Environmental Policy

The Basic Environment Plan - Part III-Chapter 3

PART III. FUTURE POLICY ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
Chapter 3. Participation by All Sectors of Society Sharing Fair Burden

  • Section 1.Role of Each Sector
    • 1. The State
    • 2. Local governments
    • 3. Corporations
    • 4. People
    • 5. Private organizations
  • Section 2.Promoting voluntary actions by each participant
    • 1.Promoting environmental education and learning
      • 1.1. Environmental education in school
      • 1.2. Environmental education outside of the classroom
      • 1.3. Public relations activities
    • 2.Promotion of specific activities to conserve the environment
      • 2.1. Voluntary environmental management
      • 2.2. Rewarding desirable actions
      • 2.3. Supporting private organizations
    • 3. Providing information
  • Section 3. Setting an Example by Government Action
  • Section 4.Efforts in Major Socioeconomic Sectors
    • 1.Production, marketing, consumption and disposal of goods
      • 1.1. Producers
      • 1.2. Sellers (wholesale and retail)
      • 1.3. Consumers
      • 1.4. Sanitation and recycling industries
      • 1.5. The national and local governments
    • 2.Energy supply and consumption
      • 2.1. The energy supply industry
      • 2.2. Industrial energy consumers
      • 2.3. Common consumers
      • 2.4. The national and local governments
    • 3.Transportation and traffic
      • 3.1. The transportation industry
      • 3.2. Cargo owners
      • 3.3. Consumers
      • 3.4. The national and local governments
    • 4.Others
      • 4.1. Tourism and leisure activities
      • 4.2. Financial institutions
      • 4.3. Others

OTHER CHAPTER

  • Chapter 1. Building a Socioeconomic System Fostering Environmentally Sound Material Cycle
  • Chapter 2. Harmonious Coexistence Between Nature and Humankind
  • Chapter 4. Measures Forming the Basis of Environmental Policy
  • Chapter 5. Promoting International Activities

Basic Direction

A society should be built where all sectors take part in activities for conservation of the environment. In achieving this goal, it is essential to ensure that each sector and group, in various socioeconomic activities, understand the expected roles for environmental conservation and significance of their actions, share the fair burden, and act voluntarily.

Therefore, the roles of the national and local governments, corporations, people and private organizations, together with their roles expected in each socioeconomic area will be clarified. Measures shall be implemented such as environmental education/learning, dissemination of relevant information, and other measures to promote actions on the part of corporations, people and private organizations, so as to encourage voluntary and mutually cooperative activities.

In addition, the government shall take the lead in making its operations environmentally sound, which is expected as both consumer and corporation.

Each sector of society, each party, must assume its fair share of burden, according to the environmental load they generate, the benefits they enjoy and the capability they have to contribute to environmental conservation. In so doing, it is indispensable that all parties recognize they generate environmental load, either directly or indirectly, through daily business activities or everyday living. It is also important that each party takes responsible action, such as the polluter pays the implementing cost of various measures for environmental conservation, in line with the Polluter Pays Principle advocated by the OECD etc. which requires that the cost of environmental use must be reflected in the price of goods and services. This is the basic concept of environmental policy, upon which various measures shall be implemented accordingly. It is also necessary that social fairness is ensured in both benefit and burden regarding the enjoyment and conservation of blessings of nature.

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Section 1. The Role of Each Sector

The government shall promote efforts in accordance with the roles outlined below, with a view to coordinating voluntary affirmative efforts by other parties. Local governments, companies, citizens and private organizations are expected to act voluntarily and actively according to their roles outlined below.

1. The State

The national government shall comprehensively promote efforts by society as a whole. It shall present goals, courses of action and roles which must be played for environmental conservation and shall implement measures. In addition, it shall establish the facilities necessary to assist each actor's efforts. It shall promote active and voluntary participation by each party. It shall also cooperate, join in other actors efforts and promote comprehensive environmental conservation measures.

In addition to this Basic Environmental Plan, the government shall set goals for environmental conservation tailored to each problem, including the establishment of standards. Whenever required, it shall present policies and guidelines, based on law, setting appropriate ways to share roles and shaping the entire image of Japanese environmental policy.

