about 3,200,000 tons of hot spring water gushes each day.
  For protection and utilization of those hot springs, the Hot Spring Law contains the following regulatory measures: Digging, additional digging and pump-up systems of hot springs  The permission of prefectural governors is requested The offer of hot springs for bathing or drinking  The permission of prefectural governors or mayors of specified cities is required.
  The number of permits granted across the nation in 1990 was 1, 312 for digging, 78 foradditional digging, 619 for pump-up systems and 1,980 for bathing or drinking.

  (2) Hot Spring Health Resort

  The places in which full effects may be expected from the utilization of hot springs and which may be fully used as sound places for rest are designated by the Director-General of the Environment Agency as "hot spring health resort" under the Hot Spring Law. As of the end of January 1992, 80 places with a total area of 12,042.06 hectares were designated.
  In fiscal 1991, seven places were newly designated as hot spring health resort. Also fiscal 1991, the provision of facilities for outdoor hot springs for drinking and those for picnic site was subsidized.

11-6 Conservation and Development of the Natural Environment in Urban Areas

11-6-1 Conservation of Natural Environment in Urban Areas

  The natural environment in urban areas played a significant role, such as in air purification and the easing of climate conditions, and is indispensable for creation of a comfortable urban environment, includ-ing supply of space for recreation. The following measures were taken for conservation of the natural environment in such urban areas.

  (1) Development of People's Parks and Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery to the War Dead

  The Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace, which was a former garden for the Imperial Family, the Shinjuku Imperial Garden and the Kyoto Imperial Garden have been under the custody of the Environment Agency as the people's parks since 19721. and used by people, and the parks are well liked.
  The Outer Imperial Garden covers an area of 114.9 hectares. The Kita-no-Maru section of this garden is developed as a forest park primarily with Japanese black pine trees and grass. The Shinjuku Imperial Garden is a garden blending Japanese and Western styles typical in the Meiji era with an area of 58.3 hectares. In addition to 1, 900 cherry blossom trees in about 50 species, flowering trees are so arranged that people may enjoy flowers throughout the year. The garden is visited by 700,000 people a year. The Kyoto Imperial Garden, surrounding the Kyoto Imperial Palace, is rectangular with an area of 65.3 hectares, measuring 1,300 meters north to south and 700 meters east to west. Both at the imperial gardens of Shinjuku and Kyoto, a "forest for mothers and children" is developed for the observation of nature.
  The Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery for the War Dead is a garden with an area of some 1.6 hectares, enshrining the ashes of 333,603 servicemen (as of March 1992) whose surviving families are unknown.
  In order to contribute to the pleasant use of the gardens, the toilets were improved and the garden paths repaired in fiscal 1991. In addition, maintenance and control measures were taken, including the cleaning of the garden and trimming of the laws and trees.

  (2) Development of City Parks

  As regards city parks, five-year plans for the development of city parks have been formulated to promote their development under the Law Concerning Emergency Measures for the Improvement of City Parks. A check of development of city parks indicates that the area of city parks, etc., per person of the subject population came only to 5.6 m2 (as of the end of fiscal 1989).
  In fiscal 1991, the last fiscal year for the Fifth Five Year Plan for the Development of City Parks, Etc. (with a total outlay of 5 trillion, including ¥2,230 billion in general public works projects, and with the development target of about 7.0 m2 person by the end of fiscal 1995), attempts were made for the positive development of city parks, etc., with an outlay of ¥119,576 million (including ¥302.3 billion in general public works outlays). The outline is shown in Table 11-6-1.

  (3) Conservation of Urban Green Space

  Under the City Green Space Conservation Law, areas for the conservation of green space are designated. In those areas, a licensing system is adopted for certain types of development and tracts of land are purchased. The areas for the conservation of green space designated as of theend of fiscal 1989 measured about 1,873 hectares. About 79 hectares of land had been purchased by fiscal 1990 and another 3 hectares were purchased in fiscal 1991.
  As of the end of fiscal 1990, greening agreements were concluded for 788 districts in 106 cities in order to promote greening with the agreement of citizens.

  (4) Suburban Green Space

  Under the Law for the Conservation of Suburban Green Belts in the National Capital Region and the Law for the Conservation of Suburban Green Belts in the Kinki Region, 24 districts with a total area of about 97,000 hectares are designated as areas for the conservation of suburban green space. Of them, 13 districts with a total area of 1,247 hectares are designated as special areas for the conservation of subur-ban green space where conservation is particularly important. Licenses are required for certain types of development and tracts of land are purchased. By fiscal 1990, about 164 hectares had been purchased and in fiscal ,1991, about 1 hectare was bought.

  (5) Designation of Agricultural Zones in Urban Areas

  In areas for urbanization, "agricultural zones" are specified in city planning in accordance with the Agricultural Land Law to system-atically conserve farmland and form a favorable urban environment. As regards land in the zones, landowners are obligated to manage farm-land, and for the development of housing sites, permission of competent municipal mayors is required for the construction of new buildings. As of the end of fiscal 1989, Category I and Category II agricultural zones were designated in 25 cities with a total area of about 368 hectares and 32 cities with a total area of 334 hectares.

  (6) Promotion of Urban Greening

  There is the need to work for the greening of public good facil-ities, such as roads and rivers, and conservation and creation of green space in the privately owned land which accounts for half of the built-up urban areas. As regards public facilities, the third Five-Year Tree Planting Program for Urban Greening is formulated to work for green-ing in a systematic manner.
  In model projects for the formation of urban scenic splendors, basic programs are formulated for model areas to create urban scenic splendors, and according to those programs, projects are adjusted and carried out on a priority basis to work for greening in the areas in an efficient manner and on a priority basis.
  The greening of privately owned land is promoted with guidance on greening, subsidies from the Urban Greening Fund and so forth. In measures against landslides in cities, attempts were made to increase green and enhance resistance to disasters in cities by carrying out greening on the slopes.

