Global Environment

The Twelfth Asia Pacific Seminar on Climate Change

[Chairperson's Summary]

30 July - 2 August 2002, Bangkok, Thailand

  1. Attendance
  2. Objectives of the Seminar
  3. Conduct of the Seminar
  4. Keynote sessions
  5. Steps after Bonn and Marrakech
  6. Updates on latest progress in scientific assessment on Climate Change
  7. Development of national and regional adaptation strategies - issues and experiences
  8. Capacity building and technology transfer with emphasis on development of national and regional adaptation strategies
  9. Multistakeholder Approach to address Climate Change
  10. Study Tour
  11. Capacity building, data exchange and information dissemination on climate change through Networking
  12. Other matters

1. The Twelfth Asia-Pacific Seminar on Climate Change was held in Bangkok, Thailand from 30 July - 2 August 2002. The Seminar was organized by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), and the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan, in cooperation with the Ministry of the Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) of Thailand and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat.

I. Attendance

2. The Seminar was attended by experts from twenty-six countries, which included Australia, Cambodia, China, Fiji, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, Tonga, United States of America, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. The Seminar was also attended by representatives of 13 UN and other international organizations, namely ESCAP, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), UNFCCC Secretariat, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Global Environment Facility (GEF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asia-Europe Environmental Technology Centre (AEETC), Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), and International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). Representatives from the Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC), National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Overseas Environmental Cooperation Centre (OECC) and IGES were also present. A number of resource persons from research institutes, universities, and private companies also attended the Seminar.

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II. Objectives of the Seminar

3. The major objectives of the Seminar were to exchange information, experience and views on climate change among countries in Asia and the Pacific and to facilitate further activities to address the climate change in the region. The specific focus of the Twelfth Seminar was placed on the steps after Bonn and Marrakech Conferences, as well as issues related to the clean development mechanism (CDM), adaptation strategies, information dissemination through networking, and multi-stakeholders approach to climate change.

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III. Conduct of the Seminar

4. The seminar commenced with welcoming address by Mr Ravi Sawhney, Director, Environment and Natural Resources Development Division, ESCAP. Mr Sawhney underscored the importance of the Seminar, referring to the need of immediate action in the situation that the Earth's atmosphere was now warming at the fastest rate in recorded history, a trend that was projected to cause extensive damage to forests, marine ecosystems and agriculture. Attention was drawn also to the long-term survival of small island states in the region being at stake due to sea level rise. He outlined possible actions of ESCAP to address, in particular, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, that could be developed on the basis of its institutional strength, in four areas, i.e. policy development, capacity building, advisory services and regional coordination.

5. Mr Noriyasu Yamada, Councillor for Environmental Strategy, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of the Environment, Japan, delivered the inaugural remark. Mr Yamada highlighted that it was becoming exceedingly important to pursue efficient mechanisms to address climate change in Asia and the Pacific considering the impacts of the global warming were extremely serious. He informed the Seminar of Japan's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and called for concerted support of the Asia Pacific countries towards the early entry into force of the Protocol. He hoped that the seminar would be successful in sharing and disseminating various information and developing collaborative efforts to address climate change.

6. Mr Apichai Chvajarernpun, Deputy Secretary-General, Office of Environmental Policy and Planning (OEPP), MOSTE, Thailand, welcomed the participants on behalf of the Royal Thai Government. He commended the seminar for being very timely as countries were preparing towards the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), to be held in August to September 2002. He felt that the issue of climate change had not been sufficiently focused upon in the WSSD process so far, in particular, due to lack of research and development related to vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. He also underscored the important potentials of the CDM that would provide opportunities for both developing and developed countries to share benefits from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction.