A.
The national government shall provide the means necessary for each actor to carry out their duties. For example, it shall implement environmental impact assessments, regulatory measures, economic measures. It shall, also, provide funding and promote scientific technology.
B.
To encourage active and voluntary efforts on the part of companies, citizens and private organizations, the government shall promote environmental education and learning. It shall likewise promote the support of private sector activities and the provision of access to information.
C.
The national government shall attempt to provide the necessary financing and/or technology for local governments which are independently adopting their own environmental conservation measures.
D.
International efforts for global environmental conservation shall be encouraged.
E.
The national government shall consider the environment when formulating and implementing policies which have the potential to cause environmental burden.
F.
As both an consumer and enterprise, the government shall take the lead in conservation activities.

2. Local Governments

The attainment of sustainable development depends greatly on regional environmental conservation. Therefore, the role of local governments is crucial. Local governments are expected, according to the region's social and natural characteristics, to set up and present goals and courses of action. They should establish various systems, provide public facilities and promote voluntary activities. Their environmental policies should including those following the directions of national policies and those meeting the characteristics of the areas. They are expected to work in conjunction with the government, private citizens, companies and private organizations, to develop comprehensive regional policies.

A.
To promote pollution prevention and recycling in regional planning as a matter of necessity to decrease environmental burdens tailored to the regions special characteristics. A rich and plentiful environment should be ensured by conserving a natural environment and all of its amenities.
B.
To promote environmental conservation with the close cooperation of the business community and local citizens. This means providing educational centers, information, environmental education in school. It also means promoting the establishment of environmental training programs to ensure human resources and the introduction of environmental conservation measures aimed at companies.
C.
To promote integrated environmental policies in cooperation with the national government and neighboring local governments. For example, water resource management shall be conducted giving consideration to an entire river basin.
D.
To promote measures for international cooperation, drawing on past experiences of other local governments in environmental conservation.
F.
To promote policies integratedly and systematically, for example, by formulating basic plans concerning regional environment conservation.
G.
To take the lead in implementing environmental conservation efforts expected to corporations and consumers.
H.
Municipalities should implement environmental conservation efforts through regional planning as rudimentary local bodies. Prefectural governments shall promote wide ranging measures and coordination of measures implemented by municipalities.

3. Corporations

Corporations are responsible for a significant proportion of economy. Recently, the burden that normal business activities are causing on the environment is greatly increasing. Therefore, it is necessary for corporations, actively and voluntarily, to reduce burdens generated by their activities. This means taking measures to prevent pollution and actively engaging in conservation activities. It also means taking affirmative efforts to develop environmental conservation business ("eco-business,") as an essential ingredient for reaching a state of sustainable development with little environmental burden.

The central and local governments also take part in production and consumption, and as such, have the same role as other corporations have.

A.
To use materials and services with reduced environmental burden, such as recycled materials and streamlined physical distribution services.
B.
To reduce environmental burden resulting from business activities, by reducing the emission of polluting materials, minimization and appropriate disposal of waste, improved energy efficiency, environmental consideration in development projects, and so on.
C.
To contribute to the reduction of environmental burden generated during the whole life-cycle of products, by taking the environmental burden at all the stages into consideration in product design, providing information to consumers, reconsidering excessive packaging practices, and so on. (Life-cycle of a products means all the stages from material extraction, through production, distribution and consumption, to disposal.) In addition, to contribute to appropriate waste disposal and other activities to reduce the environmental burden after they are used.
D.
To participate in community conservation activities by tree-planting on corporate property, taking part in regional cleanup campaigns, and so on.
E.
To promote international cooperation, such as technology transfer, and to consider environmental factors in business activities overseas.
F.
To promote investments and technological developments for environmental conservation and to develop business activities related to the environment.
G.
To facilitate the employees' participation to environmental activities.
H.
To promote environmental management, which consists of establishment of corporate policies on environmental conservation, target-setting, plan-making, organizational arrangement such as appointment of managers, and audit of the system. In doing this, discussion at the International Standardizing Organization (ISO) should be taken into account.
I.
In addition to these, to contribute to national and local environmental policies.