11-6-2 Protection of Cultural Properties and Protection of Historic Environments

  (1) Historic Sites, Scenic Spots and Natural Monument

  Ancient tombs, burial mounds, castles ruins and other historically and scientifically valuable places are designated as "historic sites." Gardens and other scenic spots valuable in terms of art and appreciation are designated as "scenic spots." Scientifically valuable fauna and flora, geological features and minerals are designated as "natural monu-ments." Restrictions are imposed on change in their configuration As of the end of fiscal 1991, there were 1,301 historic sites, 257 scenic Spots and 914 natural monuments.
  Furthermore, in order to cope with the decrease of fauna and flora designated as natural monuments, projects (subsidized) for protec-tion and propagation of natural monuments are conducted.

  (2) Protection of Historic Structure Group Preservation Areas

  Of the areas designated by municipalities for conservation of old post towns, old castle towns and other groups of historic structures and their integrally valuable environment, those which are particularly valuable for the nation are selected as important historic structure group preservation areas, and maintenance and repair of buildings, installation of facilities to prevent disasters, transfer to public owner-ship and other projects are subsidized. As of the end of fiscal 1981, 34 areas (in 29 municipalities) across the nation were selected.

  (3) Conservation of Historic Natural Features in Historic Municipalities

  Under the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of Historic Natural Features in Historic Municipalities, Kyoto and five cities, one town and one villages have been made "historic municipal-ities," and areas have been designated for the conservation of historic natural features with a total area of about 13,000 hectares. The 39 sections which form particularly important parts with a total area of 4,532 hectares are designated as sections for conservation of historic natural features.
  In Asuka Village, Category I sections for conservation of historic natural features with a total area of 125.6 hectares are designated in city planning in accordance with the Law for Special Measures Concerning the Conservation of Historic Natural Features and the Development of the Living Environment in Asuka Village. Also under the Program for the Development of the Living Environment and Industrial Infras-tructure, Etc., in Asuka Village, a wide variety of projects in tune with the preservation of its historic natural features is promoted.
  In the special areas for preservation of historic natural features, tracts of land are purchased. By fiscal 1990, about 307 hectares had been purchased and in fiscal 1990, an additional 8 hectares or so was bought. Development of facilities under the program for preservation of historic natural features is subsidized, and in fiscal 1991, vegetation and so forth were developed with a total outlay of ¥46 million (with the project cost at ¥92 million).

11-7 Maintenance of the Environment for Rivers, Ports and Harbors, Fishing Ports and Seacoasts

11-7-1 Maintenance of the River Environment

  (1) Maintenance of the River Environment

  In accordance with the Basic Program for the Control of the Riparian Environment (formulated for 164 water systems by 1990), measures for the legitimate utilization of the natural environment of rivers were promoted, and with a project outlay of ¥6,474 million, rivers were developed with their environment taken into account. The riparian environment maintenance projects (riparian road development projects) with which to promote the use of rivers as spaces for recreation were performed for 11 rivers with a project outlay of ¥754 million. Also in order to prepare and conserve waterside spaces full of charm, the "Model Project on Rivers in Native Places," "'My Town' and 'My River' Development Project," "Model Project on Riverbanks with Cherry Trees," "Model Project for Communion with Streams" and Building of Rivers Full of Nature" were performed.

  (2) Maintenance of the Environment Around Dams

  In order to maintain the environment around dams and reser-voirs, attempts were made to work for development of the infrastructur-e at 32 dams, now including the Tsuruta and six other dams, with a project outlay of ¥1,106 million, and projects for comprehensive conser-vation and development of specified dams were conducted for a total of eight dams, now including the estuary dam of the Ashida River (with a project outlay of ¥733 million).
  Projects to promote utilization of dam lakes (lake resort projects) were performed for five dams, including the Tase dam. Lakeside devel-opment projects for recreation were conducted,(with a project outlay of ¥678,880,000) and multipurpose dam projects for recreation were also performed (with a project outlay of ¥1,281,820,000).

  (3) Maintenance of the Environment Around Sand Erosion Control Facilities

  In fiscal 1991, the development of high water levels, greening and so forth were conducted for 21 streams, including the Haruki River in Oita Prefecture, with a project outlay of ¥903 million.

11-7-2 Maintenance of the Fishing Ports Environment

  (1) Maintenance of Green Space at Fishing Ports

  In fiscal 1991, greening and other maintenance projects were performed for Nagoya and other ports. Historic port and harbor envi-ronment maintenance projects were also conducted.

  (2) Maintenance of Marinas

  In fiscal 1991, the maintenance of marinas was performed at Otaru and other ports as public works projects. In addition, a costal resort project, designed to promote development of bases for safe and comfortable marine recreation, began at 46 places across the nation in 1986.

11-7-3 Maintenance of Fishing Ports

  In order to contribute to the efficient operation and safety of fishing ports, fishing port environment maintenance projects, such as for vegetation and the development of rest houses and so forth, were conducted (with a project outlay of ¥2.8 trillion).

11-7-4 Maintenance of the Seacoasts Environment

  Seacoast environment maintenance projects were performed at 299 places across the nation in fiscal 1991 with a project outlay of ¥38, 091 million.

11-8 Greening Promotion Campaigns

  Under the leadership of the Greening Promotion Council (chaired by the Chief Cabinet Secretary) made up of eight related ministries and agencies, comprehensive and efficient measures are promoted to work for a nationwide evolution of greening promotion campaigns. With the compilation of "On the Execution of the Greening Promotion Cam-paigns in Fiscal 1990," the following measures were taken:

  (1) Promotion of Campaign for Tweeting-Bird Woods

  The campaign for development of tweeting bird woods was promoted to work for the creation of the environment suitable for habitats of wild birds and the development of places for communion with wild birds. Letters of commendation were given to local govern-ments and other organizations which had created particularly com-mendable woods. Also in order to promote greening with private funds, a campaign for golfers' cooperation in greening evolved.

