White Paper

Quality of the Environment in Japan 1989

(2) Systems for Regeneration of Water Circulation

  As we have seen, the circulation of water in the cities is impaired by a wide variety of factors. As a result, the first thing that has to be put into consideration is a possible urban flood. The areas of imperme-able water increase in conjunction with rises in the area of the paved surface and also in the number of buildings, among others, in the cities, so that rainwater does not permeate underground and flows into urban rivers and sewer systems in a single spell, thus increasing the discharge of rivers for a possible urban flood. Given this picture, rainwater permeating facilities, such as pavements which assure permeability and permeating measures, regulation ponds and other rainwater reservoirs have been introduced. The underground permeation of rainwater by those facilities is effective in:
  a. Reducing the urban temperature with an evaporation of groundwater,
  b. Fostering groundwater, conserving and recovering spring water and conservation vegetation, and
  c. Conserving soil organisms.
  On the other hand, the adoption of medium-scale tap water facilities, such as buildings, and rainwater utilization facilities is in progress in order to cope with the stringency of water demand in conjunction with the sophistication of urban activity. The utilization of rainwater reservoirs and rainwater serves to reduce the inflow into sewer systems when it rains and at the same time to create precious water space in the cities. The utilization of medium-scale tap water systems and rainwater also helps to maximize the use of water sources in the cities.
  Projects are also being stepped up by flowing the treated water of sewer systems into water channels in the cities where the water quality is deteriorated and there are no water sources so that streams may be revived and the waterside restored as places of rest for citizens and places where children play around with water, and that the treated water of sewer systems may be used for toilets in the buildings.
  As an example of those systems, the new Kokugikan Hall (in Sumida Ward, Tokyo) is so designed that the rainwater which falls on its huge roof,8,360m2 in area, is stored in its underground tanks which has a capacity of 1,000m3 for use in the toilets and coolant tower. This system takes care of about 70% of the water needed by the hall for miscellaneous use.
  In Akishima Tsutsujigaoka Heights in Akishima City, Tokyo, rainwater permeating measures and trenches are installed in housing areas, parking lots and squares, among others,to encourage the under-ground permeation of rainwater.
  The effluence of rainwater on August 4-5, 1986, was measured at 840 m3/hectare in districts where ordinary sewer pipes are installed and 121 m3/hectare in districts where an underground permeation construc-tion method has been performed with the reduction rate standing at about 85%.
  The wide variety of systems which is being introduced as mea-sures to cope with urban floods serves to recover circulation in the cities and contribute to a regeneration of the circulation of the ecosystem in the cities.

(3) Systems for Efficient Utilization of Energy

  The efficient utilization of energy is designed to reduce energy in the flow of energy and make use of natural energy. A reduction in the consumption of energy and the utilization of natural energy serve to reduce the discharge of nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxides and other pollutants and at the same to mitigate the urban climate.
  Due to increased urban renewal projects and other factors, there has been progress in the introduction of regional air-conditioning sys-tems primarily in major cities in recent years. Regional air-conditioning systems began to be introduced in Japan in the second half of the 1960s as measures to cope with air pollution by sulfur oxides and other pollutants in the cities.
  Regional air-conditioning for a number of buildings and other structures makes it possible to raise the efficiency with which to use energy and carry out concentrated environmental measures. At the same time, the system is effective in reducing energy costs and saving space for the installation of air-conditioning systems.
  With regional air-conditioning done in the heart of Sapporo by the Hokkaido Heat Supply Corporation as an example, the effects of regional air-conditioning systems for conservation of the environment is shown in Fig. 33. It is evident from this figure that the environmental density of sulfur dioxides is improved due to the use of a regional heat supply system and heavy oil with a low content of sulfur.
  Regional heating has been developed in Northern and Central Europe where winters are severe and long. In Germany, regional heating was developed at the end of the 19th century and there are many cases in which the heat discharged from small-scale power generation plants and factories are put to use. In Stockholm, Sweden, there are many methods in which heat pumps are used with seawater and sewage as their heat sources, and at present the regional heating rate is in excess of 50%.

Fig. 33 Changes in Density of Sulfur Dioxides Since Adoption of Regional Heating System (October to March)

Fig. 33 Changes in Density of Sulfur Dioxides Since Adoption of Regional Heating System (October to March)

  (Sapporo Monitoring Station)
Remarks: 1. Data of Hokkaido Heat Supply Public Corporation
  2. Restrictions on Use of Fuels in City Heart
   Sulfur content:1.2% or under in 1971
       0.8% or under in 1975
       0.5% or under in 1976


  With the input of energy (commercial energy), such as that of electric power and, gas, used as their driving energy, heat pumps consume low-temperature heat as their heat source, so that the volume of energy gained is greater than the input of energy. Under this system, it is possible to make effective use of low-temperature heat sources which are abundantly available in the cities.
  At the Hikarigaoka Park Town which stands across Tokyo's Nerima and Itabashi wards, the heat discharged from heat condensation (about 45 degree C) and the heat discharged from the cooling of ultra-high-voltage electric power transmission lines under the ground (about 20 degree C) at the Hikarigaoka Cleaning Plant (with an incineration capacity of 150 tons/day x 2) are used as heat sources, and hot water with a tempera-ture of 60 degree C for heating and hot-water supply and cold water with a temperature of 7 degree C are produced to heat and supply hot water to apartments, and to air-condition and supply hot water to hospitals, commercial and other facilities.
  For co-generation, electric power is generated with the motive power of engines, gas turbines and the like and their discharged heat is put to effective use for the supply of heat as a system. Under conven-tional power generation systems, the coefficient of the use of energy is a mere 35-40%, whereas the effective use of discharged heat in a co-generation system makes it possible to bring up the energy coeffi-cient to 70-80% in situations where electric power demand is properly brought in line with heat demand.
  In the near future, methods in which fuel batteries are used for co-generation will be developed, With fuel batteries, electric power is generated from hydrogen and oxygen, and it is said that the environmental load is extremely small.
  As regards the utilization of solar energy and other types of natural energy, the propagation of systems under which solar energy is used for hot-water supply and air-conditioning is in progress, and the generation of electric power with solar energy and wind velocity has begun, albeit small in scale at present.
  Thus, technological development, along with improvements in cost-effectiveness and institutional evolutions offer a growing potential for the efficient utilization of energy. As a matter of course, there are some, like co-generation with engines, gas turbines and the like, which newly add to the regional environmental load, so that there is a need to continue to grapple with technological responses, among others, such as the establishment of a system under which the rise in the environmental load may be reduced as much as possible.