4. People

Burdens inflicted on the environment through everyday activities are increasing. Unless these activities are altered the situation will become more problematic. Citizens shall be expected to voluntarily further their understanding of their relationship to the environment, to work to decrease the amount of burden that they are individually causing and to voluntarily work to improve their immediate surroundings.

In promoting environmental policy, it is important to make best use of the knowledge and experience of women. Cooperation between men and women shall be encouraged, in conjunction with other measures to improve the position of women in society. Likewise, it is necessary to further our children's understanding of the environment, so that environmental conservation shall be ensured through the next generation.

A.
To increase the chances to experience nature and learn about it. Such activities will further understanding about the relationship between people and the environment.
B.
To reduce environmental burden caused by daily activities. For example, people should choose environmentally friendly services and products, like recycled paper. They should refrain from using their private automobiles when such use is neither necessary nor urgent. They should also save electricity, reduce the amount of pollutants, such as detergent, they release, decrease total waste and cooperate in sorting waste for recycling purposes.
C.
To participate in regional environmental conservation including regional recycling activities, environmental cleanup activities and activities to increase the amount of vegetation. Additionally, citizens can participate in global environmental conservation by supporting the activities of private organizations.
D.
To cooperate with the national and local governments in the implementation of their measures.

5. Private Organizations

Private non-profit organizations play an important role in environmental conservation. They enable organized, publicly beneficial actions between the citizens and companies which create them. Their efforts include activities like recycling, education, research and tree planting. These private organizations have the ability to engage in activities that range from domestic, grassroots activities to international, global activities. The continued cooperation of these organizations is expected in various fields.

A.
To promote grassroots activities of private organizations, directed at conserving the regional environment, like recycling, tree planting and the National Trust. The cooperation of residents, companies and local governments should be promoted.
B.
To promote international activities such as reforestation, wildlife conservation projects, pollution control and international friendship programs.
C.
To promote environmental research into the state of the environment, the influence of pollution and the effectiveness of environmental measures, and so on.
D.
To promote environmental education and learning and other activities to raise environmental awareness and encourage voluntary activities on the part of corporations and people.
E.
To cooperate with the other sectors of society.

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Section 2. Promoting Voluntary Actions by Each Participant

To encourage voluntary actions by each and every member or group in society, the government shall promote environmental education and learning. It shall likewise devise measures to encourage concrete environmental conservation efforts. It shall promote the availability of information.

1. Promoting Environmental Education and Learning

Each member of society must understand the role that they play and the responsibility that they share for environmental burdens, otherwise sustainable development will never be realized. It is necessary that each be able to contribute in solving environmental problems and actively participate in environmental conservation. Regardless of age, each member must cooperate in the effort to maintain a healthy and sound environment in the community, whether in school, at home, at work or outdoors. Comprehensive education and voluntary learning shall be integratedly promoted.

In this effort, people's history of burdening the environment and the aspects of culture which helped to create this burden, must be more deeply understood. This cannot be accomplished by the mere transmission of knowledge and cold hard facts. To gain a real understanding of and to truly realize the importance of nature, people must experience it firsthand. In particular, the next generation, the youth in society, must be given the opportunity to experience the relationship between life and nature. In this way, they will grow to appreciate, understand and show concern for this relationship. Measures shall be improved to secure this understanding.

1.1. Environmental Education in School

Environmental education in school, as a fundamental part of learning which lasts our entire life, is essential. In elementary and high schools, the integration of environmental education in the curriculum in ethics classes and in special projects, shall be comprehensively promoted. Young people, in particular, should be given the opportunity to develop a sense of value for nature through firsthand experience.. Since this educational process is held to be so important, the opportunity to participate in activities where there is actual interaction with nature shall be affirmatively promoted. The government shall promote the training of teachers to improve their own understanding and perception of the environment, in order to increase their effectiveness in environmental education. Education shall depend upon the pupils' level of development. The government shall also take measures to improve and popularize teaching methods.

