Part 2. Essential Measures to Prevent Global Warming
1. Principles towards Achievement of the 6% Reduction Target
Japan will strive to implement the following measures in the short term to meet the 6% reduction targets for Japan as stated in the Kyoto Protocol.
|(1)||A report published in November 1997 by the Joint Conference of Relevant Advisory Councils on Domestic Measures Addressing the Global Warming Issue specifies a 2.5% reduction for CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions to be achieved through the steadfast promotion of measures that relate both to energy supply and demand focus on promoting energy saving, the introduction of new energy and construction of nuclear power plants with rigid nuclear safety measures, the introduction of innovative technologies, and the acceleration of the efforts of each social actor.|
|(2)||Emissions of CFC alternatives (HFC, PFC and SF6) will be limited to an increase of about 2%.|
|(3)||Target emissions may be reduced by 0.3% because of carbon dioxide removed by carbon sinks created through afforestation and reforestation efforts, as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. As it is also estimated that around the year 2010 the amount of net removal by sinks of Japan's forests, etc., will be about 3.7%, Japan will strive in international negotiations to secure the necessary additional removal by sinks. Japan will work to ensure the application of appropriate methodologies to achieve this goal by obtaining a consensus of the Conference of the Parties.|
|(4)||Efforts should be made to utilize the international mechanisms introduced in the Kyoto Protocol, e.g. emissions trading, joint implementation of projects among developed countries, and the Clean Development Mechanism whereby developed and developing countries reduce emissions jointly.|
2. Comprehensive Promotion of Measures to Prevent Global Warming
Necessary foundations shall be established to effectively promote measures based on the Bill for Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming (adopted by the Cabinet on 28 April 1998) that stipulates the responsibilities and actions of the national Government, local authorities, businesses, and citizens. The measures specified below shall be implemented upon the approval of the bill in the Diet.
|(1)||Establishing Basic Policies Relating to the Prevention of Global Warming|
In order to achieve the comprehensive and systematic promotion of measures to prevent global warming by targeting the six GHGs and CO2 sinks, basic policies relating to basic directions and actions by each Government body shall be established based on the Bill for Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming.
|(2)||Comprehensively and Systematically Promoting Measures to Prevent Global Warming|
In accordance with the Bill for Promotion of Measures to Cope with Global Warming, observation and monitoring of changes in concentrations of GHGs shall be conducted, and comprehensive measures to prevent global warming shall be established and implemented. In addition, the plan relating to measures to limit GHG emissions resulting from the national Government's activities shall be established, and the plan and information about its implementation should be made public. Furthermore, the national Government should provide supporting measures of local authorities to limit GHG emissions, and through technical advice etc., promote activities of businesses, citizens, and non- Governmental organizations to limit GHG emissions.
3. Promotion of Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions that Focus on Measures Related to Energy Supply and Demand
The Government should strongly promote measures relating to both energy supply and demand, such as the drastic achievement of energy saving in the industry, commercial/residential, and transport sectors; the accelerated introduction of new renewable energies and nuclear power generation with strict nuclear safety measures; and ensuring conformity with long-term outlook for energy supply and demand to reduce CO2 emissions.
Promotion of Energy Demand Side Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions
|(1)||Improving Energy Efficiency through the Revised Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy|
The Government should strive to improve energy appliances through introducing the Top Runners Approach to establish fuel efficiency targets for automobiles and energy efficiency standards for household electrical products and office appliances. The Top Runners Approach aims to establish energy efficiency standards that meet or exceed the best energy efficiency specifications for a product in an industry. Energy efficiency and conservation at factories and commercial facilities should also be promoted under the revised Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (announced on 5 June 1998).
(2) Strengthening Energy Efficiency Standards
- Strengthening Fuel Efficiency Targets for Automobiles
In anticipation of the expected enactment of the revised Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy in April 1999, the targets for automobile fuel efficiency should be strengthened by implementing the Top Runners Approach to improve fuel consumption by 15% to 20% over 1995 levels by fiscal 2010.