(4) Measures for Conservation and Creation of Nature in the Cities

  Nature in the cities, such as woodland and grassland, is an indispensable factor for mitigation of the climate, purification of air, fostering of underground water and the like, and while it is adversely affected, various measures are in force to conserve and create nature.
  First, as institutional measures, city parks (under the City Parks Law), green conservation areas (under the City Green Conservation Law), suburban green conservation areas (under the Law for Suburban Green Conservation in the National Capital Sphere and scenic zones (under the City Planning Law), among others, are designed to conserve or create woodland in the cities.
  In recent years, projects have been stepped up to create an environment for the habitation of small animals in the cities.
  In other words, the development of "woods for observation of nature" began in 1984 with subsidies from the Environment Agency in order to develop an environment, in a manner not to damage nature, which may be inhabited by insects, wild birds and other small animals, and make them places for observation of nature in and around major cities where the loss of familiar nature is conspicuous. At the same time, the Construction Ministry began in 1987 to develop "urban ecology parks" as city parks.
  Besides, a movement began last year for the "development of small bird-chirping woods" to create an environment which is suitable for the growth of wild birds and where people may enjoy watching small birds, such as by replanting at nearby places trees which bear fruit favored by wild birds.
  In Germany, the Law for Protection of Federal Nature and Conservation of Landshaft was enacted in 1976, and a "Landshaft program" has been formulated by many cities. The program for Conser-vation of Species is designed to conserve and regenerate the biotope of flora and fauna, primarily developing green belts between biotope species to prevent their isolation and make each biotope a network.
  In Britain, the development of ecological parks is brisk, stepped up with citizens, active involvement. With the use of sites from which garbage disposal plants are moved and open space of the sort which is developed under urban renewal and other projects, small hills, small rivers and marshes, among others, are developed, making use of natu-rally growing grass and low trees used, grass and flower seeds sown and plants grown with a view to creating nature in the cities.
  Thus, the conservation and creation of nature is being stepped up is Germany and other countries, whereas there is a need in Japan to make further active efforts in this direction, to say nothing of the development of public parks and open space.
  As we have seen in the foregoing, the efforts to regenerate the circulation of the ecosystem are budding in Japanese cities, too. Those attempts may be summed up as follows:
  First, as is discernible from systems for recovery of water circu-lation and measures to raise the efficiency of energy, the said systems are of an "environmental-conservation type" such as measures against floods and for energy saving, coincides with that of the circulation of the ecosystem. Judging from an aspect in which new problems are raised by symptomatic measures, the fact that systems under which the essential purposes are compatible with conservation of the environment have been developed and introduced indicates a significant direction in which environment policy will evolve in the future.
  Second, the fact that those and other systems are being introduced suggests that they are cost-effective, and a new phase seems to have arrived where cost-effective systems of the environmental-conservation type make their appearance, departing from the conven-tional pattern of "environmental policy without cost-effectiveness."
  Third, while the development of systems and technology and improvements in cost-effectiveness are in progress, there are many cases in which they are not well supported in institutional aspects on the receiving side. For introduction of systems of the environmental-conservation type, there is a need for adequate policy responses for their compatible introduction and development.
  Fourth, as regards the conservation of nature in the cities, it is important to increase open space, conserve and develop the habitats of living things and biotope in the cities and incorporate them into net-works so as to conserve and create nature in the cities in a positive manner.

2. New Lifestyle and Movement for Environmental Conservation

  In recent years, new types of activities for conservation of the environment have budded and significantly sprawled, such as activities for conservation of the environment and the building of a local environ-ment based on ideas gained in everyday life as well as activities of the sort in which the global environment is taken into consideration.
  In the midst of informatization and the development of high technology, there is orientation among the people toward a lifestyle of the kind which is designed for a coexistence of the environment with nature. Also, in response to a rising awareness of issues on the global environment in the world community in recent years, the interest in those problems is also rapidly growing in Japan, and the Japanese people's perception about the environment is becoming all the more sophisticated.
  Here, an attempt will be made to dwell on the tendency of new types of activities for conservation of the environment, as they are classified into (1) activities for conservation of the environment based on ideas gained in the everyday life and (2) activities designed to conserve and regenerate local environmental resources.

(1) Activities for Environmental Conservation Based on Ideas Gained in Everyday Life

  Along with growing affluence, activities for recycling and those to cope with miscellaneous household effluent are typical of the activ-ities designed to take yet another look at life in association with the environment, such as those for conservation of the water environment.
  a. A more affluent lifestyle means more consumer goods are used by households, and it is possible that many of them are made with finite natural resources, that some of them pollute the environment when they are disposed of as garbage, or that the natural environment is damaged by reclamation. On the basis of those concepts, a wide variety of activities for recycling began to unfold in the middle of the 1970s.
  There are various activities which range from sole volunteer activities at the district level to those which are made into projects with inter-community organizing efforts, such as those tied in with adminis-tration on waste by local governments, those coordinated with the recycling industry and those in which unnecessary things are locally exchanged in groups.
  The handling of items broadly varies, ranging from the sort of trash at the district level to the handling of empty cans, discarded paper, discarded frying oil, milk packs and the like.
  There is a growing network of activities for recycling in which by taking up the issue of trash attempts are being made to harmonize man' s lifestyle with nature in everyday life.
  b. As we have seen in Chapter 2, the load of household effluent has come to have a significant weight as a causative factor. Efforts to cope with miscellaneous household effluent are being stepped up in close coordination with local governments. To refrain from disposing of food scraps into kitchen drainage pipes, they are drained through triangular-shaped, fine-grained sink drainers, paper filters and the like, and discarded frying oil is recovered and turned into soap, among others.
  Along with those efforts, there are activities in which correlations between life and the environment are checked with entries made in a household budget book, activities in which the conditions of water pollution, such as the generation of Japanese laurels (Aucuba japonica), are documented, those in which the water of small rivers is directly purified with charcoal and those which are designed to emphasize the conservation of rivers, lakes and other bodies of water with a wide variety of events, among others.
  In Shiga Prefecture, for example, a wide variety of activities are being unfolded for conservation of the environment, given the pollution of Lake Biwa, and after the Ordinance for Prevention of Lake Biwa's Eutrophication was enacted, the scope of activities has been expanded from the question of detergents to the environmental control of the lake, thus giving rise to activities for household budget books on the environ-ment and checks on life.
  The activities which were initially started for various reasons are being incorporated into large networks.

(2) Activities for Conservation and Regeneration of Global Environmental Resources

  Activities for the conservation and regeneration of local environ-mental resources, such as the regeneration of the urban ecosystem's circulation and the conservation of nature which remains intact, have become a significant trend in recent years. Here are some examples.
  a. Activities for the conservation of the water quality are being evolved not only from the standpoint of the prevention of water pollu-tion in everyday life, as earlier mentioned, but for the conservation and regeneration of the waterside environment, including rivers, lakes and marshes; the recovery of water circulation in the cities; and the conser-vation and restoration of spring water as well.
  Water is an environmental resource which is important to, and readily understandable by, local residents. Activities for its conserva-tion and regeneration helps to form new communities, and attempts are being made to form networks for them.
  In Yanagawa City, Fukuoka Prefecture, which is known as a waterside community," the formation of plans for the construction of sewers in the reclaimed water channels in 1972 was a turning point in giving rise to activities in which their bottoms would be cleaned both by administrative entities and citizens under the guidance of the Drainag-eway Maintenance and Control Committee which is formed by neighbor-hood self-government associations and other organizations.
  Organized in 1984, the National Congress for Waterside Commu-nities is joined by 150 organizations for the conservation and regenera-tion of the water environment and holds meetings at various places across the nation.
  b. On the other hand, new types of activities for conservation of the environment are being evolved in the protection of nature and other sectors.
  Activities for the National Trust (the people's environment fund) are typical as those by citizens for the conservation of nature, and the number of organizations in this program increases year by year. With the funds contributed from broad segments of the people, local govern-ments and private organizations acquire and control tracts of land the natural environment of which is favorable, and strive for their conserva-tion.
  In Koshimizu Town, Shari County, Hokkaido, for example, local people formed a "society to talk about the nature of Koshimizu" and bought tracks of woodland with donations from across the nation which is inhabited by Sachalin red foxes (Vulper vulpes schrecki), for their conservation. In suburban areas of Saitama, Kanagawa and other prefectures, National Trust activities are being evolved under the leadership of local governments.
  In recent years, activities have begun for the conservation and recovery of habitats for fireflies, dragonflies, butterflies and small animals.
  A case in point is Ranzan Town in Saitama Prefecture, where the Council for the Creation of Woods for Sasaki's purple emperor butter-flies (Sasakia charonda) is formed by the local Parent-Teacher Associa-tion and other related organizations. In Nakamura City, Kochi Prefec-ture, the Dragonflies' Kingdom, a natural park where visitors would be able to observe 60 species of dragonflies was opened in 1988 with the Society to Think About Dragonflies and Nature and the Japan Commit-tee of the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) taking the lead.
  The Environment Agency embarked in 1988 on the selection of "native places and habitats for living things" to support activities for the conservation and recovery of habitats for those small animals.
  The people take an exceedingly great interest in fauna. For example, the Third Basic Survey on the Conservation of the Natural Environment in 1984 was given cooperation from as many as about 100, 000 people, making it possible to gather about 1.9 million pieces of data.


