Global Environment

National Action Plan for Agenda 21 -Chap. 34

[Agenda 21] National Action Plan for Agenda 21

Chapter 34 TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING

A) Development of International Information Networks Which Link National, Subregional, Regional and International Systems

The spread of environmentally sound technology is essential in order to achieve sustainable development, by ameliorating the environmental problems which are becoming more and more remarkable, particularly in developing countries, with their progress in economic development . Also, in addition to promoting appropriate technological transfer, particularly to countries which lack such technology or the capabilities of utilizing such technology, it is important to promote the nurturing and improvement of the capabilities for dealing with such technology in countries which receive the transfer of technology, through the implementation of training activities and others.

Furthermore, because of the necessity for transferred technology to be suitable with the conditions and specific characteristics of the various regions, it is necessary to register information regarding such technology, and to construct and substantiate an international information network which can be easily used by people involved, so that the needs of the countries receiving technology transfer can be appropriately grasped and, the most suitable technology can be selected from among existing technologies.

The UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, the purpose of which is the promotion of the transfer of environmentally sound technology to developing countries and countries with economies in transition, was established by the UNEP in Japan in October 1992. The establishment of this centre was decided in accordance with a proposal by Japan, which has experience in overcoming serious pollutions. This centre, which is equipped with a database of information on the environmentally sound technology not only of Japan, but of countries all over the world, contributes to the transfer of such technology, through such activities as training, consulting, and surveys and research. The facilities of the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre are located in Osaka and Shiga, and handle information regarding technology in the field of sustainable environmental management for individual large cities, freshwater lakes and marshes, as well as basins.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
Japan will promote the systematization and the creation of a database network of information on existing environmentally sound technology and experience which has been accumulated in governmental and private bodies in Japan, centering around the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre.
(2)
By providing assistance to this Centre, Japan will contribute to the creation of an international network for the transfer of technology, in cooperation with UNDP and other related agencies.

34-B) Support of and Promotion of Access to Transfer of Technology

In order to achieve sustainable development with reduced environmental load, it is essential to establish the capacity-building for environmental protection in developing countries. For this reason, it is necessary for developing countries to have appropriate opportunities for access to necessary technologies of the environmentally sound technologies of developed countries. It is also necessary that assistance should be provided to the activities for such transfer of technology which are conducted by private companies.

Thus far, in order to contribute to the compatibility of the environment and development in developing countries, in addition to promoting activities for transfer of technology, including the practical application of technology and know-how accumulated in the private sector, as regards environmentally sound technology, Japan is experimentally conducting test projects which are tailored to the circumstances of specific countries.

Also, summing up some basic concepts and technological guidelines, and making institutional improvements for many developing countries concerning measures for general urban sewerage and pollution treatment, as well as exhaust gas emissions from vehicles, which conform to their natural, social and economic conditions, Japan has been making efforts in this direction.