Textbooks made of recycled paper shall be promoted to give school children a concrete example of the advantages of recycling. Companies are expected to voluntarily cooperate in efforts to increase the utilization of these books. Likewise, the use of recycled paper in textbooks shall be promoted for those prepared by the government.

Furthermore, the government shall promote provisions for environmental education in higher education, in an attempt to cultivate well-rounded and able leaders.

1.2. Environmental Education Outside of the Classroom
1.2.a. Improving Learning Facilities

The government shall take measures to maintain environmental education and learning centers, where people can interact with nature. Coordination between these facilities shall also be promoted.

1.2.b. Offering Learning Opportunities

In an continuing effort to offer a wide-range of learning opportunities, guidance lectures on the environment, nature observation outings and lessons on such wide ranging topics as star watching shall be sponsored.

1.2.c. Securing Human Resources

In order to train, secure and apply human resources for leadership roles in environmental education, learning and conservation, measures shall be promoted to improve training and upgrade the registration system.

1.2.d. Offering Educational Materials and Methods

According to age and where the activity is held, whether it is a field trip, sightseeing or leisure, systematic programs, educational materials and procedures shall be developed and offered.

1.3. Public Relations Activities

Placing Environment Day (June 5) at the core, various events shall be developed with cooperation from local governments and private organizations. Similarly, applying various information mediums, public relations activities shall be improved.

2. Promotion of Specific Activities to Conserve the Environment

2.1. Voluntary Environmental Management

The government shall take measures to encourage corporations to implement voluntary environmental management, which consists of establishment of corporate policies on environmental conservation, target-setting, plan-making, organizational arrangement such as appointment of managers, and audit of the system. These measures shall include studies on the ways to encourage and support the establishment and certification of environmental management systems.

2.2. Rewarding Desirable Actions

The government shall promote research into the methods of "Life-cycle assessment", which is a method to evaluate the environmental impacts along the continuum of a product life from raw material extraction to production, consumption and disposal ("cradle-to-grave). The government shall also appropriately supervise environmental labeling schemes to enhance the use of environmentally friendly products. Similarly, citizens or private organization displaying exemplary behavior toward the environment, shall be officially rewarded.

2.3. Supporting Private Organizations

By making use of tax measures and other related systems, like the Global Environmental Fund, the government shall support the private organizations' activities like international environmental cooperation, education, learning, the National Trust, international partnership formation between organizations. To support private organizations who are greatly beneficial to the public in their environmental conservation activities, measures will be examined on ways to bestow the status of legal entity on them.

3. Providing Information

Information on the state of the environment, burdens on it, measures for its conservation and on environmental education and learning opportunities shall be provided. Databases shall be established and improved. They shall network local governments and private organizations and provide information on locations where activities are taking place.

Additionally, the measures provided in Chapter 4 Section 6 shall be promoted.

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Section 3. Setting an Example by Government Action

The government occupies very large proportion of the Japan's total economic activities. Considerable environmental burdens could be eradicated by the Government's efforts to make its own normal activities environmentally friendly. Moreover, the Government should lead the way in implementing these activities, if local governments, companies and private citizens are to be expected to do the same. For this purpose, the Government as a whole shall establish an Action Program on its efforts in the following fields.

A.
Environmental consideration in procurement and/or utilization of goods and/or services

For example, the use of recycled products such as paper, the introduction of low-emission vehicles, and efficient use of automobiles.

B. Environmental consideration in construction and/or management of buildings

For example, utilization of solar and other clean energy sources, efficiency in energy and water use, CFCs reduction and retraction, increasing the amount of vegetation around and on top of buildings, reusing and recycling of construction waste and by-products, and efficient use of tropical timber for molding.

C. Environmental consideration in office work

For example, the reduction of energy use, separated waste collection for easy recycling and/or disposal, and waste reduction. D. Giving training and information to the employees For example, revision of training programs on the environment, provision of information, and encouragement of conservation activities during vacations.