Conservasion of the biotope in West Berlin

Conservasion of the biotope in West Berlin

Dragonfly Kingdom (Nakamura City)

Dragonfly Kingdom (Nakamura City)

A measure to cope with kitchen effluent

A measure to cope with kitchen effluent

A new lifestyle (bazaar for unnecessary goods)

A new lifestyle (bazaar for unnecessary goods)


  c. On the other hand, there is a system of citizens' farms, under which farms as nearby places of nature remaining in the suburbs are opened to citizens as places for contact with nature, places for environ-mental education and places for the building of new communities, among others. This system is patterned after Germany's Kleingarten Movement. For their management, there are a wide variety of forms, such as citizens' farms in the management of which local governments take the lead, those managed by agricultural cooperatives and those for whose use contracts are signed between landowners and citizens.
  d. Activities by bird-watching and nature observation groups have become increasingly brisk in the suburbs to learn about the mechanisms of the ecosystem as well as to familiarize themselves with nature. Activities in which the blue skies and stars are observed to learn about constellations and at the same time to know degrees of atmospheric pollution have begun in recent years.
  e. Many of the amenity activities encompass the aforementioned various activities, and the National Amenity Council was established at the administrative level in June 1988. Through amenity activities, inter-national interchanges are being promoted. Under the Franco-Japanese Amenity Council, defined in the existing Franco-Japanese Agreement on Cooperation in Science and Technology, for example, interchanges are being deepened primarily between local governments on amenity mea-sures which are of common interest.

Chapter4. Policy Evolution in Regenerating Circulation of Ecosystem in the Cities

  As we have seen, man has created an artificial environment by living in cities and engaging in a wide variety of urban activities and produced significant impacts on urban water, air and soil, among others. The environment thus altered and polluted affects and restricts man's safe and healthy urban life and the activities of cities.
  To build a healthy and comfortable urban environment in the midst of urbanization which will make further progress toward the 21st century, it is indispensable to build such a diversified, independent, stable and circulatory structure as is observed in the ecosystem and come out with a mode of behavior which is compatible with the urban life. This endeavor might perhaps be described as work for the realiza-tion in the cities of "sustainable development" which seems to have become a common keyword for the entire world.
  In this chapter, this effort is termed "regeneration of the eco-system's circulation in the cities." In the following, let us grope for the direction in which environment policy ought to be in the future from the standpoint of promoting and supporting the regeneration of the eco-system's circulation in the cities.

1. Basic Perception

  In the ecosystem of nature, the give and take of energy and matter which are required for the sustenance of life are efficiently performed between component factors in the system, and as they circulate within it, the sustenance and stability of the system are assured. Its structure itself permits the existence of multifarious living things and a display of the diversified functions of the environment, assuring the independency and stability of the environment in a system of check and balance between them.
  In order to regenerate the circulation of the ecosystem in the system of man versus the environment in the cities and form a favorable urban environment, it is necessary for man himself to strive to control urban activity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and at the same time to work for an efficient utilization of resources and energy and a reasonable recycling and treatment of waste, thereby working out urban system of the sort which hardly gives rise to environmental pollution. Those efforts might perhaps be described as attempts to form urban system of an ecosystem circulation type.
  For formation of this type of urban system, there is a need, first, to raise the efficiency with which to use resources and energy for cities in an integrated manner and work for an effective use of natural energy, rainwater, sewage treatment water and other types of sewer and discharged heat in the cities, among others, and at the same time to step up the reduction of sources of waste, its recycling and proper treatment, and the circulation and utilization of water in office buildings, and housing projects and districts as a unit, each category being considered as a unit.
  There is also a need to promote the conservation of nature remaining in the cities, urban afforestation, the conservation of river and spring water which is close in quality to natural water, the creation of an environment for the growth of small animals and the recovery of rich nature in the cities, and by making use of their diversified functions, such as the purification of nature, the mitigation of the climate, disaster prevention and soil conservation, to recover the circulation of the ecosystem in the cities.
  The existence of woodland, grassland, the waterside and the like is quite instrumental not only in mitigating the urban climate, such as the prevention of a rise in temperature with the evaporation and dispersion of water and its underground permeation, but is the purifica-tion of air and the upgrading of amenities as well.
  Second, it is citizens themselves who take charge of the forma-tion of such a desirable, new urban system. It is important that individ-uals and businesses in cities, engaging in a wide variety of urban activities, have a deep understanding about the impact their conduct has on the environment, always strive to reduce loads on the environment in their everyday lives or business activities, and participate or cooperate in activities for the beautification and betterment of the environment and also in a movement for the recovery and recycling of waste.
  Third, while realistic objectives are set on the way the environ-ment of cities or districts ought to be with the positive involvement of citizens, it is necessary to formulate plans for the formation of an urban environment into which those measures are incorporated and strive to translate those measures into action. In this instance, it is important to try to index the existing man-versus-environment system in the cities in a form which is readily digestible by citizens.
  Fourth, as regards development projects of the sort which gives rise to a new type of urban activity, such as the development of new urban areas, that of littoral water fronts accompanied by the renewal of the city center and the reclamation of the waterside and the develop-ment and utilization of new underground space, it is necessary to pay full heed even in the planning stage to the formation of a ecosystem circulation type of urban system.
  Fifth, with respect of air pollution by nitrogen oxides and other chemicals primarily in major urban areas and the water pollution of urban rivers, lakes and marshes, bays and inland seas by miscellaneous household effluent, there arises a significant gap between the concentra-tion of population and various functions, on the one hand, and the development of the urban structure, including roads, sewer systems and city parks, on the other, and the situation is such that it would be difficult to find some way out of the present situation with existing administrative measures which center on controls on the effluence of pollutants from factories, business establishments and other major stationary sources, so that it is necessary to powerfully step up the decentralization of population and industry in line with the Fourth Comprehensive National Land Development Program in a long-term perspective and, as an immediate step, to reinforce measures against air pollution caused by the discharge of nitrogen dioxides from automobiles in major cities and make studies on new measures for improvement of the water quality in cities where water is extremely polluted by miscellaneous household effluent.
  In the following, an attempt will be made to realistic environmental-policy measures that ought to be stepped up in the cities in line with the above basic perception.

2. Formation of Ecosystem Conservation Type of Urban System

(1) Development of Ecosystem Conservation Type

  While stepping up the sophistication of sewer and effluent treat-ment methods and the utilization of treated water, medium-scale tap water systems, rainwater reservoir and utilization systems, regional air-conditioning systems, co-generation, systems for the recovery and recycling of waste and the like will be developed. Besides, the utilization of natural energy, such as solar heat, light and wind velocity, will be promoted. To recover water circulation in the cities, the propagation of facilities and systems to encourage the underground permeation of rainwater will be stepped up.
  Moreover, while promoting the further development of technol-ogy associated with those new urban facilities and systems, studying institutional problems which prove to be deterrents to their dissemina-tion and formulating reasonable legal, financial and tax measures, it is necessary to encourage both public and private institutions to adopt those systems for projects for urban development and renewal.
  In lakes and marshes, bays, inland seas and other closed bodies of water with major cities or densely populated areas located in the hinterland, much progress has yet to be made in the improvement of the water quality, despite the fact that special efforts have been exerted in the development of sewer systems on a priority basis along with con-trols on effluent from major sources, such as factories and business establishments.
  In recent years, small-sized treatment and purification tanks with which to treat human waste and effluent from households and the like, and to encourage their installation, a system of subsidies from the State and local governments, a system of loans from the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation, a system of extra loans from the Housing Loan Corporation have been established, and it is to be hoped that those tanks will be disseminated as an effective means to dispose of household effluent.
  Given those circumstances, there is no need to point out that efforts should be exerted to further reinforce controls on effluence and step up the development of sewer systems, but along with the sophistica-tion of sewer treatment methods at sewer treatment plants and a further replenishment of the systems of subsidies and loans for treat-ment and purification tanks in areas where sewer systems have yet to be developed, it is necessary to take in a comprehensive manner all sorts of effective measures, including the collective treatment of miscellane-ous household effluent with each residential area or housing project as a unit, the direct purification of water on drainpipes and medium and small and medium rivers in the cities, the dredging of sludge and the introduction of purification water.