7. The Seminar elected Mr Noriyasu Yamada, Japan as Chairperson, Mr Yap Kok Seng, Deputy Director-General, Malaysian Meteorological Service, Malaysia and Mr Mohammad Soltanieh, National Project Manager, Climate Change Office Department of Environment, Islamic Republic of Iran as Vice chairpersons, and Ms Asdaporn Krairapanond, Senior Environmental Specialist, OEPP, MOSTE, Thailand as Rapporteur. In addition, Mr Shuzo Nishioka, NIES, Japan, Mr Nobuo Mimura, Professor, Ibaraki University, Ms Nandita Mongia, Senior Technical Advisor and Manager, Energy and Climate Change, Asia and Pacific Region, UNDP-GEF, Mr John Hay, Professor, International Global Change Institute, University of Waikato, New Zealand, Mr Ravi Sawhney, ESCAP, Mr Yasuo Takahashi, Director, Office of International Strategy on Climate, Ministry of the Environment, Japan were entrusted to chair various sessions of the Seminar.

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IV. Keynote sessions

8. Mr George Manful, Head of Capacity Building, GEF Liaison Unit, UNFCCC Secretariat, updated the Seminar of latest global dialogue on the Climate Change Convention. He outlined comprehensively the agreements in Bonn and achievements at Marrakech. He mentioned that the Bonn agreement and the Marrakech Accords covered issues such as funding for developing countries, capacity building, development and transfer of technology, adverse effects of climate change and impacts of response, the Kyoto mechanisms, sinks and compliance. He placed emphasis of these mechanisms of protocol namely, the agreed framework for the CDM and joint implementation, as well as emissions trading. Building upon these achievements, he presented the future provisions on steps beyond Marrakech and possible work plan, including an outcome of key milestones for the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol for the period between 2003 and 2008.

9. Mr Ravi Sawhney, ESCAP, provided an overview on the ESCAP's ongoing and future activities in promotion of regional cooperation addressing climate change. His presentation covered four important components - needs for regional cooperation on climate change, potential benefits of regional cooperation, ESCAP's ongoing efforts in the related field, and proposed activities as a follow up to the present seminar. He suggested following elements for the regional strategy that could be developed as a follow up to the seminar, i.e. cooprdination of emission inventories and assessment, coordination of research activities, development of common scenarios for evaluating impacts, mechanisms for capacity building and technology transfer, adaptation strategies, development of institutional mechanism for strategy implementation.

10. Mr Yasuo Takahashi, Ministry of the Environment, Japan presented the process of Japan's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and its domestic policy to reach the Kyoto target, including the amendment of the Climate Change Policy Law and the establishment of the new Climate Change Policy Program. He emphasized that it was not an easy task for Japan to attain its target, but Japan would welcome this challenge as an opportunity to create new socio-economic model in which human activities coexist comfortably with the global environment. He also pointed out the importance of establishing a future global regime in which all countries could participate in the effort to tackle climate change. His proposal on potential first-step in this regard included the formulation of a Type II Partnership for WSSD, including the possible enhancement of the Asia Pacific Network on Climate Change (AP-net).

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V. Steps after Bonn and Marrakech

11. Mr Pak Sum Low, Regional Advisor on Environment and Sustainable Development, ESCAP, provided an overview on the implications of climate change issues to sustainable development. He highlighted the adverse impacts of climate change, such as sea level rise, seasonal and latitudinal shifts of precipitation, expected increase in extreme events, as well as in the frequency, persistence and maginitude of El Nino and Souther Oscillation (ENSO), human induced disasters, and land degradation among others. In the context of global process of WSSD, he referred to the five key areas identified by the UN Secretary General, namely water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity, and proposed actions in respected areas, where implications of climate chage are enourmous. The need for integreation of climate change into the UN Millenium Developemt Goals was particularly highlighted.

12. Mr P. C. Saha, Chief, Energy Resources Section, Environment and Natural Resources Development Division, ESCAP made a presentation covering the highlights of energy demand and supply trend, including the outlook, in the Asian and Pacific region as compared to the global trends. He pointed out that the probable scenario posed serious environmental challenges as the environmental impacts related to energy production and uses were enormous: for which bulk of the solutions remains with sustainable energy development and management through a paradigm shift in policy from the current pattern of energy production, conversion and use to a sustainable path. Areas needing policy options and actions would include: an appropriate energy mix from high carbon to low carbon fuels; supply and demand side energy efficiency measures; renewable energy and other clean energy technologies; and advanced fossil fuel technologies.