Section 4. Efforts in Major Socioeconomic Sectors

A coordinated and cooperative environmental conservation activities shall be promoted in various socioeconomic sectors. These sectors include (1) the production, marketing, consumption and disposal of goods, (2) the supply and consumption of energy, and (3) traffic and transportation. The role of each participant, with respect to these sectors, shall be outlined below. Each participant, whether a private citizen, company or local government shall be expected to actively and voluntarily pursue actions accordingly.

1. Production, Marketing, Consumption and Disposal of Goods

Goods come from many different sources: from the forestry, agriculture, fishery, manufacturing, construction, mining etc. In all these industries, the process of resource extraction and production can cause environmental burdens in the form of land alteration and discharges to the environment. Similarly, waste and other forms of environmental burden are generated in the processes of marketing, consuming and disposing of goods. On the other hand, forestry, agriculture and fishery have another aspect of industries making sound use of material cycle in nature, and if they are conducted appropriately they contribute to the maintenance of environmental conservation capacity of the land.

To reduce the environmental burdens caused by these industries, environmentally friendly resource utilization and product manufacturing must be implemented. Burdens resulting from the extraction and production of raw materials must be reduced. Products which are derived from environmentally safe marketing and consumption process' must be encouraged. Recycling and the appropriate disposal of waste must be promoted. Natural resources must be conserved, while the resources of the forestry, agriculture and fishery industries must be properly managed. Finally, the civil engineering and construction industry must embark upon projects which have taken the environment into consideration.

1.1. Producers

Pollution control measures at production stage, taking into account other stages from resource extraction to disposal, should be promoted. These include (1) ensuring closed material circulation in resource utilization and manufacturing processes, (2) controlling generation and/or properly disposing of waste and (3) encouraging products which are derived from environmentally safe marketing and consumption processes.

1.1.a. Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery

Unlike other industries, the agriculture, forestry and fishery industries production capacity is based upon natural material circulation. These industries have important roles to play in conserving the environment. Careful forest maintenance positively affects how the overall environment is maintained.

In the agricultural sector, regulations shall be set for pesticide and other chemical utilization. For example, standards for these chemicals shall be revised, as will the criteria used to decide whether their utilization is necessary. The recycling of domesticated animal manure should be promoted, as well as the conservation of ecosystems located on the periphery of agricultural land.

In the forestry sector, sustainable forest management should be promoted. Measures to ensure proper cutting in natural forests, the maintenance of conservation forest areas and the employment of appropriate forestry techniques such as indigenous wood and multiple layered forestry should be promoted.

In the fishery sector, sustainable aquatic resource management should be promoted. Aquaculture should be promoted and the conservation of good fishing waters, like those around tidelands and seaweed beds, shall be encouraged.

1.1.b. Mining

When extracting resources, the environment should be given due consideration. Beyond mere proper management, the reforestation of mining sites should be promoted.

1.1.c. Manufacturing

The use of recycled materials should be promoted over their as yet unextracted natural counterparts. The adoption of closed material circulation production methods should be promoted. Waste generation should be controlled and its proper disposal promoted. Longer lasting products should be developed and the environmental burden they inflict from consumption to disposal should be reduced. Model changes in products or product lines should be implemented correctly. The manufacturing industry should cooperate to ensure that products are appropriately handled and/or recycled after they have been discarded.

1.1.d. Construction

With client cooperation, consideration should be given to the ecosystem when constructing buildings. For example, buildings should utilize energy more efficiently by utilizing solar power, improving ventilation and by employing better insulating materials. They should utilize water more conservatively. Likewise, increasing the amount of vegetation in building landscapes and on building rooftops should be promoted as will the installation of consolidated purification handling tanks. The construction industry shall be encouraged to strive to use environmentally friendly materials, to take on projects only after first considering the environment, to ensure that by-products created during construction are recycled and to practice proper disposal methods.

1.2. Sellers (Wholesale and Retail)

The marketing of environmentally friendly products, not excluding real estate, should be promoted as will the reduction of excess packaging. Sellers should be encouraged to collect discarded and/or recyclable goods directly from consumers for proper handling.