(2) Improvements in Transport Systems

  In urban traffic, too, the essential thing is to raise the efficiency of transport of both people and goods, and it is important to switch from cars to railways, subways, buses and other public means of transit and, in the transport of goods by automobiles, to shift from owner trucks to trucks licensed for business purposes.
  On the other hand, it is necessary to curb automobile trips with the rationalization of physical distribution, such as by moving to areas outside the cities or their suburban factories, warehouses, wholesale markets and other facilities where the demand of physical distribution originates and by encouraging the development of joint transport facil-ities, and at the same time to disperse and streamline traffic flows with the development of bypasses and loop roads and that of traffic control systems, among others, with due consideration given to the conservation of the environment.
  In regard to the formation of such structures which may prevent or reduce sources of damage brought by automobile traffic, such as air pollution and noise, there is a need to take such measures as the rationalization of the use of land along trunk roads, the construction of green buffer zones and the improvement of the road structure.
  As measures for automobiles themselves, it is important to strengthen measures against exhaust gas and noise, particularly to strengthen restrictions on the exhaust of gas from diesel-engine automo-biles and other cars in use, the encouragement of a shift to automobiles satisfying the provisions for restrictions, and the development and dissemination of low-pollution automobiles.
  Basically, along with the implementation of such measures for structural improvements as mentioned above, it is necessary to build a society where there is no excessive reliance on automobiles, but it takes a long time and as things now stand, it is expected that automobile traffic will further increase in the future in conjunction with changes in physical-distribution needs and other factors.
  According to the aforementioned New Medium-Term Prospect on Measures Against Nitrogen Oxides, some degree of improvement may be anticipated in the density, judging at least from the findings of a survey on the possible exhaust of nitrogen dioxides in three total area-wide pollutant load control areas by 1993, but it is projected that the conventional measures alone would make it difficult to satisfy the environmental-quality standards at most of the automobile exhaust gas monitoring stations.
  In major urban areas, therefore, things have presumably come to a phase where studies are to be conducted on measures to curb the total amount of exhaust gas from automobiles ; on the effects of, and the problems to be posed by; on the implementation of a wide variety of measures for curbs on automobile trips into the city center and, further-more; and on the introduction of economic-policy measures for orienta-tion toward curbs on the use of diesel-engine automobiles.

(3) Recycling of Resources, Legitimate Disposal and Control of Polluted Sites Abandoned

  As regards the problem of waste, there is a need to strive to check problems from being posed about environmental pollution and the disposal of waste in phases where products are used and discarded, to say nothing of the necessity of private businesses making efforts to develop processing technology. For example, efforts must be made to devolop products which will produce insignificant loads on the environ-ment and waste disposal plants, and products and packing materials of the sort which may be readily recovered and recycled.
  In the development and production of new products, that is why it is necessary for the producers themselves to make strict product assessments and exercise self-control on the production process. From this point of view, the Guideline for Self-assessment by Entrepreneurs on the Difficulty of Disposing of Discarded Products, etc. was formulat-ed in December 1987.
  For the recovery and recycling of discarded products, the manu-facturers and dealers assume part of the social responsibility. As regards to the containers of food, drinks and liquors, among others, there is a need to use readily recyclable glass bottles and paper products and strive to unify, and come out with common specifications for, the shapes and materials of containers.
  With respect to refreshing drinks many of which are sold by automatic vending machines, in particular, there is a need, from the standpoint of preventing the dispersion of empty cans, to positively make studies on improvements in the structure of automatic vending machines and the places of their installation for the establishment of a reasonable recovery route, the securing of places for the collection and depositing of empty cans, and methods to heighten the consciousness of consumers, as well as on the adoption of a deposit system.
  In actuality, there are cases in which hazardous matter-containing waste, such as waste of the medical system, is thrown away and mingled with ordinary waste.
  The volume of industrial waste generated in the cities is on the upswing, and it contains many things which may further use. As they are not reasonably sorted out and controlled, they are disposed of along with useless waste at times. To prevent this, there is a need for the persons who throw away those items to make their sorting, recycling and self-control thoroughgoing by themselves.
  In building and civil-engineering works projects, disused wood and other industrial waste and earth are evident. There is a need to curb the volume of generation, reduce the weight in the course of intermedi-ate processing and secure final disposal plants from the standpoint of lessening burdens on the general environment and final disposal plants, and at the same time to further step up their recycling.
  With respect to earth at construction sites, which does not fall under the category of industrial waste, there is a need to work for the formulation of measures to reduce its generation and promote its further use as a resource.
  On the other hand, in conjunction with changes in the industrial structure, it is expected that there will be a rise in the number of cases where the sites used by factories and the like and the reclaimed land for use as sites for the disposal of waste are used for office buildings, housing areas, schools and public parks, among others. In those cases, it is necessary to perform prudent fact-finding surveys on the pollution of soils and underground water.
  As for final disposal plants, regardless of whether they are for industrial or general waste, it is important to develop at this time a system where elaborate records on the configuration, volume and disposal method of waste brought into them may be routinely kept and the records may be transferred when the ownership of the tracts of land is transferred or they are sold.

(4) Conservation and Creation of Nature

  In the cities and their peripheries, first, it is important to conserve vegetation which practically only remains in the woods of Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples, in the slope forests and on the riverbed and work for the conservation of thickets of assorted trees.
  Their existence is an important nucleus for the purpose, envisioned in the Green Master Plan, of securing upwards of 30% of the built-up urban area as open space. For their conservation, there is a need to mobilize all sorts of conservation and creation measures with the enactment of ordinances for the conservation of the natural environ-ment and ordinance and other regulations for the conservation of scenery, the formulation of operating procedures for the conservation of open space in the cities, such as urban open space promotion programs, and the designation of open space and woodland which are to be conserved, depending on the actual situation of a given area, in addition to various measures under the Forest Law, the City Planning Law, the Urban Open Space Conservation Law, the City Parks Law and other laws and regulations.
  With reference to farmland in the built-up urban areas, there is a need to designate "open-space areas for production" and perform so-called "reverse line drawing" for tracts of farmland which satisfy certain conditions, such as those in which the owners intend to continue to do farm work in the future and those which are released to the public as citizens' farms under long-term contracts with administrative author-ities.
  Green buffer zones are prepared around factories and other facilities and along trunk roads, and the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation is stepping up projects for the construction and sale of "open space for coping with air pollution" in areas which are extremely affected by air pollution or where there is a danger that they will be done so in the future in addition to the conventional construction of green buffer zones around factories and other facilities.
  Besides, there are high hopes for projects such as the develop-ment of urban parks and the like and open-space projects under the Five-Year Program for the Replanting of Trees. etc., to Create Urban Open Space and with the utilization of the Urban Open Space Fund, among others.
  It is important not only to step up the conservation and develop-ment of open space but also to foster a sense of volume about greenery, such as by raising the rate of greenery in sight, and improve the conditions of greenery visible to human eyes.
  For this, it is necessary to further step up the creation of more open space on privately owned tracts of land by encouraging the planting of trees and keeping buildings back from roads along with the growth of roadside trees, the construction of "pocket parks" at street corners and bird sanctuaries, the conclusion of agreements on vegeta-tion and open space on the walls of building and their rooftops, and the remodeling of block walls into hedges.
  Rivers, lakes and marshes and other bodies of water are impor-tant components of nature in cities, and by working for the creation and conservation of natural riverbanks, lake fronts, riparian shallows and pools, spring water and various other forms of nature, along with improvements in the water quality, it is necessary to create a live waterside environment which may be inhabited by fish and other small animals.
  For the renewal of the city center by private businesses, there are systems for special-neighborhood and comprehensive designing under which favorable urban open space will be created in exchange for an easing of various restrictions, added increases in the ratio of total floor area to site area, but the entrepreneurs of development and renewal projects should play a positive role in the formation of a favorable urban environment abundant with water and green.
  When a new housing area is to be developed, there is a need to strive for the formation of a highly qualitative living environment which incorporates habitats for local natural vegetation and other living things. By so doing, it will be possilbe to respond to the needs of urbanites who attach growing importance to the "life quality" and comfort, thereby paving the way for the production of high valve-added merchandise.
  By taking those measures, to expand the area of open space and waterside, it is important to assure quality of the sort which makes possible the habitation of a wide variety of small animals.
  Furthermore, with those open-space areas and the waterside tied in with each other, it is desirable that cities as a whole be covered with a network of water and greenery. As a matter of course, such a network of greenery and water plays a significant role in the regeneration of the urban water environment and the mitigation of the urban climate.

