Air & Transportation

Future Policy for Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission Reduction(second report) - Chapter 6

Future Policy for Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission Reduction

(1) Future Study Policy

In line with the policy provided for in the Second Report of the Expert Committee on Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emissions, it is advisable to continually review the issue concerning the future policy for motor vehicle exhaust emission reduction with a view to the furtherance of the reduction measures. In this case, while continuing to monitor air pollution, it is of great importance to further clarify the formation mechanism for air pollutants and to advance the study of improvements in the environment caused by motor vehicle exhaust emission reductions.

Specifically speaking, deliberations will be advanced for the following issues.

Short-term issues

  1. Studies will be advanced for the new reduction target values for diesel motor vehicles that will be applied after the target values indicated in "Future Policy for Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission Reduction" recommended by the Central Council for Environment Pollution Control on December 22, 1989, have been achieved. These studies should be completed by the end of 1998. In addition, studies will be advanced to examine the introduction of cold start regulations and blow-by gas regulations, while reviewing the necessity for them.
  2. Studies will be urgently advanced so that the RVP of test fuel for the fuel evaporative emission reduction for the gasoline motor vehicles and the measuring method and the target values for permissible limits of diesel smoke emitted from diesel off-road vehicles may be performed in line with the target achievement time line as indicated in this Report.

Medium- and long-term issues

  1. Studies will be made for gasoline LPG motor vehicles, off-road vehicles, and two-wheeled motor vehicles, for the new reduction targets, as required, while assessing the situation of the reduction targets indicated in this report or the 1996 interim report, the progress of technical development, and effects of various measures. Furthermore, a fuel evaporative emission regulation will be introduced and the cold start requirements for two-wheeled motor vehicles will be reviewed.
  2. Studies will be conducted on the policy for measures for qualities of fuel and lubrication oil, particularly the necessity of further reduction of RVP for the control of fuel evaporative emissions, the necessity of fuel quality measures while introducing new-type exhaust gas after-treatment devices, etc.
  3. Studies will be advanced for tests on the exhaust pipe emissions of gasolineLPG motor vehicles and diesel motor vehicles, including the necessity for reviewing and considering the results of the actual running mode survey to be newly conducted.

Moreover, in order to further improve and maintain good quality of the atmospheric environment in the 21st century, it is of great importance not only to promote the aforementioned exhaust emission reduction measures for motor vehicles themselves but also to promote extensively a wide variety of measures, including comprehensive traffic measures and stationary emission generating sources measures, while considering the cost-effectiveness of various measures.

(2) Various Related Measures

In conjunction with the enforcement of the various measures indicated in this Report, it is advisable that the following related measures be carried out in the future.

Promotion of various measures for motor vehicle traffic environment and promotion of dissemination of low-emission vehicles

In order to improve air pollution that is still in a critical state near large urban areas, it is mandatory to reduce total exhaust emissions from all motor vehicles. For this purpose, in addition to replacing motor vehicles with ones complying to the new standards set forth in this Report, it is mandatory to advance various measures to decrease the number of motor vehicles and to streamline traffic flow by raising the efficiency of physical distribution (transportation of goods) and the flow of people (transportation of passengers). It is necessary to improve the efficiency of motor vehicle transportation and to decrease the number of motor vehicles by increasing the efficiency of physical distribution by improving the loading efficiency of trucks, using railroad and marine transportation positively, making joint-deliveries, promoting information, and improving public traffic networks of railroads and buses, and by using these means, to make road traffic management more sophisticated, to alleviate measures for traffic congestion, etc. Furthermore, the number of motor vehicles in operation in Japan has exceeded the 70,000,000 units. Hence, it is imperative to advance wide-ranging measures to call on individuals to avoid the use of motor vehicles for unnecessary trips, to walk or use a bicycle for short distance trips, and to stop idling when parked or stopped. In addition, when promoting these various measures, it is necessary to study the use of appropriate economical methods. On the other hand, the tackling of drafting of prevention measures for motor vehicle environmental pollution is under way at the local government level, taking into consideration the situation of each community. It is important to advance the total promotion of these measures at the regional level.

In line with the scheduled enforcement of drastic exhaust emission reduction and the extension of the durability distance according to reduction targets indicated in this Report, it is necessary to urgently study the evaluation method for low emission standards for low-emission vehicles and the indication method for the evaluation results. Moreover, in combination with these studies, it is mandatory to continue the promotion of various measures related to promoting the low-emission vehicles. Moreover, it is necessary to promote the creation of a social environment aiming at mass dissemination of low-emission vehicles, such as the study of systems for advancing mass-dissemination of low-emission vehicles.

Exhaust emission reduction measures during the in-use stage

It is advisable to continue to advance exhaust emission reductions for gasoline LPG motor and diesel motor vehicles at the in-use stage through various means, such as the encouragement of strict enforcement of routine maintenance and the assurance of proper functioning of the exhaust emission control devices through motor vehicle inspections or spot-inspections. In addition, it is advisable to study the introduction of spot surveillances to assess maintaining the performance of exhaust emission control devices during the normal in-use stage.

Improvements of equipment and facilities and sharing increased costs

During the promotion of the exhaust emission reduction measures in accordance with this Report, it will become necessary to further improve testing equipment and facilities for exhaust emissions. Furthermore, as exhaust emission reduction measures progress, it is anticipated that motor vehicle prices, engine durability, maintenance costs, and so forth will be affected. Hence, it is necessary for manufacturers and users of the motor vehicles and off-road vehicles to share costs appropriately.

In addition, it will be advisable to consider tax breaks and financial support to ease the change to motor vehicles complying with the latest standards.

Survey on actual state of uncontrolled emission sources and measures for them

While enforcing the emission control measures for off-road vehicles based on this Report, it is necessary to conduct a survey on the actual state of emissions for other uncontrolled emission sources and to advance studies to measure them. Thus, it is imperative to study system policy for enforcing the measures.

Measures against global warming

Environmental measures for motor vehicle strongly require the reduction of greenhouse gases, as part of measures for global warming-one of the largest environmental problems humans face today, in addition to the reduction of motor vehicle exhaust emissions for improved air pollution. Therefore, it is mandatory to advance technical development that allows for both low emission technology and the low fuel consumption technology simultaneously.

Moreover, greenhouse gases emitted from motor vehicles must be curbed by understanding the actual emission state and by clarifying the mechanism by which they form, while carrying out investigations and studies of emission reduction technology, etc. in combination with the hitherto-employed emission reduction of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and so forth.

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