1.3. Consumers

When deciding what to buy, consumers should choose products that have either a neutral or a reduced impact on the environment. They should refuse excessive packaging. When ordering the construction of a building, consumers should demand an environmentally friendly building. Once built, consumers should ensure that it is being utilized in a manner which has little negative impact on the environment. They should control waste generation and cooperate with collection systems by separating their garbage into that which is burnable and that which is recyclable.

1.4. Sanitation and Recycling Industries

The sanitation and recycling industries have an important role to play in environmental conservation. They should demand cooperation from their customers and should promote recycling and proper waste disposal.

1.5. The National and Local Governments

Regulative measures concerning the emission of pollutants, disposal of waste and the use of agricultural chemicals shall be implemented by the national and local governments. Likewise, guidance shall be provided to promote recycling and economic measures to encourage the control of waste generation and to promote recycling shall be employed as needed. Public facilities, such as waste disposal facilities, shall be established.

The national and local governments shall pursue methods of "life-cycle assessment." They shall make information available and see that environmentally friendly products are recommended. They shall provide guidance to the recycling and sanitation industries. They shall, likewise, promote the reduced utilization of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

Local governments shall implement measures to ensure appropriate waste disposal.

Environmental impact assessments should be employed for public projects. The national and local governments should take the ecosystem into account and utilize clean energy, like solar power, when maintaining rivers, streams, farms, farming villages, fishing ports, harbors, roads, shorelines and airports. They should also promote recycling and environmentally friendly resource utilization.

2. Energy Supply and Consumption

The supply and consumption of energy are essential elements found at every level of economic activity. Much environmental burdens is generated in the process of both supplying and consuming it. Energy use paradigms must be adopted to promote energy conservation and decrease such environmental burden. Traffic and transportation shall be collectively discussed in the next subsection .

2.1. The Energy Supply Industry

Environmental burden resulting from the activities of the energy supply industry should be reduced. The efficiency of energy transformation should be upgraded (e.g. the generation of electricity should require less energy). Natural gas utilization should be promoted. The development and introduction of solar and wind power should, likewise, be promoted. Moreover, the development and utilization of sources of energy which emit nominal amounts of carbon dioxide such as nuclear energy shall be encouraged. Measures for radioactive waste handling and disposal, based on the Basic Nuclear Power Law, shall be carefully designed and implemented.

In cooperation with the demand side, dispersed power sources, such as cogenerators, should be introduced. Until now untapped energy sources, such as heat discharged from sewage, should be utilized, as will heat resulting from waste incineration.

2.2. Industrial Energy Consumers

The introduction of energy conserving facilities, the development of energy management systems and the efficient use of surplus energy outside of factories should be promoted in manufacturing industries. Likewise, the development and introduction of energy conserving products shall be encouraged.

In the agricultural sector, natural energy utilization should be promoted.

Furthermore, appropriate planning, construction and management must be employed to prevent heat loss from buildings. The introduction of solar power generators, fuel cells, cogenerators, energy conserving facilities and equipment should be promoted in offices.

2.3. Common Consumers

The introduction of energy conserving devices, the prevention of energy waste and the utilization of energy efficient home appliances should be promoted. Houses should receive better insulation to save heat. Likewise, the utilization of solar power in homes, for both power generation and for water heating should be promoted.

2.4. The National and Local Governments

Regulative measures regarding pollution emission shall be carried out. Likewise, measures for improving energy use at the workplace and in the daily lives of citizens shall be promoted. The national and local governments must invest in facilities that contribute to energy conservation. They must also support technological development. Furthermore, they must examine the possibility of introducing daylight saving time.

Research and development into solar energy, fuel cells and other forms of clean energy shall be promoted and their introduction encouraged. Likewise, the introduction of dispersed power sources and utilization of until now untapped energy sources shall be promoted.

3. Transportation and Traffic

The process of moving people and goods is burdening the environment. It is necessary to decrease amount of environmental burdens generated by the various modes of transportation. Burden from individual modes of transportation must be reduced and cleaner ones must be selected. Cargo and passenger transport must be streamlined to improve traffic flow and conserve the environment.

3.1. The Transportation Industry

Efforts must be made to introduce automobiles with decreased emissions and to encourage the use of vehicles which meet the latest emissions regulations.