  (2) Promotion of Town With Flowers and Green

  Projects for the development of model areas for cities with flowers and green have been carried out since fiscal 1984. In fiscal 1991. those projects were carried on in seven cities (with a total project outlay of ¥140 million per city for four years).

  (3) Project for Promotion of Greening of the School Environment

  Projects to promote greening of the school environment were conducted as part of the special project for the better health of pupils and students (with a national outlay of ¥877,630,000 in fiscal 1991).

  (4) Promotion of National Land Greening Campaign

  In order to promote greening of the land, projects were subsidized in which the National Tree Planting Festival and other events were conducted. In addition, the greening campaigns which evolved around the "Green Day" and the "Green Week" and the "Green Feather" fund raising and other campaigns were evolved across the nation.

  (5) Promotion of Greening for Factories

  Efforts for greening around factories were made under the Factory Greening Law, and guidance was provided on enhancement and propagation. The Green Mark system was put into force by the Waste Paper Recycling Promotion Center, a foundation.

  (6) Promotion of Greening in Cities

  The following events were done to promote greening in cities: (a) Holding a wide variety of events during the period of the Campaign for the Promotion of Greening in Cities (April through June). On Green Day and during Green Week and the month for greening in cities, (b) holding of the Second National Gathering for the "Protection of Green," (c) holding of the National Fair for Greening in Cities and the National Festival for Greening in Cities, (d) development of consultation centers on green space, (e) guidance on the conclusion of greening agreements, (f) replenishment of the Fund for Greening in Cities and the Fund for Greening in Local Cities, and (g) promotion of Woods Building in Towns and the Woods Building in Hometown and the development of Cherry Gardens.

Chapter12. Global Environment and International Environmental Cooperation

12-1 Global Environment issues

  (1) Evolution of International Efforts

  In recent years, global environmental problems have come to the fore and there is a mounting climate for international cooperation against the background of further increases in the levels of economic performance primarily in developed countries, poverty and rapid rises in population and its concentration in cities, primarily in developing coun-tries, and the expansion of international interdependence, among others. The global environmental problems are dealt with primarily by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), followed by such international institutions as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Meteorological Orga-nization (WMO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). They are also dealt with by in a diversified manner by the Organization for Economic Coopera-tion and Development (OECD), the International Council of Scientific Union (ICSU) and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), by such international banking institutions as the World Bank and by the government of each country. Particularly in fiscal 1991, the formulation of a framework convention on climate change, development of economic instrument for environmental conservation and appropriate responses to environmental disasters were agreed upon in the economic declaration made at the London G 7 Summit. In order to bring to success the Earth Summit which is to be held in April 1992, five preparatory meetings have been held since August 1990 and another six meetings to discuss a convention on bio diversity have been held since November 1990. The signatories to the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol met in June 1991 and those to the Washington Convention met in March 1992.

  (2) Japan's Initiative

  Since September 1980, the Council on Global Environmental Problems (chaired by former Minister of Foreign Affairs Saburo Okita) has meet under the sponsorship of the Director-General of the Environ-ment Agency and thus far produced five reports. The second report ("On International Efforts in Solving Global Environmental Problems"), released in 1982, led to the establishment of the World Committee on Environment and Development (WCED). In March 1992, the fifth report, titled "Basic Concept about an Earth Charter," was released to contribute to the formulation of a earth charter at the Earth Summit and to the evolution of new environment policies with the Earth Summit as a turning point.
  In May 1989, the Cabinet orally approved the opening of Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation (chaired by the Prime Minister with its members made up of the ministers of 19 ministries and agencies, the Minister in Charge of Problems in the Global Environment, executives of the Liberal Democratic Party). At the first meeting held in June, the council confirmed the following as the basic direction of Japanese Policy for the global environment conserva-tion.
 (A) Positive participation in formulating international frameworks
 (B) Promotion of observation, surveillance, research and studies
 (C) Promotion of the development and dissemination of technology
 (D) Broadening of aid in the environmental sector to developing countries
 (E) Greater consideration to the environment in the offer of official development aid
 (F) Efforts to make socioeconomic performances less stressful on the global environment; promotion of enhancement and dissemination in order to enhance the understanding and cooperation of each segment of the people
  At the second meeting, an agreement was reached on the compre-hensive promotion of research and studies, observation and surveillance, and promotion of technical development in relation to the global envi-ronment conservation, and it was decided to prepare an annual compre-hensive promotion program each year.
  In June 1990, the third meeting was held to approve the Program for the Comprehensive Promotion of Basic Research and Study, for the Global Environment Conservation in Fiscal 1990 in accordance with the agreement reached at second meeting. It was also decided (1) to formu-late an action for arresting global warming in the early part of this fiscal year (2) and internationally advocate the necessity of coming out with a long term vision (earth renewal program) about measures to cope with global warming. In response to this decision, the fourth meeting was held in October 1990 to determine an action program to arrest global warming in accordance with the agreement made in June of the same year.
  At the fifth meeting held in June 1991, the Program for the Comprehensive Promotion of Survey and Research, for Conservation of the Global Environment in Fiscal 1991, and reports were made about the measures related to the action program to arrest global warming in fiscal 1991.
  In May, the Japan Committee on the Global Environment came into being so that each segment of Japanese society could cooperate to conserve the global environment, such as making input to the Earth Summit and proposing substantial measures for a society and economy which is friendly to the earth. In August 1990, on the other hand, the Prime Minister approved the Basic Program for the Research and Development of Global Science and Technology.
  The total budget related to the global environment conservation for all related ministries and agencies came to Y480.3 billion in fiscal 1991. In fiscal 1992, the total budget will be Y498.4 billion, up 3.7% from fiscal 1991 (Table 12-1-1).