13. Ms Nandita Mongia, UNDP-GEF provided an overview of UNDP's response to Climate Change as an international development agency and an implementing agency of the GEF. Its current activities were firmly hinged on the COP guidance GEF received for findings of the IPCC/TAR and the World Energy Assessment, encasing climate friendly initiatives within the three pillars of growth, social justice and environment protection at all levels. She traced UNDP's active engagement in Asia and the Pacific region for climate mitigation through regional and country level projects in the last 10 years via support to 24 countries in the region for preparation of national communication, for energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy projects, totaling to US$ 170 million to date. She shared the future activities of UNDP in building national capacity and removing barriers for enhanced market penetration for energy efficiency conservation and renewable energy.

14. Ms Sujata Gupta, Renewable Energy Advisor, ADB, highlighted ADB's Initiative in the Climate Change Area. Her presentation covered ADB's Clean Energy Strategy, ALGAS Project and activities under Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change (REACH) Trust Funds, which particularly included Netherlands Cooperation Fund for Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency (PREGA) for $6.0 million. Most recent activities of PREGA included the organization of the regional training workshop held in cooperation with ESCAP from 22 - 26 July 2002, at UNCC, Bangkok. Other REACH trust fund contributors were Canada ($3.2 million) and Denmark ($3.5 million).

15. Ms Aki Maruyama, Climate Change Officer, Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), UNEP covered the main priority activity areas of UNEP in relation to climate change, with particular emphasis on those implemented and coordinated by UNEP-DTIE. She explained the workplan of the 4-year "Capacity Development for CDM project", of which overall objectives were generating in participating developing countries a broad understanding of the opportunities offered by the CDM, and developing the necessary institutional and human capabilities that allows the participating countries to formulate and implement CDM projects as equal partners with Annex-I counterparts. As of mid-July 2002, 12 small and medium sized developing countries from 4 regions were selected as host countries.

16. Mr Hideyuki Mori, Portfolio Manager, GEF Coordination Division, UNEP supplemented on the role of UNEP in catalyzing the development of scientific and technical analysis in advancing environmental management in GEF-financed activities, etc. With particular reference to climate change, UNEP/GEF work programme covers information, monitoring and assessment; emergency response measures; and environmental policy instruments as well as enabling activities. He also informed the seminar of specific programmes such as assessment of Impacts and Adaptation to Climate Change Multiple Region and Sectors (AIACC), Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA), and Country Case Studies on Sources and Sinks of GHGs.

17. Mr Peter Pembleton, Industrial Development Officer, UNIDO introduced UNIDO's activities on the CDM. The presentation covered the experience gained by UNIDO since 1977 in bringing industry interests into the climate change processes. A three-phase programme was elaborated involving continuous multi-stakeholder collaboration in examination of capacity and technology needs for the sector as well as related barriers to CDM activities. An outline of activities resulting from concluded phase I and II work was given together with lessons learnt.

18. In connection with the presentation on activities of international organizations, the participants reaffirmed the importance of inter-agency coordination and effective implementation by maximizing synergy among existing initiatives and programmes on the related subjects of climate change.

19. Mr Taito Nakalevu, Climate Change Adaptation Officer, SPREP pointed out that, despite the Marrakech Accords, global criteria need to be further established for the CDM in terms of environmental integrity, transaction costs, and facilitation of financing, regional and sub-regional distribution and sustainable development benefits associated with any CDM activities. He described the various existing barriers to setting up CDM projects in the Pacific countries, and action needed to reduce such barriers, including; reducing transaction costs by developing regional or sub-regional projects, developing a regional approach to project procedures, taking a coordinated action to ensure that CDM sinks projects were based on effective accounting procedures and encouraging broader participation in the Kyoto Protocol. He also pointed out the need for the Pacific to be assisted in terms of capacity building and training in order to improve knowledge and skills to be able to meaningfully participate in CDM projects formulation and implementation.