Furthermore, United Nations agencies, particularly UNESCO, have been conducting inter-governmental joint survey projects on the environment, among environmental science-related agencies. Japan is also conducting technological development for environmental conservation, and research activities for the development of monitoring technology, by researchers from universities and other institutions, with the cooperation of related ministries and government agencies, through the trust fund which Japan provides to UNESCO. Japan is also conducting training through these means for researchers from developing countries. A network is also being formed in order to provide participating countries with related information, including the findings of the various research activities and related data.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
By promoting the further expansion of the financial scale of the Green Aid Plan, as well as that of the number of countries receiving this aid, Japan will concentrate on improving the dispatch of experts to developing countries, receiving trainees from these countries, cooperation for investigations surveys and research, as well as test projects.
(2)
Presently, because of the conditions whereby transfer of technology is being individually conducted in various areas, it is believed that it will be effective to collect fragmentary related information and make improvements related to this sector. Right now, as regards technology which is protected by intellectual property rights, access to information on environmentally sound technology is possible through the International Industrial Property Rights Data Library, etc. , but in addition to improving information on environmentally sound transferable technology in Japan, which can be used by private companies, Japan will expand upon this information, by conducting surveys on the environmental conditions of countries to which technology is to be transferred, as well as technological needs and seeds.
(3)
Japan will promote studies on a Japanese system of cooperation for transferring environmentally sound technology, including a framework for promoting the transfer of environmental technology by private companies.
(4)
In order to improve the living environments in developing countries, including the quality of water, Japan will smoothly promote international cooperation, establishing guidelines for assistance for the creation of a master plan for the improvement of sewers.
(5)
In addition to improving the observation and monitoring network for climate change in the Asia-Pacific region, through improving and substantiating observation and monitoring systems regarding climate change in developing countries, Japan will provide cooperation for the execution and promotion of plans for advice and guidance for the establishment of measures and plans to deal with traffic pollution in developing countries, including systems for examining automobile emissions.
(6)
Conducting geological research in the Asian region, where, due to the region's dense population, there is a tendency for increasing economic and social damage in the case of the occurrence of such natural disasters as earthquakes and volcanic eruption, Japan will provide cooperation for the drawing up of natural disaster maps which can be helpful in reducing damage caused by natural disaster.
(7)
By expanding its contribution to the Multilateral Fund for the Protection of Ozone Layer, etc., Japan will create an environment in which environmentally sound technology concerning global environment can be easily obtained by developing countries.

34-C) Improvement of the Capacity to Develop and Manage Environmentally Sound Technologies

In order to achieve sustainable development with reduced environ-mental load, it is essential to improve the capacity for environmental conservation in developing countries. For this reason, environmentally sound technology in developing countries, as well as the improvement of the capacity for their development and management of related technology, will be important.

Presently, in addition to accepting trainees in environmental fields from developing countries, as well as dispatching experts to these countries, Japan has also been domestically active in the enhancement of public awareness for the development of environment-related technology, and has improved systems for the development of environment-related technology. Also, in the field of sewerage improvement in developing countries, in addition to accepting trainees from developing countries and dispatching experts to these countries through official development assistance, Japan is promoting the development of technology for environmental improvement in fields of construction which can be applied to developing countries, in accordance with materials and construction methods which conform to the actual circumstances in developing countries. Furthermore, in the field of agriculture, in addition to conducting joint research activities by dispatching researchers to developing countries and inviting researchers from these countries, through the Tropical Agricultural Research Centre, Japan also receives trainees through other research agencies. As regards the transportation sector, Japan dispatches experts on the reduction of emissions from automobiles and the conservation of the marine environment, and also receives trainees in these areas. As far as international agencies are concerned, Japan is making efforts to participate in the maintenance, improvement and expansion of meteorological work conducted by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and to promote assistance activities for developing countries involved in these projects.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
Through cooperation to environmental centers which are being established in such countries as China established by the assistance of Japan, in addition to making efforts to foster human resources for contributing to the improvement of the capacities of these countries to deal with environmental problems, Japan will promote the same kind of cooperation for other developing countries.
(2)
Japan will further expand its assistance through accepting trainees for environmental technology in various field, and dispatching experts, through the Japan International Cooperation Agency.
(3)
By promoting the further expansion of the financial scale of the Green Aid Plan, as well as that of the number of countries receiving this aid, Japan will concentrate on improving the dispatch of experts to developing countries, accepting trainees from these countries, cooperation for surveys and research, as well as model business.
(4)
Japan will carry out the Cooperative Plan for Air Pollution Prevention Measures in Developing Countries (Ecological Transport Systems Cooperative Plan), which provides cooperation for the enforcement of comprehensive traffic pollution measures in developing countries.