Table 12-1-1 Proposed Budget for FY 1992 and Budget for FY 1991 of the Government for Global Environmental Conservation
1. The Total FY 1992 Proposed Budget of the government for Global Environmental Conservation is shown as follows
  FY 1991 Budget  4,808 (100 million yen)
  FY 1992 Budget (proposal)  4,984 (100 million yen)
  92/91 comparison  3.7% Up
2. Budget by function is as following tables

General Expendure in Category 1 consists of international and other organizations,reserches and surveys, ODA in environmental fields and other policy expendures
Note: 1. The grant aid rendered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, technical cooperation by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and soft loan by the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) are not included on this table, as the portions related to global environmental conservation cannot be identified exactly.
Note: 2. "Budget for Promoting and Coodination of Science and Technology" under Science and Technology Agency is not included in this table, as the portions related to global environmental conservation cannot be identified exactly.

12-1-1 Measures to arrest Global Warming

  (1) Global warming

  The greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (C02, CH4, CFC, N2O, vapor etc.) intercept radiation emitted from surface of the earth, and through this process the earth has been kept at certain level of tempera-ture.
  Global warming is the change in climate, which provide basis for mankind and the ecosystem, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect by man-induced increase of CO2 and other greenhouse gases which will cause the temperature of the Earths surface to increase. Predicted global warming has never been observed over the last 10,000 years, the rate of which is characteristically higher in geological term.
  According to the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it is projected under the business-as-usual scenario that the global mean temperature would rise by about 1 C by 2025 and about 3 C before the end of the 21st century above the present value, and that global mean sea level would rise by about 20 cm by 2030 and by 65 cm (with a maximum rise of 1 meter) by the end of the 21st century.

  (2) Policy and Measures

  (a) Promotion of the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming

  The Council of Ministers for Global Environment Conservation established the Action Program, which set out principles and basic policies to address the global warming, on October 23, 1990. At present, all sorts of measures are implemented according to the Action program.
  Main measures which is taken in fiscal year 1991 are shown a follows.
 a. Examinations were conducted for the formulation of model programs to implement measures by local governments in line with the Action Program.
 b. In waste management, new technologies such as reduction and resource recovery, utilization of incineration heat, recovery of GHG (methane) were positively promoted. And public awareness activities related to reduction, resource recovery and energy recovery are promot-ed.
 c. In order to form transport systems with low CO2 emissions, promotion of modal shift in the areas of medium or long distance transport between major terminals, improvement of transport effi-ciency, promotion of the use of public means of transit (in particular, transportation by bus), and developed/improved roads such as intersec-tions and bypasses were implemented.
 d. In order to form an energy supply structure with low GHGs emissions, development and utilization of new clear power premising the assurance of safety, the introduction of combined cycle power generation and so on were promoted.
 e. Research on clarification of phenomena and assessment metho-dologies for impact, observation/monitoring with artificial satellites, and development of observation/monitoring technologies were carried out. For this purpose, the Center for Global Environment research of National Institute for Environmental Studies, the Research Institute on Science and Technology Against Disasters, and the Warming Informa-tion Center were expanded and consolidated. And the Global Environ-ment Research Program Budget was expanded and consolidated.
 f. In order to develop technologies to mitigate GHGs emissions, such as advanced technology for new energy and energy conservation, and innovative technologies for CO2 fixation and utilization, research was positively promoted under the Sunshine Project and the Moonlight Project and at the Industrial Technology Research Organization for Global Environment.
 g. For the full dissemination of the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming, it was distributed to economic and other related organizations, voters and people in general. It was also disseminated to local governments at conferences and other places. In June 1991, the measures which were to be implemented by the related ministries and agencies under the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming in fiscal 1991 were compiled.
 h. As regards international cooperation, support was given to related institutions. In order to promote international agreement and joint activities aiming at realizing the conservation and sustainable management of tropical forests, the "Senior Foresters Conference" was held. And provisional support to develop response strategy against global warming in developing countries of Asian-Pacific region were promoted. Furthermore, training conducted by private organization were supported in order to promote transfer of technologies which contribute to mitigate global warming.

  (b) Negotiations on the Framework Convention of Climate Change

  There had been five meetings of the Intergovernmental Negotiat-ing committee on framework convention of climate change as of March 1992.
  With a view to curbing the emissions of greenhouse gases, Japan proposed (1) that all nations curb emissions of all greenhouse gases, and (2) that developed countries, in particular, exert all possible efforts to stabilize, for example, by 2000 emissions of carbon dioxide or emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled under the Montreal Protocol to about the 1990 level. As a mean to achieve this target, Japan proposed the preparation of national strategies or programs which would contain substantial measures and the mechanism under which to internationally review them, thus striving to form a broad range of international accords. Japan also made positive contributions to the progress of negotiations, such as by serving as a co-chairman of Working Group I.

  (c) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  Three IPCC working groups are studying scientific findings on global warming, environmental and socioeconomic impacts and response strategies. The first assessment report was furnished to the Fourth session held in August 1990.
  At the Seventh session held in February 1992, the IPCC approved the supplements to the first assessment report for presentation to the Fifth Conference on a Climate Change Framework Convention.
  From the beginning, Japan has positively involved itself in the work, such as by serving as deputy chairman of the second working group on Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts and as cochair-man of the third group or the Energy and Industry Subgroup (BIS).

12-1-2 Ozone Layer Protection

  (1) Outline of Problems

  The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects the creatures by absorbing most of the hazardous solar ultraviolet rays. It has become evident in recent years that the ozone layer is destroyed by manmade chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and so forth. There is concern that the destruction of the ozone layer and the increase of harmful ultraviolet rays might not only lead man to suffer from health disorders, such as nom-melanoma skin cancer and cataracts but also hamper the growth of plants and plankton as well.
  Made up of carbon fluorine and chlorine, CFCs are used as solvents, refrigerants, foaming agents and propellants, and bromine-containing halons are used primarily as fire extinguishing agents. These substances, when emitted, are so stable that they will reach the strato-sphere, where they are decomposed by strong solar ultraviolet rays, releasing the atoms of chloride or bromine. With those atoms serving as catalysts, the reaction in which ozone is decomposed takes place in a chain reaction.
  Once the ozone layer is depleted by CFCs, it will take much time for it to restore. Causing widespread damage around the world, it is an environmental issue of the global scale.

