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Coastal Area 13201 Adjacent waters of Karekinada, Kushimoto

Basic Information A separate window opensReferences

Relevant municipalities Susami, Kushimoto, Taiji, Nachikatsuura, Shirahama, Wakayama Prefecture
Area (km2) 279

Reason(s) for selection A separate window opensCriteria

Selected due to high levels for the criteria 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7, and selected by MARXAN software.

Characteristics A separate window opensReferences

These are the waters on the Kumanonada coast from Katsuura on the southern Kii Peninsula to the mouth of the Hiki River, centered on Cape Shiono. The coast from Karekinada through Cape Shiono to Kushimoto Oshima are waters where reef-building coral can be seen, and their species of temperate coral are one prominent feature. Kushimoto Sabiura and the west coast of Cape Shiono provide a living environment for numerous coral-reef animals and benthic organisms, with high levels of diversity of species and cover, and these include many species for which this area is the northern limit of their distribution. This is the only place in the world where there is known to be a dense concentration of elegance coral (Ministry of the Environment, 2001). Particularly important waters in this area are those in front of Zobana on the north coast of Kii Oshima Island (habitat for highly diverse reef-building coral, mainly Echinophyllia aspera, and also good habitat for seaweed and soft coral), Omimi beach on Kii Oshima (home to the easternmost community of Acropora hyacinthus in Japan east of Cape Shiono and relatively diverse in other reef-building coral as well), the north coast of Tsuya Island (home to the largest community of rare elegance coral in Japan), the sea extending in front of Naminoura on the south coast of Cape Shiono (home to communities of Acropora hyacinthus) and others (Kushinomoto Marine Park Center, 2010; 2011). In addition, the beach beneath the Cape Shiono lighthouse, known as Ogokuda beach, has the greatest diversity of shellfish on Honshu (Ogawa, 1954; Okutani et al., 1981). There have been reports of 828 gastropods, 237 bivalves, six tooth shells, three cephalopods, and 15 Chitonidae, for a total of 1089 species of shellfish, on Cape Shiono (Kato, personal communication). The area of the mouth of the Koza River too is home to numerous species unique to brackish water, such as Luciogobius palliduse and others, and it is a place where numerous migratory creatures (Japanese eel, ayu, freshwater goby, freshwater prawn, Clithon retropictus and others) go upstream (Kato, personal communication). In addition, Cape Esa has a shore reef with no bank protection, where Cavernacmella yamamotonis lives in the high-tide zone and the intertidal zone has a rich biota as well (Kato, personal communication). In the shore zone in the vicinity of Uragami Bay and the town of Taiji can be seen beds of sea grass including eel grass, Zostera japonica and others, and multiple cetaceans have been confirmed to live here. In addition, breeding of finless porpoise has been confirmed in Nachi Bay. Ota River and Yukashi Lagoon have good brackish-water environments, habitat to saltwater plants as well as many fish, crustaceans, shellfish and others (Hirajima, personal communication).

Environment / Habitat infromation A separate window opensData source

Tidal mud flats (km2) 0.1
Moba (seaweed bed) (km2) 3.9
Coral reef coverage (km2) 1.1
Natural coast (km) 171.2
Rate of natural coast (%) 75.9
Sand bank / submerged sand bank
Other habitats

Species information (*) A separate window opensData source

Criteria 1
Lates japonicus (Japanese lates)
Cottus kazika (Fourspine sculpin)
Lateolabrax latus (Blackfin seabass)
Deiratonotus japonicus
Ptychognathus capillidigitatus
<Bivalva, Gastropoda>
Angustassiminea castanea
Stenomelania rufescens
<Other invertebrate>
Anoplodactylus tanseii
Cilunculus galeritus
Nymphon infundibulum
Melithaea flabellifera
Minabea ozakii
Criteria 2
Apus pacificus (Pacific Swift)[Br/Ne]
Monticola solitarius (Blue Rock-thrush)[Br/Ne]
Phalacrocorax capillatus (Japanese Cormorant)
Phalacrocorax capillatus (Japanese Cormorant)[Br/Ne]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[Br/Ne]
Egretta sacra (Pacific Reef-egret)[Br/Ne]
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)[Br/Ne]
Charadrius dubius (Little Ringed Plover)[Br/Ne]
Charadrius alexandrinus (Kentish Plover)[Br/Ne]
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Turtle)
Parapristipoma trilineatum (Chicken grunt)[Sp]
Scomber australasicus (Blue mackerel)[Sp]
Seriola quinqueradiata (Japanese amberjack)[Sp]
Trachurus japonicus (Japanese jack mackerel)[Sp]
Sardinops melanostictus (Japanese pilchard)[Sp]
Scomber japonicus (Chub mackerel)[Sp]
Octopus vulgaris (Common octopus)
Criteria 3
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)
Lates japonicus (Japanese lates)
Cottus kazika (Fourspine sculpin)
Cicindela inspecularis
Helice (Helice) tridens
Clistocoeloma sinense
Ilyoplax pusilla
<Bivalva, Gastropoda>
Stenomelania rufescens
Littorina brevicula
Criteria 4
Phoebastria immutabilis (Laysan Albatross)
Acalycigorgia grandiflora
Junceella juncea
Melithaea flabellifera
Menella michaelseni
Menella rigida
Menella spinifera
Minabea ozakii
Parisis minor
Criteria 7
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead Turtle)
Luciogobius pallidus
<Bivalva, Gastropoda>
Clithon sowerbianus
Stenomelania rufescens
Cerithidea rhizophorarum
Truncatella pfeifferi
<Vascular Plants>
Aster tripolium (Sea aster)
Triglochin asiaticum

* This is the species list of which meet the criteria. In that matter, this list does not include all species that inhabit the individual area.
Abbreviation in the information is as follows.
[Br/Ne] : Adjacent water of breeding area or nesting site
[Sp] : spawning area
[Ad] : species not used for analysis but add to the list because inhabit information was collected later
[Ex] : species used for analysis but considered to be possibly extinct in the EBSA region (area)
No mark : data of species distribution


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