20. Mr Junji Hatano, Chairman, Clean Energy Finance Committee, Tokyo Mistubishi Securities, made a presentation on a project through which Tokyo-Mitsubishi Securities assisted a Thai renewable energy developer in the production of a CDM project design document (PDD) and its validation. The project was partially funded by a grant from Ministry of the Environment, Japan. He outlined the findings of his project, e.g. the CDM process turned out to be less onerous than feared. Financial assistance to PDD preparation had proven to be significant in facilitating good CDM projects.

21. Mr Yoshihito Shirai, Professor, Graduate School of Life Science and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, presented a case study conducted by his group on the methane release from Malaysian palm oil mill lagoon and its countermeasures, i.e. 1) methane content released from the anaerobic pond system (lagoons) in a palm oil mill was 45 per cent and that from the open digesting tank was 35 per cent, 2) either 0.36 million ton methane per year from lagoons or 0.33 million ton from open digesting tanks were estimated at 2020 in Malaysia; 3) adopting the scenario of using open digesting tank system in business as usual, installment of power generation using methane would become profitable when the price of carbon credit was more than 6US$/t-CO2. He concluded that the organizing steering committee consisting of the members from the Malaysian government, industry, and university, evaluated that this potential CDM project matched the policy of the Malaysian government that encouraged power generation from biomass, with the view of the sustainable development of palm oil industry.

22. Mr Nguyen Khac Hieu, Climate Change Coordinator, National Office for Climate Change & Ozone Protection, Viet Nam presented an overview on the preparation for CDM Implementation in Vietnam. He provided a comprehensive evaluation on Vietnam's supply potential on CDM projects, highlighting on 21 GHG mitigation options and a portfolio of 13 CDM projects that had been considered for Vietnam National Strategy Study on CDM, for which a national approval process was underway. As he highlighted, the approval process for CDM projects was an important element of the national strategy in Viet Nam. The objective of the approval process was to implement a clear and simple structure reflecting the international requirements of the Kyoto Protocol while being adapted to the country situation. He also suggested the country's next step for CDM implementation, including ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, formulation of National Action Plan to implement UNFCCC, including CDM, institutional set-up to obtain the maximum possible benefit from participation in the CDM, establishing new institutions such as Designated National Authority and National Executive Board, reforming existing structure and capacity development for the CDM.

23. Mr Thushara Seekkubaduge, Research Assistant, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Sri Lanka, emphasized that Sri Lanka had a great potential to participate in CDM projects, as a developing country that emits a relatively low amount of GHG emissions. He then outlined Sri Lanka's draft Policy on the CDM to be adopted by the Government, including the designation of the high priority sectors, such as energy including industry and transport, forestry, agriculture and waste management. Establishment of the National Expert Committee and other institutional arrangements for CDM implementation were also being discussed within the draft Policy.

24. Mr Mohammad Soltanieh, National Manager, Climate Change Office, Department of Environment, Islamic Republic of Iran, pointed out that Iran is ready to mitigate climate change by reducing GHG emissions through implementing CDM projects, upon the Kyoto Protocol ratification to be decided by the government. Due to the importance of the energy sector, in particular oil and gas in the Iranian economy, major mitigation options focus on this sector, although agriculture and forestry were equally important because of high sensitivity of Iran's natural system to climate change. Feasibility studies and in some cases, pilot projects for renewable energies, energy conservation and energy efficiency had been carried out in oil and gas industries, power generation, industrial processes, and commercial and residential buildings; to be implemented by the CDM. Also, in the non-energy sector including waste, agriculture, and forestry, mitigation areas had been identified.

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VI. Updates on latest progress in scientific assessment on Climate Change

25. Mr Martin Rice, Programme Manager, APN, gave an introduction to the APN. He outlined APN's place in the global change community, goals and organizational structure. Specific information was given on APN funding, research framework, and activities - placing particular emphasis on the need to develop the scientific capacity of developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Examples of climate change projects funded by the APN were also presented. It was also stressed that climate change is a current APN key scientific priority, however, it should be noted that it is one of four APN research themes, and that many projects were indeed cross-cutting.