  (2) Ozone Layer Protection Measures

  In order to prevent depletion of the ozone layer, the "Vienna Convention for Protection of the Ozone Layer" was adopted in March 1985 and the "Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer" in September 1987. As a system in which those accords could be appropriately and smoothly observed, the "Law Concerning the Protec-tion of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures" (the Ozone Layer Protection Law) was promulgated in Japan in May 1988 (Fig. 12-1-1), and Japan became a Party to the convention and the protocol in September 1988.
  Given Amendment of the Montreal Protocol in June 1990 (Table 12-1-2), the Ozone Layer Protection Law was partially amended to strengthen measures and the amended law was promulgated in March 1991. In the amended law, 1. 1. 1-trichloroethane and other substances which are the new controlled substances under the amended protocol are added as the objects of product control and obligation of their emission control and rational use by business users. As regards 34 kinds of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), for which reporting is required under the protocol, the amended law contains new provisions on report-ing about its products and so forth, as well as on the obligation of their emission control and rational use by business users. Japan accepted the amended Protocol in September 1991-In line with the amendment of the law, the "Basic Matters" which provides the basic direction for measures to protect the ozone layer in Japan was partially amended in March 1991. The following measures are taken in Japan to protect the ozone layer:

Fig. 12-1-1 Outline of the "Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures"

Fig. 12-1-1 Outline of the "Law concerning the Protection of the Ozone Layer through the Control of Specified Substances and Other Measures"

Object : To impement the measures ensuring the international agreements precisely and smoothly for the purpose of protection of the ozone layer through intemationa cooperation, and consequently, for the protection of the public health and for preserving the living environment.

Table 12-1-2 Phase-out Schedule adopted by the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (June, 1990)

Table 12-1-2 Phase-out Schedule adopted by the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol (June, 1990)

  (a) Controls on Production of CECs, Etc.

  In the Ozone Layer Protection Law, the substances which are controlled under the Montreal Protocol are categorized as "specified substances," and it is made a rule to phase out their production and consumption according to the phase out schedule under the protocol. As regards specified substances, Japan began to control the productions of specified CFCs in July 1989, and that of halons in January 1992.
  The productions and consumptions of specified CFCs in Japan are as follows:
      Production  Consumption (tons)
1986 (base year)  119,998  118,134
July 1990-June 1991  101,288  89,056
     (84% of base year) (75% of base year)
  (The values are the totals gained by multiplying the production and consumption of each CFC by its own Ozone depleting Potential (ODP).)

  (b) Emission control and rational use of CFCs and others.

  As the Guidelines for Emission Control and Rational Use of Specified CFCs was promulgated on January 4, 1989 in order for entre-preneurs using specified CFCs to curb their emission and rationalize their use, attempts were made to let it be known and disseminated with the distribution of manuals and pamphlets. July of each year is designat-ed as the Month for the Promotion of the Rational Use of Specified CFCs for an unerring and smooth promotion of measures for protection of the ozone layer, and the government and non-governmental sectors strive for its enhancement and propagation.
  As regards facilities to utilize specified CFCs for cleaning pur-poses, for which the guidelines require to introduce emission control and recovery facilities, special tax and financial measures are available in introducing such facilities, including special redemption for the corpora-tion and income taxes as well as the setting of exceptions in the application of taxable standards for the fixed property tax; and finan-cial measures, such as low-interest loans available from the Japan Development Bank, Japan Environment Corporation and other institu-tions.

  (c) Promotion of Research and Studies on Ozone Layer Depletion

  Detailed studies are conducted on mechanisms for the depletion of the ozone layer, the impacts due to the depletion of the ozone layer, measurement of vertical profiles of ozone with an ozone laser radar, the development of technologies for the observation of ozone, the develop-ment of models for predictions on the increase and decrease of the ozone layer, and the development of technologies on the destruction of CFCs.

12-1-3 Acid Rain

  (1) Outline of Problems

  Acid rain is a typical global environmental issue. In the natural state, rain absorbs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thus adding to its acidity. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides generated by the combustion of fossil fuels are converted into sulfur and nitric acid, turning into rain which features a higher degree of acidity.
  In North America and Europe, the fall of acidified rain is report-ed as having produced significant impacts on lakes, reservoirs, forests and so forth and historic remains and other structures, thus developing into a trans-boundary international issue.

  (2) Measures

  In Japan, the Committee on Acid Precipitation was established in fiscal 1983 and the first survey on measures against acid rain was performed (in fiscal 1983 to fiscal 1987) -It was concluded in the survey:
 (A) PH 4 levels of rainfall and acid fallout on a par with or more than in Western nations were observed,
 (B) The precipitation of sulfuric ion were great primarily on the side of the Sea of Japan in the wintertime,
 (C) The existence of lakes and reservoirs was observed (those with low levels of alkalinity in the neighborhood of PH 5-7) which presum-ably tended to be affected by acid rain in the future,
 (D) Signs of a drop in PH of the soil were not observed in the survey period, but from the physicochemical properties of the soil, the degrees of resistance by the soil to acid rain could be classified, and
 (E) When buckwheat, which is considered relatively resistant to the acid soil, is planted in the soil where PH 3 of artificial acid rain was fallen, impacts were observed on its height.
  In response to those findings, the second five-year survey on measures against acid rain was begun in fiscal 1988.
  For establishment of a system of long-term acid fallout observa-tion, monitoring stations were established on offshore islands one by one from fiscal 1989 in the second survey in addition to observation made by 23 State-established air monitoring stations across the nation. In order to gather data for the analysis and assessment of interrelations among the air, soil, land water and vegetation, comprehensive monitoring is conducted. An interim report was prepared on the findings of the surveys performed before fiscal 1990. They are outlined below:
 (A) The precipitation of PH and ion was virtually at the same level as in Western countries. There had been no significant fluctuations since the first survey.
 (B) No significant impacts from acid snow were observed.
 (C) As regards the impacts of acid rain on vegetation, trees were decayed in some survey areas, but multilateral surveys and studies are required on the causes.
  The findings will be finally compiled after fiscal 1992, and the tolerable emission level computed in a simulation method and the formulation of a program for emission reductions studied.