3. New Lifestyles

(1) Citizens' Everyday Lives and Urban Environment

  Urban and livelihood-type pollution cannot be eliminated without relevance to people's everyday lives. Naturally, it all depends, as we have seen earlier, on how soon the aforementioned urban systems may be realized with the cooperation of the central and local governments as well as private businesses. Equally, it also depends on what sort of environment citizens want to live in and what sort of lifestyle they opt for.
  In all aspects of people's lives nowadays, ranging from dispersed empty cans to neighborhood noise in conjunction with the use of various household appliances and the disposal of garbage--to say nothing of the water pollution of urban rivers and other bodies of water with miscella-neous household effluent, air pollution caused by the use of automobiles, traffic noise, pollution caused by dust and the like--each individual in a position to fall victim to, and cause, environmental pollution.
  As is discernible from the example in which the destruction of the ozone layer is caused by the use of chlorofluorocarbon-containing sprays, it is now evident that the conduct of each person is tied to environmental issues of global dimension. Given this picture, it is impor-tant for us, first, to have a deep understanding of the results of actions we take in our everyday lives, review our lives with attention given to those results, positively involve ourselves in activities for the develop-ment of our living environment into a better and more comfortable environment.
  With those efforts, each citizen will be able to contribute to the conservation of the global environment, and this posture may well be described as being in line with the "lifestyle of members of the world community" proposed in the White Paper on the Environment last year.
  According to the Opinion Poll on Activities for Environmental Conservation Carried out by the Prime Minister's Office in 1988, there are strong signs that urbanites are not only taking a strong interest in problems on the nearby environment but have a strong awareness about environmental-conservation and recycling activities as well. Then there are many people who pay consideration to, and tax their ingenuity in, the conservation of the environment in their everyday lives and involve themselves in activities for improvements in their nearby environment and in town building for which the natural environment is put to effective use.
  On the other hand, there are aspects in which people's positive interest and awareness about involvement will not lead to real action.
  Business activities are such that they offer a number of consumer goods and services which sustain people's lives, thus producing a signi-ficant impact on their lifestyle.
  It is necessary that private businesses which have strategic points of activity in cities should be aware of the effect of their own business activities and take the responsibility of formulating various measures for regeneration of the ecosystem's circulation or cooperate in adminis-trative measures, and play a positive role in the formation of a favor-able urban environment as members of the urban community.

(2) Promotion of Environmental Education and Environmental-Conservation Activities

  In conjunction with further improvements in living standards, aging of society and increases in leisure time, it is expected that people' s learning and involvement in social activities will become all the more brisk in cities through the observation of nature, environmental conser-vation and town building.
  For this, it is important from the standpoint of administration on the environment to offer accurate and timely information about the present state and prospect of environmental issues in the cities; to strive to propagate studies on the environment, including considerations of the environment in everyday lives ; and to form local organizations, train instructors, build a more favorable urban environment and exchange information among a wide variety of organizations so as to promote activities for the National Trust which carries out the conservation of the natural environment, activities for the recycling of trash and activ-ities for the conservation and creation of a favorable urban environ-ment.
  As there are many cases in which the building maintenance and control of a more favorable urban environment is a costly undertaking, it is important to gain the understanding of residents and form a consensus among them on how the cost will be shared.
  In order to respond to those requirements, efforts are being made to rapidly and accurately offer various information about the environ-ment in a wide variety of public-information activities and to promote exchanges between private organizations and local governments by opening or supporting a wide variety of events, including the Environ-ment Week, symposiums and the like.
  Guidelines are being sought on how miscellaneous household items can be disposed of in conformity with the local reality. A broad segment of the people are being asked to present ideas on ways in which they may give consideration to, and tax their ingenuity on, the environ-ment. As those ideas are compiled as teaching materials efforts are to be made for their dissemination.
  In line with the report compiled (in March 1988) by the Round-Table Conference on the Environment established in the Environment Agency, there are signs that the private sector in Tokyo is taking the lead in replenishing projects for the propagation and enlightenment of knowledge about environmental science and technology for the promo-tion of environmental education.
  In the future, too, local governments are expected to step up the building of strategic points of environmental education for the compre-hensive and continual promotion of environmental education in the countryside and to work for the development of networks of environ-mental education and information.

4. Aiming at Formation of 'Ecopolis--Cities With Coexistence of Man and the Environment'

  As we have stated at the outset of this Chapter, the days will not be distant when furusato, or hometown, turns out to be a city or a city-like environment for the majority of the people. In order to achieve a sound, characteristic, attractive and comfortable environment which may be proudly call "my furusato" by everybody, there is a need to make the utmost efforts and invest in the social infrastructure from now on for the formation of an urban ecosystem
  Be they cities or rural villages, the creation of furusato cannot be realized without the conservation and utilization of nature. Population and industry may be attracted to local areas, which in turn may be activated, only when a safe, healthy and comfortable living environment is formed with the use of local environmental resources.
  From the standpoint of promoting the creation of furusato irre-spective of the dimensions of cities, It is important to carry out the various measures which have been mentioned above for regeneration of the urban ecosystem's circulations A town which has an urban eco-system and in which nature is conserved and both citizens and busines-strive to conserve the environment and create a comfortable envi-ronment is a true "ecopolis--a city where man coexists with the envi-ronment"

Conclusion

-Aiming at Cities with Coexistence of Man and the Environment -

  Japan's environment policy is so greatly challenged both at home and abroad that it is high time Japan worked out new goals. Those challenges are for lasting survival and development.
  To say nothing of a rapidly rising interest in international politics on the global environment, the environment is a sort of pabulum for man as well as the basis for his survival. To respond to questions on the environment, no debate can be made only with the environment sepa-rately taken up, and the notion is taking root that there is a need to give thought to the economic, social and other structures which form its background.
  This concept of "sustainable development" is common not only to the global environment but the conservation and utilization of the environment of local areas and cities but the national land as well.
  Given a challenge for sustainable survival and development, there is a need to make the following positive responses for the conservation of the global environment.
  The first year of Heisei (1989) was the year of the "first global-environment year." In response to a rising interest taken by interna-tional society and international politics in this issue, there is a rising mood in Japan for interest and contribution, and the sense entertained by the people about the environment is greatly improving.
  It is necessary that Japan should take the lead in promoting comprehensive studies on the science of the global environment and play a positive role in the implementation of realistic international coopera-tion projects to grapple with the global greenhouse effect, conserve tropical forests and prevent land from turning into deserts and also in the realization and application of the ideals of "sustainable develop-ment" in the offer of development assistance to developing nations.
  The Japanese Government held an international conference on the conservation of the global environment in Tokyo under the cospon-sorship of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) this year.
  On the other hand, it is necessary to coordinate with nongovern-mental organizations (NGOs), industries and other entities and also to come up with measures for the dissemination of information on the environment and promote education on the environment so that the Japanese people's lifestyle may be suited to the global environment.
  Another thing is to formulate environment policy of the sort which is designed to regenerate the circulation of the ecosystem in the cities.
  In the cities where people get together to carry out a wide variety of activities, those activities bring about various environmental loads.
  For a continued development of the cities, it is necessary that the cities' various activities themselves should have independency, stability, circulation and other features possessed by the ecosystem.
  (1) It is necessary that water, energy and other resources which are the basic elements to sustain urban activity should be circulated and efficiently used. It is important to positively adopt and develop systems for this and form cities where the ecosystem is structurally circulatory.
  (2) By positively conserving nature which remains in the cities and conserving and developing habitats for living things in the cities, but not just satisfying with and increase in open space, it is important to positively create nature in the cities.
  (3) It is necessary that citizens, businesses and the like doing various activities in the cities should positively involve themselves in activities for the conservation of the environment so that the cities may continue to develop and their environment may be regenerated.
  (4) There is a need to systematically step up moves toward the regeneration of the ecosystem's circulation in the cities with the involve-ment of a broad segment of citizens, businesses and the like from a comprehensive and farsighted point of view.
  (5) In forming new built-up urban areas and carrying out urban renewal projects, it is necessary to pay full heed to the regenaration of the ecosystem's circulation in the cities and their sustainable develop-ment.
  (6) As regards the question of nitrogen dioxides in major urban areas and that of rivers polluted by miscellaneous household effluent primarily in the cities, the time has now come for studies on new responses.
  From all those viewpoints, there is a need to formulate a new environment policy and evolve it in a positive manner.
  Be they big, medium or small cities, there are calls for the building of districts and towns with individuality and charm which respond to inhabitants' life consciousness. They are to be taken up as one of the central tasks for national administration for the building of furusato.
  Nature, water and other environmental resources are available, depending on the district. They are finite but bring about a wide variety of blessings. To promote town building in a form of coexistence with local environmental resources and the environment, a wide variety of activities must be unfolded for the conservation of the environment, and attempts are being made to form new communities and incorporate them into networks. In environmental policy, it is necessary not only to support such new attempts but also to work for coordination with them.
  A town which has an urban ecosystem and in which nature is conserved and citizens, businesses and the like coexist with the environ-ment are worthy of being called furusato.
  As palaces where people get together and come up with a wide variety of activities, man has developed cities. A new challenge is to begin for regeneration of the ecosystem's circulation in the cities... aiming at "ecopolis--cities where man coexists with the environment."