26. Mr Amir Muhammed, Rector, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan informed the Seminar of several global, regional and national initiatives to address inter alia climate variability and changes, which were aggravating the already difficult water availability situation, in particular, in South Asia. He highlighted feature of an APN funded project entitled 糎ater Resources in South Asia - An Assessment of Climate Change - Associated Vulnerabilities and Coping Mechanisms' (APN 2002-12), which would collect the meteorological, socio-economic and water resources data from selected locations in the region, analyze the impact of past and projected climate changes on water resources and the socio-economic aspects and recommend measures to the policy makers to cope with the impending situation.

27. Mr Jim Salinger, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand outlined the latest assessments of the science of climate variability and climate change, and their likely impacts on agriculture and forestry in different agroecological regions during the 21st century. The range of adaptation options for agriculture and forestry, including the use of technological advances such as use of climate forecasts, for reducing the vulnerability to climate variability and change were discussed. The recommendations from this APN funded assessment woud identify the resources and strategies, such as education and training, required for the promotion of sustained efforts at reducing the vulnerability of agriculture and forestry to climate variability and climate change for different agroecological regions of the world.

28. Mr Ding Yihui, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, China, described the details of the Network System for Monitoring and Predicting ENSO Event and Sea Temperature Structure of Warm Pool in the Western Pacific Ocean, which had been developed with support of APN. The network had been designed, set up and updated with a special emphasis placed on oceanic and meteorological conditions over Warm Pool and the South China Sea, the impact of ENSO events and SSTA of Warm Pool on the weather and climate of APN countries (including tropical cyclones and monsoon), which had been often neglected in previous studies. It was enphasized that such information and data should be effectively used not only by various meteorological services in this region for their seasonal and interannual prediction, but also by the decision makers, and an appropriate linkage between scientific information and decision makers should be established.

29. Mr Paula Taufa, Conservation Officer, Department of Environment, Tonga provided an overview of climate change impacts on the water resources of Tonga, on the basis of environmental monitoring data collected by the Tongan government through its climate change project for national communications to the Conference of the Parties under the UNFCCC framework. He underlined the need for further cooperation among the governments of the Pacific countries as well as with the international scientific community, to better develop the mitigation and adaptation strategies through collective efforts by these countries.

30. Ms Mikiko Kainuma, NIES, Japan briefed the Seminar of the Asian-Pacific Integrated Model for Climate Change Analysis (AIM). Her presentation covered the background and structure of the AIM, as well as associated international collaboration programmes. As the AIM outputs provided the projection of GHG emissions and climate change impacts in terms of of a number of socio-economic indicators, according to different senarios, the model also indicated that the policy intervention, such as the Climate Change Convention and CDM implementation, would had reasonalbe scales of opportunities in mitigating the projected climate change impacts in the Asia-Pacific region. In connection with the development of climate change models, issues concerning integration between top down model and bottom up model were also discussed.

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VII. Development of national and regional adaptation strategies - issues and experiences

31. Ms Nandita Mongia, UNDP-GEF informed the Seminar of two windows of opportunity for LDCs and developing countries to initiate activities on adaptation measures. The LDCs could immediately move to request funding for preparation of the NAPA (National Adaptation Programme of Action, $150 thousand per LDC) to start putting the stakeholders together and planning short-term measures. Further, she informed the Seminar of the pilot project on Adaptation Policy Framework (APF) for Central America, Mexico and Cuba funded partly by the GEF and primarily by Switzerland and Canada. The APF had been initiated by UNDP in responding to developing countries' needs and builds upon the vulnerability and adaptation assessments conducted within the Initial National Communication of non-Annex I Parties. The major focus of the framework is to provide guidance to developing countries for formulating national policy options for adaptation to climate change and integrating such adaptation policies into national and sectoral planning.

32. Mr Shardul Agrawala, Administrator, Climate Change, OECD Environment Directrate provided an overview on vulnerability, adaptation and links to economic development planning, He also presented the framework for the OECD Development and Climate Change Project. A three-tier framework was described for the case studies that would provide a country level overview of principal climate change impacts and vulnerabilities, followed by an in-depth analysis at a sectoral or regional local level on how climate response could be mainstreamed into particular development policies and project.