12-1-4 Conservation of Forests, Particularly Tropical Forests

  (1) Outline of the Problem

  As sources for the supply of food, fertilizer, fuel and so forth, forests, especially tropical forest, may literally be called the basis for human life. They also serve as sources for supply of not only timber but also non-timber products for medicines. They are also rich storehouses of genetic resources, as about half of all species of wildlife in the world inhabit tropical forests. They are also equipped with various environ-mental functions, such as conservation of the land and water sources, constituting an existence indispensable for the welfare of all mankind.
  According to the second interim report of the Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project, the latest report from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), it is conjectured that tropi-cal forests have continued to decrease at an annual average rate of about 17 million hectares (equivalent to half the area of Japan's national land) in the last 10 years. It is also pointed out that the deforestation of such a huge area of forests one of the causes for the acceleration of global warming with the massive emission of carbon dioxide. The causes to the deforestation of tropical forests differ, depending on the area, and nontraditional sifting cultivation, the over exploitation for fuelwood, the inappropriate commercial logging and overgrazing are cited as causes. The causes are diversified and complex, as they are tied in with social and economic factors, such as increase in population, poverty and land tenure systems.

  (2) Measures

  For the Earth Summit in June 1992, Japan made positive contribu-tions to reaching agreement at a wide variety of international confer-ences, such as preparatory meetings for the summit. Some developed countries were intent upon establishment of a convention on forests, but developing countries raised strong objections, contending that it might end up with unilateral restrictions from the developed countries on utilization of their own forest resources. It was eventually agreed at the second preparatory meeting to work for a global consensus before the summit on non-legally binding authoritative principles on forests. One of the most controversial point of contention was the developing countries'assertion that the primary responsibility for depletion of forests rests with the developed countries and that aid from the developed countries to the developing countries should be unconditionally given as compensation.
  As international conferences on forests, Conference of the Senior Foresters was held in Yokohama in July 1991 under the co-sponsorship of the International Tropical Timber Organization, (ITTO) and Japan' s Forestry Agency. At the meeting, forester of each government got together and unfolded practical discussions from their position as experts on forestry. The conference came out with "Yokohama For-estry Declaration". In Paris in September, the 10th World Forestry Congress was held under the theme of "Forests, A Heritage for the Future" and adopted "Paris Declaration".
  Along with active participation in those international debates, Japan continued to promote bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Its cooperation is outlined below:
  Bilateral Cooperation in forestry, such as afforestation, human resources development and forestry-related researches; This type of cooperation is rendered in Southeast Asia, Oceania, Africa and Latin America.
  Through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), project-type technical cooperation is rendered on 14 projects in 12 countries, Multilateral Cooperation
  Cooperation with the ITTO
  * Japan continued to make a fund contribution, the greatest of all contributions from member countries.
  * ITTO taking up "Target by 2000" (to ensure that all trade in tropical timber is sourced from sustainably managed forests by the year 2000), at 11th Council in December 1991, 16 member countries, including Japan, published each measures to take for accomplishment of the "Target 2000." Cooperation with FAO's Tropical Foresty Action Plan (TFAP)
  * Japan made a fund contribution to the project which was designed to upgrade the ability of each Asian-Pacific country to formulate plans. OGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research)
  * Japan expanded support to researches on forest conservation. As regards surveys and research on tropical forests, studies with a contribution from the Global Environment Research Budget were made with Malaysian rain forests and studies by national research institute were made with Thailand tropical forests as a field.
  The private sector in Japan has also begun to conserve tropical forest in various ways. For example Mitsubishi Shoji Corporation has started supporting experiments on planting of the saplings of Dipter-ocarpaceous species for a renewal of the tropical forests in Sarawak, Malaysia. Nissho-Iwai Co. is making plans for 20,000 hectares of affor-estation, centering on local tree species, in Papua New Guinea with a view to realizing sustainable forestry production.

12-1-5 Protection of Wildlife

  The number of wildlife species is being reduced at the fastest speed ever in the history of the earth due to the destruction of their habitats by human activities and over-exploitation, and it is estimated that the annual extinction rate by 2000 will reach about 40,000 species per year.
  Wildlife constitutes one of the basic components which form the ecosystems of the earth and is indispensable as useful resources for mankind and as an existence which provides charm and relief to many s life. Globally, it is now an urgent task to prevent the extinction of species.
  As means for international protection of wildlife, Japan commits itself in the protection through the Convention on International trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the Ramsar Convention and other multilateral agreements and bilateral conventions and agree-ment for the protection of migratory birds and so forth and in participa-tion in negotiations of a convention on biological diversity which is to be signed at the Earth Summit. Then there are projects of cooperation in the protection of wildlife in developing countries, and the JICA carries out such projects as for protection of Japanese crested ibises in China.

12-1-6 Measures for Conservation of Marine Environment

  (1) Outline

  The oceans, which constitute three-fourths of the entire surface of the earth, contain 90% of the world's water resources. They are important places for living things for production and also indispensable elements for maintenance of all life, such as bringing about impacts on the climate while interacting with the atmosphere.
  On the other hand, man has used the various properties and resources of the oceans, but it is now an important task to protect the marine environment as various forms of pollution have proliferated in recent years. The full picture of global marine pollution is not yet clear, because the well-surveyed seas are preferentially distributed in those enclosed seas surrounded by developed countries, such as the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, where generation of red tides spreads and pollution by heavy metals and other hazardous substances proliferate. Also in the open seas, oil pollution by tankers and other vessels is observed. Massive spills in accidents involving huge tankers and large-scale crude oil spills in the Gulf crisis last year produced grave impacts on the marine environment, once again appealing to world opinion about importance of conserving the marine environment.