PartTwo Present State of Environmental Problems and Countermearures

Chapter1.Comprehensive Promotion of Environmental Administration

Section1. Outline of Budget and Others for Preservation of the Environment

1. Outline of Budget and Financial Investment & Financing

  The budget for preservation of the environment in fiscal 1987 was ¥1,087,900 million including general and special accounts. As compa-red with the budget at the beginning of the fiscal 1986 amounting to ¥1,094,400 million, it is a decrease of ¥6,500 million or 0.6%. Of the above amount for 1987, the budget for environmental pollution control is ¥978,300 million and that for preservation of the natural environment is ¥109,500 million (Ref:Table 1-1). The budget for antipollution measures allocated in fiscal 1987 to the organizations for financial investment and financing was ¥1,458,200 million in the initial plan, an increase of ¥88,500 million above the initial plan for fiscal 1986 of ¥1,369,700 million.

2. Budget for Preservation of the Environment

  The budget for preservation of the environment for fiscal 1987 was spent for positively promoting various environmental measures, including the establishment of various standards, strengthening of super-vision and controls, subsidizing environmental pollution prevention programs, promotion of pollution control-related promotion of investi-gation and research for environmental pollution control, implementa-tion of protective measures for pollution victims and the promotion of measures for preservation of nature. Particular emphasis has been placed on the following points.

 (1) Establishment of Various Standards, Etc.

  The amount of ¥979 million was appropriated as the budget to promote the establishment of environmental and discharge standards that are the basis for the measures for preventing various types of environmental pollution such as air and water contamination.

Table 1-1 Budget Allocated to Each Ministry or Agency in Connection with Preservation of the Environment

Table 1-1 Budget Allocated to Each Ministry or Agency in Connection with Preservation of the Environment

   (Initial Budget)
Remarks: 1. The above figures have been obtained through investigation by the Environment Agency.
   2. Expenses allocated according to the enforcement plan have been excluded.
   3. In the above figures, fractions of ".5 million or over" have been rounded up to "one million" whereas those "below .5 million" have been dropped. Therefore, the actual sum of figures under each column may sometimes not coincide with the figure indicated in. the total column.

 (2) Intensification of Supervision and Control

  The amount of ¥4,238 million was appropriated as the budget to intensify the supervision and control of air and water contaminations. Major items are ¥828 million of the pollution supervision expenses to install facilities for inspecting and supervising the state of air and water pollution, ¥479 million for securing the safety of chemical substances, ¥380 million for preventing water contamination and ¥241 million for preventing air pollution.

 (3) Fostering of Enterprises with Regard to Environmental Pollution Control

  The amount of ¥7,418 million in total was appropriated to assist private enterprises in the installation of environmental pollution control facilities. Major items are ¥3,822 million of the expenses related to construction and assignment projects by the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation and ¥1,127 million for preservation of the fishery environment.

 (4) Promotion of Public Works and Others Related to Environmental Pollution Control
  The amount of ¥908,523 million in total was appropriated to promote public works and others related to environmental pollution control. One of the major items was ¥656,627 million for sewerage works to improve sewers. In addition, ¥135,569 million was appro-priated for prevention of noise in school and housing located around civil airports and defense facilities; ¥69,337 million, for construction of waste disposal facilities ; ¥12,471 million, for works related to water discharge in agricultural villages ; ¥8,944 million, for prevention of land subsidence ; ¥3,453 million, for establishment of neutral and green zones; and ¥2,887 million, for works to prevent harm by suspended and closed mines.

 (5) Promotion of Investigation and Research on Environmental Pollution Control

  The amount of ¥26,502 million in total was appropriated to intensify and complete investigation and research on preservation of the environment. Major items are ¥4,099 million for the expenses of the National Institute for Environmental Pollution Research, ¥2,474 million for tests and research expenses on environmental pollution control and others at national organizations, ¥2,010 million for research and devel-opment of new energy techniques and ¥718 million for investigation and research on environmental pollution control.

 (6) Implementing Measures for Protection of Environmental Pollution Sufferers

  The amount of ¥23,554 million in total was appropriated to provide protection for environmental pollution sufferers. Major items are ¥22,530 million as the fund to pay compensation to sufferers for their physical damage caused by environmental pollution and ¥425 million for the expenses required for arbitration of disputes on environ-mental pollution.

 (7) Promotion of Measures for Preservation of Nature

  The amount of 109,538 million in total was appropriated to imple-ment preservation of the natural environment. Major items are ¥4,028 million for administration of national and quasi-national parks as well as for the improvement of their facilities; ¥81,480 million for works to establish parks so as to increase green zones in urban areas; ¥9,915 million for works to improve the environment of coasts and harbors; and ¥7,597 million for procurement of historic relics and spots.

 (8) Others

  The amount of ¥7,115 million in total was appropriated for other projects, including ¥181 million to promote conservation and reuse of resources.

3. FinancialInvestment and Financing

  As the restrictions by various laws related to environmental pollution have been more and more intensified, it has become necessary for private enterprises to constructively invest in facilities related to environmental pollution control. In order to implement this smoothly, measures for fostering this project have been taken based upon the respective characteristics of the facilities by various government-related organizations such as the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation, the Japan Development Bank, the Hokkaido and Tohoku Development Corporation, the Environmental Sanitation Busi-ness Finance Corporation, the Smaller Business Finance Corporation, the People's Finance Corporation, the Smaller Business Corporation, the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Finance Corporation, the Metal Mining Agency of Japan and the Okinawa Development Finance Corpo-ration.
  Other than the above, such financing measures have been taken as the issuance of local bonds in order to promote works by local public entities such as the construction of sewer systers and treatment facil-ities.

4. Financial Aid, Special Taxation Measure, etc. for Enhancing Environmental Pollution Prevention

 (1) Aid by the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation

 A. Services Made by the Corporation

  Since its establishment in October 1965, the Environmental Pollu-tion Control Service Corporation has continued to foster the measures set up by private enterprises for prevention of industrial pollution. In particular, the Corporation has undertaken the construction and assign-ment as well as loaning businesses in order to prevent environmental pollution such as air pollution and water contamination generated by the normal activities of enterprises. Since October 1987, the Corporation has revised and broadened the scope of its business or service so as to cope also with the promotion of measures against urban and livelihood pollution.
  (a) Construction and Assignment Business
  Construction and assignment business can roughly be classified into works related to (1)collectively established buildings, (2)public welfare facilities (such as neutral and green zones and parks), (3)green zones to preserve air from pollution, (4)national and quasi-national parks facilities, and (5)industrial parks. The Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation is entrusted with the above-stated d works from the enterprise operators who are going to install these facilities and undertakes all works relevant to the project entrusted. Facilites thus completed shall then be assigned to those enterprise operators at net cost and on the basis of long-term and low-interest-rate loans.
  (b) Loaning Service
  The Corporation will loan funds for such works or projects as (1) installation of facilities for prevention of industrial pollution, (2)works for prevention of soil contamination in urban areas, and (3)installation of septic tanks for combined treatment of excrement.

 B. Business Plan for Fiscal 1987

  The business result in fiscal 1986 (the amount of contract newly concluded) was ¥51,700 million (¥40,000 million for construction and assignment projects and ¥11,700 million for loaning), whereas the business plan for fiscal 1987 (the amount of contracts to be newly concluded) was ¥60,000 million (¥40,000 million for construction and assignment projects and ¥20,000 million for loaning).