- Strengthening Energy Efficiency Standards of Household Electrical Products, Office Equipment,
In anticipation of the expected enactment of the revised Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy, the standards for energy efficiency for household electrical products, office appliances, etc. should be strengthened to improve energy efficiency by 8% to 30%. The standards should also include regulations for energy consumption for appliances that consume a significant amount of energy even while not in active use.
- Strengthening Energy Efficiency Standards of Housing and Buildings
Energy efficiency standards for thermal insulation for housing and other buildings should be strengthened by the end of fiscal 1998. The standards should target a 20% reduction in energy consumption for heating and cooling for housing and a 10% reduction for other buildings. Financial incentives should be offered for energy efficient housing and buildings. In addition, the standards for energy efficient construction material should be improved.
- Maximizing Energy Efficiency at Factories and Business Sites
Before fiscal 2000, complete inspections of about 3,500 factories that have high-energy consumption rates should be conducted to verify their compliance with Energy Efficiency Standards. As the need arises, the Government should provide guidance to factories and business sites regarding the efficient use of energy and support to facilities with excessive energy consumption to adopt measures specified in this law, which requires the preparation of an energy rationalization plan and the publication of the factories in violation of the regulations.
- Upgrading the Energy Efficiency of Railways, Ships, and Aircraft
The Government should improve the energy efficiency of railways by about 7%, ships by 3%, and aircraft by 7% by 2010 over fiscal 1995 rates.
|(3)||Creating a CO2 Emission-Regulated Society through Infrastructure Development, etc.|
- Formulating Urban and Regional Systems with Low CO2 Emissions
Urban and regional systems that coexist with the environment should be created to limit CO2 emissions by comprehensively and systematically implementing measures to mitigate environmental impact. To achieve this goal, the Government should improve urban traffic and actively undertake to mitigate the 'heat island phenomenon' by conserving green spaces, increasing greenery, securing water sources inside urban areas, and promoting the absorption of rainwater into the ground. In addition, urban areas should promote greater energy efficiency by implementing cogeneration systems, introducing district heating and cooling, promoting the use of wasted energy by using heat from treated wastewater and rivers, and seeking the effective use of natural and unutilized energies by establishing infrastructure for these energies. Furthermore, to promote the use of clean energy vehicles and low pollution vehicles, more facilities should be established to supply fuel (e.g., eco stations) for charging batteries and supplying natural gas or methanol. Other measures include promoting of tele-commuting, which uses telecommunications, and improving outdoor lighting according to guidelines for light pollution.
- Improving Efficiency of Distribution Systems
To limit CO2 emissions, the efficiency of distribution systems should be enhanced through promoting rail and coastal shipping; improving port facilities for international cargo containers to reduce inland transport and thereby raising the loading factor for trucks; promoting the use of trailers and larger-sized carriages; and improving information technology and commercial practices for distribution. More specifically, the following measures should be implemented.
- Improvement of the infrastructure for railway freight.
- Development of efficient rail freight collection and distribution systems.
- Activation of coastal shipment by eliminating the ship tonnage allocation system.
- Construction of container terminals for international transport so that ground transportation to and from domestic transport terminals would reach their destination in a half a day about 90% of the time by the beginning of the 21st century.
- Improvement of international offshore container terminals and their access roads.
- Reinforcement bridges in response to larger vehicle carriage sizes.
- Introduction of trailers that carry fully loaded containers according to ISO standards.
- Promoting Use of Public Transportation
The Government should promote the use of public transportation to reduce CO2 emissions.
Specifically, bus service should be improved for smoother connections, and railroad transport should be promoted through construction of new lines, increase in speeds, and improvement in railroad capacity. Furthermore, streetcars and new transportation systems should be promoted. Bus use should be increased through systematically implemented measures such as improvement in bus stops and introduction of 'non-step' buses with lower ramps. Finally, services should be improved by diversifying fares and charges and by improving transfer points.