34-D) Establishment of a Collaborative Network of Research Centers

In order to promote the development and transfer of environ-mentally sound technology, it is necessary to activate the exchange of information and human resources, as well as joint research, establishing a network of research centers for environmental fields which already exist in developed countries and developing countries.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
Japan will promote a network consisting of research and training centers for which Japan's grant assistance was extended in Thailand, China and Indonesia, other existing research centers, and the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre.
(2)
In addition to providing assistance for network-related activities for the provision to participating countries of information, including the findings of research conducted by various research institutes of UNESCO, and related data, Japan will also provide assistance for multilateral research network-related activities, through research institutions operating under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which is involved in the field of agriculture.

34-E) Support for Programmes of Cooperation and Assistance

In order to promote environmental conservation in developing countries, it is of great importance, not only for developing countries to make efforts to develop environmentally sound technology and obtain technical informations for themselves, but also for developed countries to promote transfer of environmentally sound technology and provide assistance for mutual cooperation among developing countries for introducing such technology.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
In addition to providing multilateral cooperation through international agencies, including the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, Japan will positively provide international cooperation for the transfer of technology to developing countries through bilateral assistance.
(2)
Thus far, in order to enhance the technical skills of researchers and engineers in the fields of environmental research and training, Japan has built an environmental research and training centre in Thailand, and an environmental management centre in Indonesia, through grant aid, and is presently promoting a plan for the establishment of the same kind of centre in China. Project-type technical cooperation is provided at these centers, including training for monitoring and analysis technology.
(3)
The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), with the cooperation of related ministries and agencies of Japan, as well as local governments, contributes to technical guidance and enhancing the capacity of developing countries to tackle environmental problems, by conducting group training in regards to environmental conservation for trainees from developing countries, as well as by dispatching Japanese experts to these countries.
(4)
The United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) also conducts training for the enhancement of the capabilities of people in charge of planning projects for regional development, and particularly in recent years the UNCRD has provided and will continue to provide assistance, involving itself in the drafting of plans which place importance on environmental conservation.
(5)
Japan will provide assistance for various activities by public corporations and private businesses.
(6)
Japan will study measures for sufficient contribution of experts in developing countries, who have completed the training courses in regard to environmental conservation in Japan, to enhancing the capacity of their own countries to deal with environmental conservation after their homecoming.

34-F) Technology Assessment In Support of the Management of Environmentally Sound Technology

Improving the capacity of developing countries to conduct the appropriate assessment of environmentally sound technology is extremely important for the achievement of sustainable development, and Japan should strengthen the assistance it provides in this area.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
By expanding and strengthening training programs regarding environmentally sound technology in the Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) and public corporations, Japan will enhance the skills of engineers in developing countries, and accordingly provide assistance for the enhancement of the capacity for technology assessment of developing countries.
(2)
Due to the fact that there are some cases in which advanced technology is not necessarily suitable for the actual circumstances of developing countries, by promoting surveys and research, and the collection of information, regarding suitable technology, through related ministries and agencies of Japan, and JICA, while also utilizing private organizations, Japan will make efforts to give feedback to developing countries concerning the results of surveys and research.
(3)
Japan will provide assistance for investigations and research programs, conducted by such bodies as the UNEP International Environmental Technology Centre, regarding technological assessment which is suitable to the needs and conditions of developing countries.

34-G) Collaborative Arrangements and Partnerships

Most of the technology for environmental conservation is owned by the private sector, and the role played by the private sector in the transfer of environmentally sound technology is great. Most of this technology is transferred to developing countries commercially, and the fostering of environmental conservation-related industries is important for developing countries to be able to receive this technology.

Taking into account the above, Japan attaches importance to the implementation of the following activities.

(1)
Due to the fact that most advanced technology cannot necessarily be applied to developing countries, Japan encourages Japanese companies to develop technology which is suitable for each individual country, and based on the traditions and customs of developing countries, and to form technological licensing agreements with companies in these countries, starting with technology which can be easily applied in these countries and which has already been popularized, and accordingly, promotes the transfer of technology to developing countries.
(2)
Studying measures for the smooth promotion of technological transfer in the private sector, Japan will create an environment in which it will be easy for private companies to make technological transfer.

Ministry of the Environment Government of Japan

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