  (2) Measures

  Marine pollution is associated with such problems as the inflow of pollutants from the land, discharge of oil and so forth from ships on the seas and waste disposal. As measures to prevent marine pollution, international cooperation has been actively promoted, such as enact-ment of conventions in which the International Maritime Organization (IMO) played the leading role, and each country has developed measures against marine pollution.
  Jaian streamlined domestic laws, such as revisions in the Law on the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disasters. Japan became a signatory to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention) in 1980 and the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the Interna-tional Convention on the Prevention of Pollution by Ships in 1973 (MARPOL 73/78 Convention) in 1989.
  As regards the MARPOL 73/78 Convention, the preface and the regulations for prevention of oil pollution (Annex 1) were put into force internationally in October 1983 with the inclusion of Japan, the regula-tions for the prevention of pollution by hazardous bulk liquids (Annex 2) in April 1987, and the regulations for the prevention of pollution by wastes from ships (Annex 5) in December 1988, whereas the regulations for prevention of pollution by hazardous substances put in containers and so forth in their sea transport (Annex 3) are to be put into force in July 1992 but with no prospects at present for coming into effect. The IMO continues to strive for an early effectuation of the regulations for the prevention of pollution by foul water from ships (Annex 4).
  The International Convention on Preparations for, Responses to and Cooperation in Oil Pollution (OPRC Convention), the work of which began after an accident in which massive oil flowed out of the Exxon Valdez in March 1989 was adopted in November 1990.
  The Ministry of Transport is promoting the development of a required domestic system for an early conclusion of the convention and the OSPAR Program for the establishment of a regional prevention and elimination system for the ASEAN seas. As part of this promotion, the ministry held the first OSPAR Collaborative Conference in Manila in January 1991.

12-1-7 Trans Boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes

  (1) Outline of Problems

  Trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes was routinely done in regions where many countries lie close by as is he case with Europe and where there is brisk commercial traffic. After an explosion at an Italian pesticide plant (1976), the nearby soil which had been polluted by dioxin was found missing in 1982 and later discovered in France (the Seveso case in which the polluted soil was moved out). With this case as a turning point, concern was expressed and the European Community (EC) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) began institutionalization of counter measures.
  Furthermore in the latter half of the 1980s, as was the case with the KOKO case involving the dumping of discarded transformers containing PCB from Italy, Norway and other countries, there were many cases in which environmental pollution took place in developing countries as hazardous wastes had been exported from developed countries to developing countries. As one of the causes of those inci-dents, it is conceivable that hazardous substances were difficult or costly to dispose in developed countries, and were apt to be exported to developing countries where the controls were more lenient and the disposal costs cheaper. There has been an increasing recognition that the whole issue requires responses in a global perspective.

  (2) Measures

  The United Nations Environment Program adopted the Basel Convention on the Control of the Trans-Boundary Movement of Haz-ardous Wastes and their Disposal in March 1989 and came into effect in May 1992.
  In order to respond to this convention in an appropriate manner, the Environment Agency inquired the Central Council for Environmen-tal Pollution Control in October 1990 "On Measures to Cope with Trans-Boundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes." The council came out in December of the same year with a recommendation which, in summary, concerned the development of a domestic system which would incorporate principles for the domestic disposal of hazardous wastes and procedures for their trans-boundary movement. As for Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Council came out with a recommendation in December of the same year which incorporated, among others, the necessity of Japan becoming a signatory to that convention in a perspec-tive of measures for the domestic treatment of wastes. To the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the Industrial Structure Council recommended in January 1992 that a reasonable export and import control system be established whereby the obligations specified in the convention may be appropriately fulfilled both for the legitimate treat-ment of hazardous wastes and for the promotion of international recy-cling.
  In fiscal 1991, related ministries and agencies stepped up the development of necessary legal systems.

12-1-8 Prevention of Desertification

  (1) Outline of Issues

  According to the definition newly adopted by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in February 1992, "desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting mainly from adverse human impact," and "degradation," implies reduc-tion of resource potential by one or a combination of processes acting on the land, such as water erosion, sedimentation by those agents, long-term reduction in the amount or diversity of natural vegetation and so forth.
  Presumably, the main causes consist of drops in soil fertility due to overgrazing and the shortening of the period in which cultivation is suspended beyond the renewability of grassland, the excessive collection of fuelwood, and rises in the concentrations of minerals in farmland due to inappropriate irrigation. Against that background, there are social and economic factors, such as poverty of rural residents and population increases in developing countries, making the issue of desertification all the more complex-
  As for efforts against desertification, the United Nations Envi-ronment Programme (UNEP) held the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) in 1977. According to UNEP assessment in 1984, global status desertification were brought to light, such as the fact that desertification is progressing at an annual rate of 6.9 million hectares in the world. According to the UNEP assessment in 1991, the areas affected by desertification account for about 70% of the total drylands, measuring about 3.6 billion hectares.

  (2) Measures

  Japan is now taking measures against desertification in the following manner in a perspective of afforestation and farming at the drylands: Government Level
  * Surveys, such as on the development of water sources to cope with desertification in the basin of the Niger River.
  * Joint international studies at the Takkimakan Shamp desert in China
  * Surveys on forest rehabilitation technology
  * Joint Japanese-Chinese studies on interaction of the land stir-face and the atmosphere in the basin of the Heihe River
  * Development of water retaining materials for land improve-ment (Egypt) Nongovernmental Level
  * Cooperation in afforestation in Africa by the Sahel Society and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

12-1-9 Monitoring and Surveillance of Global Environment

  Observation and surveillance were conducted under the Programs for the Comprehensive Promotion of Surveys and Researches for Global Environment Conservation in June 1991 and the Basic Program for the Research and Development of Global Science and Technology in August 1990. Monitoring and surveillance were also performed while participat-ing in or collaborating with the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the WMO/IOC All-World Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS). Observation and surveillance were done in fiscal 1991 as indicated in Table 12-1-3.