33. Mr Nobuo Mimura, Ibaraki University, Japan, informed the Seminar of the 'Resource Book for Policy and Decision Makers, Educators and other Stakeholders', which was being developed to fill the major gaps in information, scientific and technical knowledge, capacity building, resources to carry out vulnerability and adaptation assessment, development of response strategies and institutional arrangement, which were all essential for the Pacific Island Countries in developing response strategies to climate change. He emphasized that the most desirable adaptive responses were those addressing the adverse impacts of the present day climate variability, including extreme events, and augment actions which would be taken even in the absence of climate change, for their contributions to sustainable development. It was announced that the Resource Book would become available within this year.

34. Mr Ancha Srinivasan, IGES, Japan, addressed various issues related to integration of indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation strategies. He emphasized that much of the adaptation was site-specific and would have to be developed at the individual and community level, and that local communities accumulated reservoirs of indigenous knowledge on adaptation through enduring thousands of years of climate change. After outlining a few indigenous measures to cope with climate extremes in various sectors (agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries and water resources), he discussed the guiding principles and a special framework for integration of local knowledge in adaptation policy. He emphasized the need for a paradigm shift from the "top-down strategy" to a "bottom-up participatory approach" in designing adaptation policy frameworks.

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VIII. Capacity building and technology transfer with emphasis on development of national and regional adaptation strategies

35. Mr George Manful, UNFCCC Secretariat, highlighted the relevant provisions of the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol as well as decisions of the Conference of the Parties relating capacity building and its funding arrangements. He outlined the purpose and principles underling the guidance provided by the COP in respect of capacity building. He also elaborated on the scope of activities defined in the decision on framework of capacity building as well as those activities contained in other COP7 decisions on development and transfer of technology, adverse effects of climate change and the implementation of Article 4.9 of the Convention. He stressed the need for major stakeholders including developing country Parties, multilateral and bilateral agencies and institutions as well as the UNFCCC Secretariat to work together to ensure an effective implementation of the framework on capacity building.

36. Mr John Hay, Professor of the International Global Change Institute, New Zealand, reviewed recent efforts to enhance regional and national capacity to address climate change, and described a range of success stories and lessons learned. He described continuing and emerging challenges that had generated the need for further rapid growth in capacity. Much of the need for increased capacity was a consequence of changes in international and national priorities related to climate variability and change, including extreme events. His particular recommendation was to strengthen the multi-dimensional capacity, including building and utilizing improved knowledge bases; institutional reforms and strengthening; introducing, revising and implementing legislation, regulations and voluntary incentives and measures; developing the ability to maximize the environmental, economic and social benefits of traditional, local and imported technologies; increasing social capacity; and improvements in assessment, monitoring, planning and evaluation methods, tools and systems.

37. Ms Li Liyan, Office to National Climate Change Coordination Committee, China, presented on China's perspective on capacity building and technology transfer in the context of UNFCCC. The presentation covered the importance of capacity building and technogy transfer in climate change response, China's overall approaches and key issues for capacity building and technogy transfer and some ongoing and proposed activities. On the basis of the country's experience so far, she identified the challenges for technology transfer and factors to ensure future success as follows: technical assistance and building of technical capacity, access to information, involvement of different stakeholders, sufficient financial support and incentives for business cooperation, pilot and demonstration projects.

38. Ms Tatyana Ososkova, Environment Pollution Monitoring Department, Main Administration of Hydrometeorology, Uzbekistan presented the experience of Republic of Uzbekistan on capacity building for implementation of UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. Underlining the seriousness of forecast of negative consequences of climate change, in particular, impact to agriculture productivity and water resources forecast for Central Asian countries, including the Aral sea crisis, she described national capacity to address climate change, such as the creation of informational database on available technologies and technological projects for implementation in the framework of the CDM. Considering the barriers which potentially interferre the implementation, she pointed out the necessity of enabling activity for implementation of the CDM projects in Uzbekistan.