 (2) Loans by Other Government-Related Organizations


 A. Loans Made under Financing System for Modernization of Facilities of Smaller Enterprises

  The financing system for modernization of facilities of smaller enterprises is a system in which loans are made for individual smaller enterprises through their prefectural goverment offices under the "Law Concerning Financial Aid for Modernizing Smaller Enterprises" for the purpose of promoting the modernization of their facilities, As part of this measure, loans are made to the construction works on their anti-pollution facilities (only for the facilities stipulated by government notification). During fiscal 1987, this sort of financing was made within the limit of ¥40,000 million. On the other hand, the system for the lease of facilities by the appropriate prefectural leasing organizations has been established for small-scale enterprises. In fiscal 1987, such lease of facilities was made within the limit of its total budget of ¥52,600 million.

 B. Loans by the Smaller Business Finance Corporation and the People's Finance Corporation

  In fiscal 1987, special loans of money were extended by the Smaller Business Finance Corporation and the People's Finance Corpo-ration for the purpose of letting enterprises use it for industrial pollution control facilities for relocation of their plant facilities to ameliorate overpopulation as well as to eliminate environmental pollution and for changes in their line of business to another one contributing less to environmental pollution.

 C. Loans by the Smaller Business Corporation

  The Smaller Business Corporation extends loans to smaller business companies when they implement an environmental pollution prevention program jointly. Under the program loan system, the corpo-ration has extended loans to the association of smaller business firms when it constructs jointly-operated pollution prevention and waste treatment facilities. In addition, the corporation has also made loans available to such an association when it procures pollution prevention equipment and facilities for lease to the association member firms on condition that the leased equipment or facilities would be bought by these firms in the end.

 D. Loans by the Japan Development Bank

  Financing for industrial pollution control facilities by the Japan Development Bank has been continued since fiscal 1960, and the special loan system was additionally established in 1965. Subjects for which the loan is to be made are environmental pollution control or preventive facilities and improvement of plant environment. Financing for these purposes in fiscal 1987 was made within the budget of ¥71,000 million, the budget for environmental pollution control. Other than the above, financing was extended for the efficient reuse of industrial waste, and the projects for pollution control such as the relocation of plants as well as the introduction of pollution control technology into factory opera-tion.

 E. Loans by the Hokkaido and Tohoku Development Corporation

  The Hokkaido and Tohoku Development Corporation contribut-ed the funds for the improvement of environmental pollution control facilities in order to contribute toward the maintenance and attaining of the environmental status desired in Hokkaido and in the northern district of Japan.

 F. Loans by Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Finance

  Corporation
  In order to prevent the environmental pollution caused by stock raising and to contribute to fostering the high productivity of the livestock industry, the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Finance Corporation loaned, as the fund for the maintenance of the environment for stockbreeding, the amount required to install facilities for the disposition of livestock excrement. These facilities were necessary for preservation of the environment suited for the actual conditions of each district and stock breeding as well as for the real state of environmental contamination. (Limit of this budget for fiscal 1987--¥2,300 million)

 G. Metal and Mining Agency of Japan

  The Metal and Mining Agency of Japan lent the funds needed for the prevention of pollution by used specific mining facilities designated under the "Special Measure for Preventing Environmental Pollution by Metal and Mining Industries" (including funds required for treating mine waste water generated by suspension or closing of mines). The Agency also financed those enterprise operators who had to actually bear the expenses for pollution control under the "Law Concerning the Bearing of Environmental Pollution Control Expenses by Enterprise Operators" (Limit of this budget for fiscal 1987--¥2,300 million)

 (3) Tax Measures

 A. National Taxes

  (a) The special deductible (non-taxable) amount of ¥1.5 million was established when land is assigned for projects to construct the buildings required to centralize plants or other enterprises according to the plan by the Environmental Pollution Control Service Corporation.
 (b) The effective period of the special depreciation measure being applied to anti-pollution equipment and facilities was extended. At the same time, the depreciation periods of renewed anti-pollution facilities were re-examined placing importance on their improved pollution treat-ing capacity.
 (c) The "special depreciation" measure for pollution-free production facilities (non-vibrating molding machines) was abolished.
 (d) In connection with special depreciation measures for waterworks facilities revised to those of larger scales such as industiral waterworks, the depreciation rate of these facilities in the places stipulated as the "Designated Areas under the Industrial Water Act" on and after April 1,1967, has been reduced to 15%.
 (e) The applicable period of the special measure on commodity tax on battery-driven cars has been extended for two more years.

 B. Local Taxes

 (a) In consideration of the case where cars satisfying the 1988 restric-tions for the nitric oxides in their exhaust gas would be developed and sold before enforcement of th regulations, the measure for reducing the automobile tax as well as it acquisition tax have been newly estab-lished.
 (b) In respect to the special measures regarding the acquisition tax, automobile tax and light weight automobile tax for battery-driven cars, the applicable period of these measure has been extended for two more years.

5. Bearing of Environmental Pollution Prevention

 Expenses by Enterprise Operators
  The Law Concerning the Bearing of Environmental Pollution Prevention Expenses by Enterprise Operators provides that when the central or local public entities implement the environmental pollution prevention works such as dredging, mixing of contaminated farm soil with clean earth or reclamation of neutral or green zones and if the pollution in question was caused more or less by the enterprise, the enterprise operator shall be obligated to bear all or part of the expenses for the works according to the degree of his responsibility for the pollution.
  According to the reports received by the Environment Agency as of the end of December, 1987, there are 75 enterprises which implement-ed environmental pollution control works under the above provision since the law was put in force (in May 1971). The total amount of the above pollution prevention works already executed is ¥165,700 million, of which the amount borne by enterprises is some ¥80,000 million, the average rate being 48.3% per enterprise (Ref: Table 1-2)

Table 1-2 Rate of Enterprisers' Bearing of the Expenses for Environmental Pollution Prevention

Table 1-2 Rate of Enterprisers' Bearing of the Expenses for Environmental Pollution Prevention

Remarks:1. The above figures have been obtained through investigation by the Environment Agency.
  2. Since some of the enterprises implemented both dredging works and neutral & green zone reclamation works, the sum of the numbers of enterprises per each group of works does not coincide with the number indicated in the "Total" column.
  3. The above figures for "Total expenses" and "Amount borne by enter-prises" are both on the basis of the plan and not the actual results.


  Indicated in Table 1-3 below is an example of the case to which the Law Concerning the Bearing of Environmental Pollution Prevention Expenses by Enterprise Operators was decided to be applied; the plan for its bearing was set up in 1988.


Table 1-3 Case where Law Concerning the Bearing of Environmental Pollution Prevention Expenese by Enterprise Operators was Applied.

Table 1-3 Case where Law Concerning the Bearing of Environmental Pollution Prevention Expenese by Enterprise Operators was Applied.

Rermarks 1. The above figures have been obtained through investigation by the Environment Agency.
  2. The number of enterprises participating in this project is 10.