- Reducing Traffic Congestion
CO2 emissions from moving vehicles can be reduced by reducing traffic congestion. Bypasses and roundabouts should be improved in order to ensure smooth traffic flow while considering the conservation of the roadside environment. Continuous grade separation projects and grade separation projects should be promoted. Traffic safety facilities should be improved. Transportation Demand Management (TDM) measures and Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) should also be promoted.
In particular, ITS should be expanded to all general roads in all prefectures in order to advance navigation systems and the information service by the Vehicle Information and Communications System (VICS) that is already in operation nationwide on expressways and general roadways in eight prefectures and three large metropolitan areas. The Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC) should be introduced gradually, starting with the locations with the greatest benefits. In addition, Public Transportation Priority Systems and Environment Protection Management System should be promoted. The Government should also expand the facilities for infrared beacons, etc. that are the foundation for Universal Traffic Management Systems (UTMS), which collect and provide traffic information in real time and implement intelligent traffic signal operations.
Research and development of Advanced Safe Vehicles (ASV), Automated Highway Systems (AHS), and Super Smart Vehicle Systems (SSVS) should be accelerated to further promote ITS. Furthermore, the development of a comprehensive plan for effective urban road transportation should be promoted as an integrated traffic congestion reduction measure.
(4) Reviewing Action Plans for Industry
The Advisory Councils for Ministers will review the progress achieved and ensure the feasibility of action plans developed by industry for energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction targeted for 2010. These action plans include voluntary environmental action plans developed by the Japan Federation of Economic Organizations (Keidanren) that encompass energy conservation efforts such as improvements to production processes, advances in operations management, improvements in energy efficiency and heat recovery at production facilities, introduction of new technologies, and measures to reduce CO2 emission by converting fuel and using wastes as fuels. In addition, industries that have not yet prepared such action plans by fiscal 1998 should be urged to prepare a plan immediately and to publicly announce concrete measures that include numerical targets.
(5) Developing and Diffusing New Energy Saving Technologies
- Promoting Development and Diffusion of New Energy Saving Technologies
Energy conservation measures in the industrial sector should be promoted by the development and diffusion of new energy efficient technologies such as high efficiency industrial furnaces (to improve energy efficiency by 10% to 30%) and next generation high efficiency boilers (to improve boiler efficiency by 17% or more). In addition, energy conservation measures in the commercial/residential sector should be promoted through the development and diffusion of light emitting diodes (50% more energy efficiency compared to fluorescent lights) and the development of energy efficient housing and buildings.
- Promoting Diffusion of Clean Energy Vehicles, Low Emission Vehicles, and High Fuel Efficiency Vehicles
The use and development of clean energy and low emission vehicles should be energetically promoted. In addition, the Government should develop inspection standards for next generation low emission vehicles.
Furthermore, the use of high fuel efficiency vehicles should be promoted on a large scale to address global warming. To support this goal, the Government should review existing policy measures including automobile-related taxes.
Promotion of Energy Supply Side Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions
(1) Promoting Construction of Nuclear Power Plants
In order for Japan to meet its CO2 emissions reduction targets, it is necessary to construct nuclear power plants and increase the share of electrical power supplied by nuclear power plants by over 50% from fiscal 1997 to 2010. For this, the Government will seek to rebuild public confidence in nuclear power that was shaken because of a series of mismanagement incidents and accidents surrounding the fast breeder reactor. The Government will also seek to gain the understanding and cooperation of local communities regarding the construction of nuclear power plants. In addition, the Government, with full coordination among concerned ministries and agencies, will develop the regions around nuclear power plants by developing industries in those regions to increase available jobs and ensure that improvement to the infrastructure, such as roads, rail, and ports, are implemented effectively.