To streamline cargo transport, in conjunction with cargo owners, transportation should be joint and cargo on return trips should be secured. Cargo facilities should be upgraded and proper utilization of these facilities should be promoted. Rail and sea links located at points on major transportation routes should be utilized for hauling medium to long distance freight.

Also, by enhancing the convenience of public transportation, like railroad and bus routes, passenger movement should be made more efficient.

Anti-noise pollution measures for planes and trains should be promoted. Measures to prevent ocean pollution created in sea transport should also be promoted.

3.2. Cargo Owners

Efforts must be made to introduce vehicles with decreased emissions and to encourage the use of vehicles which meet the latest emissions regulations.

Transportation efficiency should be improved by promoting streamlined distribution patterns, improving information systems, promoting joint transportation and securing cargo for return trips. Likewise, consideration should be given to coordinating transport with the transportation industry, including the utilization of business trucks. Furthermore, the utilization of cargo facilities should be promoted. For example, rail and sea links located at points on major transportation routes should be utilized for hauling medium to long distance freight.

3.3. Consumers

Consumers should strive to select environmentally friendly means of transportation. This means walking or riding a bicycle, when possible, and when not, utilizing public transportation. Non-emergency and unnecessary use of private automobiles should be refrained from and, when used, they should be used appropriately.

3.4. The National and Local Governments

Regulatory measures such as automobile emission controls and traffic controls shall be implemented. Guidance shall also be provided to improve efficiency in automobile utilization. Support shall simultaneously be given for the development and utilization of cars with low emissions.

The national and local governments shall provide facilities for rail and sea transport. They shall improve the convenience and maintenance of public modes of transportation. They shall provide and improve facilities for pedestrians and bicycles. In order to conserve the environment beside roadsides, they shall attempt to break-up and smooth the flow of traffic by providing by-passes and loops. Finally, they shall encourage the improvement of the traffic control system and establishment of an information dissemination system.

In areas near roads, airports and other transportation facilities, anti-noise pollution measures shall be promoted. These measures should employ the use of natural sound barriers such as "green buffer belts" made of earth and vegetation.

4. Others

4.1. Tourism and Leisure Activities

Tourism and leisure activities offer a tremendous opportunity for people to experience and enjoy nature. However, such activities also have the potential to cause serious environmental burdens.

4.1.a. Resort Development, Travel and Related Industries

Considerations for the natural environment shall be encouraged in all stages of resort development This includes site selection, construction and administration. Additionally, specialists should be trained in eco-tourism, while the general population is simultaneously educated about it. Information about the natural environment of resorts should be provided and efforts to increase tourists' opportunities to experience nature on their vacation should be promoted.

4.1.b. Visitors

Measures to prevent littering and other environmentally burdening behavior should be promoted. Efforts to increase visitor awareness and understanding about nature should also be promoted.

4.1.c. The National and Local Governments

The national and local governments shall promote the proper administration of parks and other green spaces. They should maintain tourist areas which emphasize nature and encourage leisure activities in nature and provide fundamental guidance and advice to ensure respect for the environment.

4.2. Financial Institutions

Finance plays an important role in economic activities. Moreover, providing capital to various enterprises can impact the environment tremendously. Establishing accounts for donations and investments to fight environmental burdens should be promoted.

A financial system should be considered in which the environmental impact of projects are reviewed when determining whether to finance or invest in certain projects. Financial institutions shall be expected to provide environmental information to the generally information-poor small and medium size companies. They are also expected to provide advice and counseling.

4.3. Others

Other industries, not previously mentioned, are also expected to make voluntary efforts to conserve the environment. Their efforts will depend upon whichever field their activities fall under: 1) the production, marketing, consumption and disposal of goods, 2) the supply and consumption of energy, or 3) traffic and transportation.

The transmission of information should not only be used to enhance the flow of transportation, but to also reduce environmental burdens as a transportation substitute and a paper saving device. Therefore, information correspondence systems should be more widely utilized and expanded. The development of information systems and their relationship with the environment should be studied to determine if there are other ways the environment can be conserved.


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