Section2. Promotion of Environmental Impact Assessment


 (1) Summary of Environmental Impact Assessment Based on Cabinet Decision

  The prevention of environmental pollution is of extreme impor-tance in view of the necessity to avoid the repetition of the tragic pollution-related health problems and to put an end to environmental problems.
  The Environmental Impact Assessment, introduced to prevent environmental pollution, calls for the adequate survey, prediction, and evaluation of the possible environmental influence before the implemen-tation of projects that could significantly affect the environment.
  The results are announced to the public, and the opinions of the local inhabitants are gathered, so as a measure for combatting environ-mental pollution, sufficient precautions can be taken to protect the environment.
  Since June 1972 when the Cabine approved the document "On Environmental Preservation Measures Related to Public Works", envi-ronmental assessment in Japan has been promoted under the Public Water Body Reclamation Law and other specific legislation, adminis-trative directives of ministries and agencies, local ordinances, and plans of various administrations.
  The Cabinet enacted the "Implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment" in August 1984 and defined the "Implementation Scheme for Environmental Impact Assessment," which is a uniform rule applicable to large-scale projects undertaken with the participation of the government.
  A large-scale project that could significantly affect the environ-ment must be subjected to the procedures of this Implementation Scheme if the project is to be operated or licensed by the State. The Implementation Scheme covers the construction of roads, dams, rail-roads, airports, land reclamation (including filling and drainage), and land readjustment.
  The procedures to be followed by project undertakers are as follows. (Fig. 1-1)

Fig. 1-1 Procedures Required by the Implementation Scheme for Environmental Impact Assessment

Fig. 1-1 Procedures Required by the Implementation Scheme for Environmental Impact Assessment

 1) The project undertakers must survey, predict, and evaluate the possible environmental impact of the project according to the guidelines which are determined by the competent minister (the minister authoriz-ing the particular project) through consultation with the Director General of the Environment Agency. The results must be reported as a preliminary report for the environmental impact assessment before the project is implemented.
 2)The project undertakers must make public notices, exhibit the preliminary report, and hold an explanation meeting.
 3) The project undertakers must endeavor to determine the opinions of local residents. The project undertakers must listen to the opinions of the municipal mayor and must then request the opinion of the prefec-tural governor concerned.
 4)The project undertakers must, based on these opinions, reexam-ine the preliminary report, prepare the environmental impact assess-ment report, and make public notices to exhibit the report.
  To ensure that the results of the environmental impact assess-ment are communicated to the government administration, the adminis-trative offices are requested to consider the environmental impact when licensing one based on the assessment report. They can, if necessary, ask the Director General of the Environment Agency's opinion on the assessment report.
  The environmental impact assessment based on this Im-plementation Scheme is to be implemented through administrative measures such as the directives given to the project undertakers by the competent administrative offices. By the end of 1988, 40 projects com-pleted the procedures for environmental impact assessment.

Table 1-4 Breakdown of the projects on which environmental impact assessmentwascompletedon the basis of the Cabinet decision

Table 1-4 Breakdown of the projects on which environmental impact assessmentwascompletedon the basis of the Cabinet decision

Remarks: Of three (3) projects of "Surface Adjustment", two were land lot re-adjustments andone was the development of new housing quarters and streets.

(2) Environmental Impact Assessment under Specific Legislation

  The assessment of the environmental impact is also conducted under conventional specific legislation such as the Port and Harbor Law and the Public Water Body Reclamation Law in March 1988.
 1) Harbor Projects
  Harbor projects under the Port and Harbor Law illustrate the basic concepts of development, utilization, and conservation of harbors. These projects should incorporate the environmental impact assess-ment.
 2) Reclamation of Public Water Areas
  The Public Water Body Reclamation Law requires an examina-tion of the environmental impact before the reclamation license is issued. The competent minister must ask for the opinion of the Director General of the Environment Agency when he is to issue the license for a reclamation project exceeding 50 hectares or if the reclamation project calls for special consideration on the conservation of the envi-ronment.
 3) Location of Power Plants
  The environmental assessment for the location of power plants is conducted under the administrative directives of the Ministry of Inter-national Trade and Industry.
  The deliberation at the Electric Power Development Coordina-tion Council should include discussions on the conservation of the environment.
 4) Others
 a. City Planning in Controlled Urbanization Areas
  City planning in controlled urbanization areas under the Town Planning and Zoning Act should be conducted after the opinion of Director General of Environment Agency.
 b. Readjustment of Consolidated Health Resorts
  For preparation of the basic idea as well as implementation of the projects under the Consolidated Health Resort Development Act, exami-nations shall be made from the viewpoint of environmental protection according to the contents. It is expected that the minister in change will consult with the Director General of the Environment Agency in case he approves the basic idea of the project. In fiscal 1988, such necessary coordination of views between the two heads was made concerning projects in over 10 prefectures.
  Other than the above, the Environment Agency made nesessary adjustment on the projects bought from other ministries consulted with this agency from the viewpoint of preservation of the environment,

 (3) Methods of Assessing Environmental Impact

  Much effort has been made in developing technical methods for assessing environmental impact and for improving the accuracy of assessment.
  Surveys and studies on relevant problems were uniformly promot-ed is FY 1988 by related administrative offices.

Section3. Promotion of Environmental Conservation Based on Local Characteristics

1. Promotion of Regional Environmental Management

 (1) The future environmental administration will have to seek not only adequate environmental pollution control but also the development of good environment through proper use and preservation of environ-mental resources, such as water,air, soil, and forest.
  For this purpose, an attempt should be made to find a desirable state of local environment from a more comprehensive viewpoint, taking into consideration the natural and social condition well as the local residents' opinions. Stepping up regional environmental man-agement whereby various measures may be also comprehensively and systematically carried out.
 (2) Regional environmental management programs have been con-sidered by quite a few local governments. In fact, some of these local governments have already decided on such programs or are now work-ing out their respective programs. But it is necessary to enrich the contents of such programs, and continued efforts are therefore needed to provide guidance and advice for local authorities. With this in mind, the Environment Agency has been studying regional environmental management since 1976. For this reason, the Environment Agency has been continuing examinations of this matter since 1976. The Environ-ment Agency made investigations and reviews as to the progressive state of this project as well as its material measures in fiscal 1988 in order to contribute to the promotion and smooth operation of the measures for local environmental prevention plans.
 (3) Environmental conditions are still unfavorable in the Tokyo metropolitan area and other large urban areas, as indicated by the low rate of environmental standard achievement. The needs of the in-habitants for a comfortable environment, on the other hand, have been continuously growing. Many large-scale projects are being planned and conceived to expand domestic demands. The present circumstance calls for promoting environmental management covering wide areas.
  Such being the circumstances, the Environment Agency will proceed with examinations into the appropriate preservation and utili-zation means for environmental resources in large urban areas such as the metropolitan area and others. The Agency has newly commenced investigations into the measures for preservation of the environment in and around Tokyo Bay in fiscal 1988.
 (4) In recent years, the need for the development of underground spaces has increased, especially in urban districts, because of a rise in prices and insufficiency of space in cities. Above all, the relevant ministries and agencies have been examining the preparation of legal systems to utilize the underground space (of great depth from the ground level), the use of which is not accessible to ordinary land owners, etc., in order to utilize them for public purposes such as railways, roads and waterways. In relation to the utilization of underground space, it is feared that there might be subsidence of ground, and impact on the environment such as on the source of hot springs.
  Out of the above, the Environment Agency found it necessary to give special consideration to the impact on the underground environ-ment and established the "Committee on Environmental Management of Underground Development" comprising specialists in this field. At the same time, the Agency promptly commenced necessary investigations utilizing the 1988 budget for the coordination of general investigation and promotion for preservation of the environment.

2. Promotion of Creating Environmental Amenities

  Rich green foliage, refreshing streams, aesthetic cityscape, and a historical atmosphere from a living environment give us rich feelings of life and peace of mind. In view of citizens' recent increased need for a better living environment, it is becoming more and more important to actively create such an agreeable environment. It is not enough to try to prevent pollution and conserve the natural environment.
  The measures to create an agreeable living environment may be classified as follows: 1)development and improvement of facilities that enable citizens to have access to a good environment with greenery and water; 2) conservation of woods streams, and other good environments in the neighborhood ; 3) creation of agreeable urban living spaces such as streets and cityscape; 4) measures to establish rules of daily life and behavior with environmental considerations ; and 5) preservation of historical and cultural features that enrich the quality of the environ-ment. Many other measures can be considered from both tangible and intangible sides. The creation of an agreeable environment must, there-fore, be promoted in a comprehensive and systematic development of various measures, in which the roles of the administration, inhabitants, and project undertakers should be clarified and the direction of the improvement for the amenity of each area should be defined.
  From the above point of view, the Environment Agency extended financial aid also in fiscal 1988 to those prefectures that continued to encourage their municipal governments to implement the "Amenity Master Plan" which indicates the basic direction in which to spread and promote the building up of a pleasant environment.
  Through the efforts exerted up to that time, the idea of building a pleasant environment was gradually spread all over the country. In June, 1988, the "National Amenity Promotion Council" was founded due to the enthusiastic efforts of local public entities. Such an active approach to plans like this has come to be seen lately.
  The Environment Agency also held symposiums to spread throughout Japan the consciousness of the need to build a pleasant environment through the introduction of the above-stated circum-stances.

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