(2) Accelerating the Introduction of New Energy
The Government has expanded the capacity for new energy power generation by strongly promoting photovoltaic power generation for housing, factories, and commercial and public facilities. In addition, businesses and regional public corporations should introduce wind power generation and waste power generation and utilize solar thermal and unused thermal energies. Furthermore, the Government should introduce the use of biomass energy, energy generated from the black sludge collected from the pulp production process and wood waste. Through these kinds of efforts and with the cooperation of both Government and the private sector, new energy utilization should reach about 3 times its current level by fiscal 2010.
(3) Promoting Measures for Electrical Load Balancing
The following measures should be promoted to decrease peak electricity-use loads that will lead to energy savings and limiting CO2 emissions. Energy safety regulations should be updated to promote heat-storing air conditioner systems that use off-peak electricity to operate air conditioning during peak-hours to lower CO2 emissions. The Government should take the initiative to introduce these systems into public buildings. Gas coolers and gas heaters should also be introduced into public buildings.
Promotion of Other Measures to Limit CO2 Emissions
(1)Promoting Measures to Control CO2 Emissions from Industrial Processes
CO2 emissions from industrial processes can be controlled by increasing the use of blended cement that is produced by methods with lower CO2 emissions.
(2) Promoting Measures to Control CO2 Emissions from Waste Treatment
CO2 emissions from waste treatment can be controlled by reducing the amount of waste incinerated and increasing recycling (increase the recycling rate of domestic waste from 10% in 1996 to 15% in 2002).
(3) Promoting the Efficient Use of Wood Resources
The efficient use of wood, a renewable resource, should be promoted as an energy source to limit the use of fossil fuels. Wood-use technology and processing materials should be improved to increase the demand for wood and raise public awareness of using wood as an energy source so that these materials can be used over the long-term.
4. Promotion of Measures to Limit Emissions of other Greenhouse Gases
|(1)||Promoting Measures to Limit Emissions of CFC Alternatives (HFC, PFC and SF6)|
- Promoting Systematic Efforts by the Industrial Sector
Advisory Councils for Ministers will regularly assess the status of implementation and ensure the feasibility of action plans that have been developed by related business organizations to limit the emissions of CFC alternatives (HFC, PFC and SF6) and to quantify emissions targets. These action plans should also include measures to prevent the leakage of HFC etc. during the production and installation processes; measures for the recovery, recycling, and disposal of refrigerants from discarded air conditioners and other equipment; measures for the efficient use of these gases; and measures for the recovery, recycling, and disposal of gases produced during the manufacturing semiconductors. In addition, industrial sectors that have not developed action plans should be encouraged to do so and to publicly announce the plans during fiscal 1998.
- Developing Alternative Materials
The development of new alternative materials to replace the current CFCs alternatives many applications in many areas and should be promoted.
More specifically, new alternatives for refrigerants, cleaners, and foaming agents should be developed. Research should be conducted to develop alternatives for PFCs that are used in semiconductor production. Alternatives for SF6, which is used to produce and clean electronic devices, should be developed. Furthermore, recovery and disposal facilities for HFC-23, a by-product of industrial processes, should also be developed.
In addition, systems for recovery, recycling, and disposal of HFCs should be developed based on systems for the recovery and disposal of CFCs.
(2) Promoting Measures to Reduce Methane Emissions
Methane emissions should be reduced by introducing measures to decrease emissions caused by waste in landfills (reducing total waste going to landfills from 13% in fiscal 1996 to 9% by 2002) and measures to reduce emissions from the agriculture industry by improving farm land management and establishing technology to reduce methane emissions from livestock raising.
(3) Promoting Measures to Reduce Nitrous Oxide Emissions
Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions should be through measures to reduce emissions from industrial processes by about 90% from fiscal 1990 levels by 2010. In addition, nitrous oxide emissions can be reduced by incinerating waste materials, waste water sludge, etc. at high-temperature incineration facilities.
5. Promotion of Measures Involving CO2 Sinks Such as Afforestation, etc.
(1) Promoting Forest Management
Healthy and vital forests should be secured by promoting afforestation in abandoned agricultural land, implementing maintenance and thinning practices, and preventing and mitigating forest damage caused by pests and diseases. Furthermore, a stable supply of timber should be provided to contribute to sound forest management and improve forest resource information.