39. Mr Ernest Bani, Head of National Environment Unit and Chairman of National Climate Change Committee, Vanuatu presented Vanuatu's experiences on National Adaptation Strategies outlining climate change programmes and adaptations-related activities. He particularly highlighted opportunities for his country to meet its long-term national goals of sustainable development; vulnerability and adaptation assessments which were very important to Vanuatu, which is already facing frequent extreme weather condition; vulnerability and adaptation information as an important tool for the national development process, and; Studies like the National Implementation Strategies (NIS) which provides opportunities to enhance capacity to plan for natural disasters already commonly experienced and for those predicted to associate increased global warming. He pointed out that opportunities also exist for CDM activities, in particular, in the forestry sector, coconut inter-cropping and renewable energy development, e.g. use of coconut oil and diesel mixes to run vehicles and generators.

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IX. Multistakeholder Approach to address Climate Change

40. Mr M.A. Khan, Chief, Environment Section, Environment and Natural Resources Development Division, ESCAP provided an overview on the multistakeholder approach to address climate change issues. He identified the critical stakeholders in climate change at both macro and micro levels; methodologies, momentum and benefits to involve stakeholders; and the new approach to integrate stakeholder participation into climate change poly strategy cycle. In view of promoting multistakeholder involvement, he echoed to the earlier proposal by Japan, on the formulation of a Type II Partnership for WSSD, in particular, for strengthening public accessibility to important climate change information, though inter alia possible enhancement of the AP-net.

41. Ms Michie Kishigami, Japan Office, ICLEI briefed the Seminar on climate actions being taken by local governments in Japan. She introduced that, in Japan, 828 local governments had established exemplary action plans to reduce GHG emissions, while 65 prefectures and big cities had their community climate action plans as of April 2002, which were making significant results in the areas such as energy saving and waste minimization, while their community policy particularly stresses on public education、introduction of the environmental management systems in partnership with citizens and businesses. She emphasized that more strategic and dynamic participatory actions were now advocated in broader perspective to meet national target set by the Kyoto Protocol.

42. Ms Pamela Gallares-Oppus, Regional Manager, Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign, Southeast Asia, ICLEI stated that the intersecting concerns of air pollution, limited mobility options and poverty was the vulnerability of poorer local governments to the impacts of climate change, thereby challenging these local governments to clip GHG emissions while struggling to keep the community's welfare at the core of local decisions and actions. A recent case study conducted by CCP Philippines illustrated the hurdles and potential contributions of local climate mitigation action to socioeconomic welfare, the local environment, and the global climate. The findings in this case study also included the nuances of multistakeholdership as a rightful approach, and the value of quantifying multiple benefits in drumming up public support to implement climate actions. Stress was given to enhancing regional and global multistakeholdership in ensuring access of local governments to resources, where urban poverty and climate change mitigation are integrated in local government agenda and actions. Also expressed is the significant role of local government leadening and management in ensuring that capacity building interventions be translated into local actions and results to address climate change.

43. The participants shared the view that multistakeholder approach to climate change was certainly important and, therefore, should further be promoted. For this purpose, development of the educational materials could be further encouraged taking into consideration current availability of such materials and existing information gaps. Measures should be considered to motivate the government to pay more attention to multistakeholder participation in climate change dialogues and responses. In the spirit of empowerment, it was also noted that capacity building should go beyond developing authority to different stakeholders, in particular including local governments, and carry through interventions to ensure effective governance at all levels for climate change.

44. Mr Chantanakome Weerawat, Former Executive Director, Federation of Thai Industries, affirmed that the multi-stakeholder approach to address Climate Change issues, in particular CDM/JI stipulatred by the Kyoto Protocol, needed a comprehensive "private sector-led package" as a key of success. He elaborated that the CDM/JI "markets" must recognize their explicit motivation to attract capital flows and technology transfers in the sectors that meet sustainable development objectives; Moreover, to achieve an effective CDM implementation, there was a need to enhance and strengthen capacity building of the private sector as a host participant, an operational entities and an important players. He concluded that cooperation of the private sector had become prerequisite in climate change dialogues; and proposed, however, the provision of clear "early warning system" and "preventive measures" from the government being essential to ensure full participation of the private sector.