Table 12-1-3 Observation and Surveillance of Major Fields of Global Environment in FY 1991

Table 12-1-3 Observation and Surveillance of Major Fields of Global Environment in FY 1991

12-2 Multilateral Cooperation

12-2-1 Activities at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Etc.

  Following the U. N. Human Environment Conference held in Stockholm in 1972, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established to comprehensively coordinate environmental activities within the U. N. system and broadly cooperate with other international organizations, governments and non-governmental organi-zations.
  The programs carried out by the UNEP are roughly classified into three types--environmental managements, environmental assess-ments and support measures. Japan has been taking part in UNEP since its establishment as a member of its Governing Council. Japan has made significant contributions, such as the offer of $7.1 million in contribu-tions to the Environmental Fund in 1991 (the world's second biggest donor following the United States).
  In May 1991, the UNEP Governing Council 16th Session was held in Nairobi, Kenya, to adopt a resolution on military disputes and the environment, that on establishment of U. N. Center for Urgent environ-ment Assistance and an international environment technology center in Japan, etc. Discussions evolved on strengthening the roles of the UNEP toward the UNCED.
  The 47th Commission Session of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) was held in April 1991 to adopt the regional strategy on environmentally sound and sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.

12-2-2 Efforts Looking Toward the Earth Summit

  Marking the 20th anniversary of the holding of the U. N. Confer-ence on Human Environment in Stockholm in 1972, the Earth Summit is to be held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 3, 1992, under the theme of "sustainable development." The conference is expected to adopt Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (Earth Charter), Agenda 21 and be opened for signatures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diver-sity, among others.
  It is now an important task to establish mechanisms for financial resources for implementation of achievements of the Earth Summit and its output, and for transfer of environmentally sound technologies. In April 1992, the Eminent Person Meeting on an Financing Global Envi-ronment is to be held in Tokyo to provide a proposal about the financial mechanisms for presentation to the Earth Summit.
  In order to make the Earth Summit a success, Japan is making contributions to successful preparatory meetings for the Earth Summit and negotiations on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  Japan held the Environment Congress for the Asia and the Pacific in July 1991 to make a proposal from the Asian-Pacific region to the Earth Summit.

12-2-3 Activities at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

  Brisk activities for environment conservation have been evolved since the Environment Committee was established in July 1970. The Fourth Ministerial Conference of the Environment Committee was held under a theme of the integration of economic policy and environmental policy.
  In recent years, the Environment Committee has studied environ-mental issues with other OECD committees. The Development Aid Committee (DAC), promoting the preparation of guidelines on develop-ment aid and environment, adopted guidelines on Good Practice for Country Environmental Surveys and Strategies, Good Practices for Environmental Impact Assessments, Aid Agencies on Involuntary Dis-placement and Resettlement in Development Projects, and Aid Agencies on Global Environment Problems (See 12-4-3). In December of the same year, the Meeting of Environment and of Development Ministers was held to adopt a policy statement. Furthermore, joint work projects by the Environment Committee have increased, such as with the Trade Committee for studies on trade and environment and with the Fiscal Affairs Committee on taxation and environment.
  The Fourth Ministerial-Level Conference of the Environment Committee decided to carry out more systematic nation specific screen-ing on how each OECD member country achieved the purposes of their own environmental policy and their own international commitments.
  In fiscal 1990, the technology and environment projects came into being by Japan's advocacy and fund contribution, doing activities which laterally encompass activities.

12-2-4 Environmental Issues at Economic Summits

  Since environmental issues were taken up at the Ottawa Summit in 1981, it has been considered an important task to cope with the global environment problems. The London Summit expressed support to "sus-tainable development" in June 1988. One-third of the economic declara-tion made at the Arches Summit in July 1989 was set aside for environ-mental issues. The economic declaration of the Houston Summit in July 1991 made suggestions about the international arrangements on forests and the prevention of global warming, and substantial responses to the protection of the ozone layer, among others. In the London summit in July 1991, priority was given to the control of the environment as in the past. In the declaration, the summiteers urged that economic policy be of a kind which would make the utilization of resources sustainable, that priority be given to the protection of the benefits of the present and future generations, that environmental issues be cooperatively dealt with, that developed countries take the lead and support developing countries and Central and East European nations. Furthermore, it was confirmed that cooperation should be rendered in making the Earth Summit success and that agreement should be reached before the Earth Summit on United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Biological Diversity and the principle for the Manage-ment of all types of forests.

12-2-5 Main Multilateral Conventions Related to Environment Conservation

  (1) MARPOL 73/78 Convention

  Japan became a signatory to the Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78) in June 1983 and came into effect for Japan in October of the same year. Attempts are being made to reinforce con-trols, such as the implementing each annex of the convention.

  (2) London Convention, 1972

  The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention, 1972) was adopted in November 1972 and came into effect in August 1975. Japan ratified the convention in October 1980, and it came into effect for Japan in November of the same year.

  (3) CITES (Washington Convention)

  The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES or Washington Convention) was adopted in March 1973 and came into effect in July 1975. The convention came into effect for Japan in November 1980. In March 1992, the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention was held in Japan (Kyoto) to discuss about interpretation and implementation of the convention, amendment of appendices, among others. Japan withdrew the reservation of Olive ridley, Indian monitor and Yellow monitor in January 1991. In December 1987, the Law for the Regulation of the Transfer of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora was enacted. The rare species of wild fauna and flora controlled under this law consist of a total of 751 species, including 522 species of fauna and 229 species of flora.

  (4) Ramsar Convention

  The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Espe-cially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) was adopted in February 1971 and came into force in December 1975. The convention came into force for Japan in October 1980. In addition to the Kushiro Marsh and Lake Kutcharo in Hokkaido and the Izunuma Uchinuma Lagoon in Miyagi Prefecture, Lake Utonai in Hokkaido was newly designated in December 1991 as a Wetland of International Importance under the convention.
  Because it has been decided to hold the next (5th) meeting of the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the convention in Japan (Ku-shiro) in June 1993, Japan has embarked upon preparations.

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