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Offshore Surface 407 Kuroshio current, Honshu waters

Note; The offshore surface areas have many physically fluid factors such as ocean current or seasonal changes, which may effect on the spawning grounds or distribution areas of certain organisms. Therefore, it is difficult to fix certain area as EBSAs of offshore surface spatially. In addition, available data for analysis are very limited. Therefore, the EBSAs of offshore surface shows the probabilistic distribution of important area as a result of mechanical analysis using best available data at the time, so that there are problems such as that some places considered to be consecutive from the ecological features are divided. Further analysis will be required to improve when the data became available in the future, and it is necessary to review the analysis method.

Basic Information A separate window opensReferences

Area (km2) 172264

Reason(s) for selection A separate window opensCriteria

Selected due to high levels on the criteria 2, 3, 5, 6, 8. And selected by the MARXAN software.

Characteristics A separate window opensReferences

These waters include the waters of the Kuroshio Current's subtropical zone from the waters off the coast of southern Kyusyu to where the current turns into currents off the Boso Peninsula, and the waters on the inside (landward side) of these. In zones of subtropical waters further offshore than the Kuroshio Current, such as those off Shikoku, a countercurrent flowing westward against the Kuroshio Current forms. These waters see movement of creatures between the coastal zone and the Kuroshio Current, and between the Kuroshio Current and zones of subtropical waters, through the transportation of floating organisms by the Kuroshio Current. Thus this area could be considered to be one of the world's most biologically diverse marine areas. The Kuroshio Current is a high-temperature, high-salinity surface layer current with few nutrients, and primary production in the waters of the Kuroshio Current and the subtropical waters zone is supported mainly by microscopic phytoplankton. Due to the effects of the Kuroshio Current, warm-water biota can be seen here, where a complex food web has formed that includes the microbial food chain and small zooplankton, mesopelagic fish and squids, small epipelagic fish, large migratory fish, seabirds and cetaceans. The waters on the inner side of the Kuroshio Current also have abundant sardines and mackerel.

Species information (*) A separate window opensData source

Criteria 2
Ammodytes personatus (Japanese sand lance) [Sp]
Parapristipoma trilineatum (Chicken grunt) [Sp]
Laemonema longipes (Threadfin hakeling) [Sp]
Etrumeus teres (Red-eye round herring) [Sp]
Argyrosomus japonicus (Japanese meager) [Sp]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy) [Sp]
Loligo edulis (Swordtip squid) [Sp]
Scomber australasicus (Blue mackerel) [Sp]
Trichiurus japonicus (Largehead hairtail) [Sp]
Takifugu rubripes (Japanese pufferfish) [Sp]
Paralichthys olivaceus (Bastard halibut) [Sp]
Seriola quinqueradiata (Japanese amberjack) [Sp]
Trachurus japonicus (Japanese jack mackerel) [Sp]
Sardinops melanostictus (Japanese pilchard) [Sp]
Pleuronectes yokohamae (Marbled flounder) [Sp]
Scomber japonicus (Chub mackerel) [Sp]
Pagrus major (Red seabream) [Sp]
Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Bigfin reef squid) [Sp]
Amphioctopus fangsiao (Ocellated octopus) [Sp]
Watasenia scintillans (Firefly squid) [Sp]
Loligo bleekeri (Spear squid) [Sp]
Criteria 3
  Carcharodon carcharias (Great white shark)
  Centrophorus squamosus (Leafscale gulper shark)
  Narke japonica (Japanese sleeper ray)

* This is the species list of which meet the criteria. In that matter, this list does not include all species that inhabit the individual area.
Abbreviation in the information is as follows.
[Br/Ne] : Adjacent water of breeding area or nesting site
[Sp] : Spawning area


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