45. Mr Kedin Kilgore, Emission Reduction Broker, Natsource, LLC., introduced the current GHG market, and the assessment of private sector's anticipatory response, drawing some examples of domestic market of selected countries, such as the United Kingdom. He stressed that it would be important to introduce a simple procedure for implmenting CDM projects, in view of reducing the transaction costs. The comparison in pricing carbon emission had shown between pre-Kyoto and post-Kyoto stages, which would be greatly affected by the introduction of CDM funding mechanism.

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X. Study Tour

46. A study tour was organized by OEPP, MOSTE, Thailand, to an AIJ Project site at Thai Kraft Paper Industry Co., Ltd. in Kanchanaburi Province on Thursday, 1 August 2002. 40 participants of the Seminar participated in this study tour.

47. The AIJ Project entitled "Model Project on Equipment for Recovery of Heat from Combustion of Waste in Paper and Pulp Mill in Thailand" was being implemented jointly by Department of Energy Development and Promotion (MOSTE/Thailand) and Babcock Hitachi Co., Ltd., with support of the New Energy and Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan. The project purpose was to demonstrate the efficient use of energy and the protection of the environment, especially in the GHG emissions by installing equipment, which consists of fluidized bed incinerator and waste heat recovery boiler. The steam utilized in the mill were recovered from heat by combusting pulper reject and solid waste, thus GHGs such as methane gas emitted from the landfill of pulper reject could be reduced.

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XI. Capacity building, data exchange and information dissemination on climate change through Networking

48. Mr Yasushi Hibi, Researcher, Land and Environment System Consulting Department, Nomura Research Institute, Ltd. (NRI), informed that the AP-net, after its successful 3 years operation, was now moving into the second generation stage, which aims at functioning as a clearing house for the Kyoto Protocol related information, the CDM in particular, focusing on the Asia-Pacific region. He elaborated on the latest improvements including the release of "CDM-info" which provides latest news and information on CDM, and e-Learning, which was a web-based learning facility to provide CDM-related knowledge. He also gave an overview of the capacity building programme on information and communication technology, organized by the AP-net Secretariat in March in Tokyo, inviting climate officers from six countries, which focused on hands-on website developing and administering skills. Further, based on his presentation as well as on the discussions of the previous session, Japan proposed a Type II Partnership for WSSD to strengthen partnerships amongst countries in the Asia-Pacific region and international organisations, which aims to develop a regional strategy in addressing climate change, utilizing the AP-net for capacity building of countries in the region in implementing UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, which was welcomed by the Seminar.

49. Mr David Hastings, GIS Officer, Space Technology Applications Section, Information, Communication and Space Technology Division (ICSTD), ESCAP, focused on growing availability of spatial databases, for display and analysis in computerized Geographic Information Systems, which were accessible on the Web. He pointed out there was still the problem that many databases were developed by specialists from a limited number of countries, so not all concerns were expressed in their design or development. He added his concerns that this might limit some types of applications, especially outside temperate humid areas.

50. Ms Andrea Deri, Program Manager, Capacity Building Program, IGES, introduced IGES's e-Learning system that connected decision makers with researchers to make research outputs on sustainable development timely and easily applicable for policy development and implementation. She emphasized that while IGES was introducing action-oriented e-Courses, IGES carefully blended e-Learning with traditional delivery mechanisms such as face-to-face training workshops, community-based learning, publishing reports to create optimal learning experience. She called for authors of e-Courses on climate change issues, and encouraged participants to join efforts to create inter-linkages among capacity development networks on climate change.

XII. Other matters

51. It was recommended that the major outcomes of the Seminar should be reported to the Environment Congress for Asia and the Pacific (ECO-ASIA) 2002. The Chairperson's Summary of the Seminar should also be disseminated as widely as possible.

52. The participants welcomed a proposal by Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan to host the Thirteenth Asia-Pacific Seminar on Climate Change in 2003.

53. The participants expressed their appreciation to the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, ESCAP and IGES for organizing the Seminar. The support of MOSTE, Thailand was also appreciated.

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Bangkok, Thailand, 2 August 2002,

Noriyasu Yamada
The Twelfth Asia-Pacific Seminar on Climate Change

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