In addition, the Government should establish a new form of sustainable society that would manage forest and wood resources in a sustainable manner, while continuing improvements to community-based forestry. Consensus for forest management should be promoted. Furthermore, national land afforestation should also be promoted to include public participation.
(2) Promoting Urban Green Spaces
Urban green spaces should be promoted by encouraging the formulation of comprehensive action plans relating to the conservation and creation of green areas by national and regional public corporations. Such plans may include outlines for green policy and master plans for parks and open spaces. At the same time, the Government should promote the development of urban parks, green spaces along roadways and rivers, conservation of existing private green spaces, and creation of new green areas on building rooftops and walls. In addition, citizen participation should be promoted for the creation of "Heisei no Mori" forest parks in urban areas.
6.Strengthening Research and Development of Advanced and Innovative Environmental and Energy Technologies
Leading towards 2010, the Government should promote research and development of advanced and innovative technologies. These new technologies include energy conservation technologies in the energy utility sector such as supercritical fluid research and super efficient photovoltaic power generation.
In addition, a systematic approach should be promoted for the research and development of innovative hydrogen production technology, technology for fixing and using CO2 to help curb global warming, and ultra-steels and super heat resistant materials to improve energy efficiency. This approach is necessary to promote measures to solve the problems related to global warming over the long term.
Research should also be promoted to help the strategic development of measures to prevent global warming. In addition, basic research should be promoted to create strategic objectives to promote resource recycling, control consumption, and promote efficient use of energy.
7. Strengthening Earth Observation System, etc.
While promoting research to understand global warming phenomenon, the Government should continue to develop and improve a comprehensive earth observation system to accurately observe and monitor global environmental change. In addition, information relating to the global environment should be collected and disseminated.
8. Promotion of International Cooperation
(1) Resolving Various Issues Presented in the Kyoto Protocol
Japan will strive to contribute to solutions to international problems by enacting more concrete policies relating to emissions trading, joint implementation of projects, the Clean Development Mechanism, the treatment of carbon sinks, and other measures to be negotiated internationally.
More specifically, Japan will appeal for the creation of a system for emissions trading that is based on the five principles of equity, transparency, verifiability, market-orientation, and simplicity. Japan will also appeal for a framework for the joint implementation of projects so the projects can be implemented efficiently. Japan will appeal for the rapid establishment of a Clean Development Mechanism to be implemented in 2000; the Clean Development Mechanism will deepen understanding in developing countries of technological benefits and financial transfers. Japan will strive for the establishment of appropriate methodologies for carbon sinks and take the lead in the technological debate so that necessary arrangements can be secured in future international negotiations.
In addition, Japan should provide developing countries with information on global warming prevention, encourage voluntary actions in developing countries, and urge developing countries to participate in international negotiations in the future.
(2) Realizing the Kyoto Initiative
Japan should continue to provide training for developing countries (train 3,000 people in fields relating to global warming prevention by fiscal 2003), provide yen loans with preferential conditions (0.75% interest rate, 40 year repayment period), and support technical transfers relating to global warming prevention.
(3) Technological Contribution by the Climate Technology Initiative
Through the various activities of the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) to forge global cooperative partnerships, Japan is focusing on the following actions: international cooperation for the establishment of technological strategies leading toward easing the effects of global warming; increasing the capacity of developing countries and economies in transition to diffuse climate friendly technologies; and international collaborative research and development relating to advanced and innovative environmentally sound technologies.
|(4)||Finding Possible Cooperative Projects through Dialogue|
To actively employ the joint implementation of projects and the Clean Development Mechanism, Japan should seek to open dialogues with Russia, China, Eastern European, and Asian nations to implement projects for energy conservation, new energy development, afforestation, and strong promotion for feasibility studies that will lead to the realization of individual project plans.