4-5, July, 1991
Declaration & Report
Mutual and close cooperation between developed and developing countries is the most essential requirement for achieving sustainable development, and sustainable development is the fundamental goal of UNCED. For this purpose, the promotion of dialogue in various fora among all people concerned is indispensable.
Asia and the Pacific covers a broad and diverse geographic region. It contains countries of great diversity and different levels of development. However, there is no doubt that this is the region which has the fastest economic growth rates in the world. This is why we place great importance on fostering discussion among countries in this region and believe in the importance of a regional contribution to UNCED.
The contributions of and dialogue among the distinguished participants, who attended in their personal capacity, enabled frank exchanges of opinions and resulted in the Declaration of the Congress. In this context, the Declaration is not an official commitment of any organization to which participants belong, but an understanding to which all the participants concurred apart from their official responsibilities.
This Declaration contains new concepts to be considered in the process of preparing for UNCED, for discussion in UNCED and to be pursued thereafter. In addition to the articulation of these concepts, we have to consider how we can realize these in our societies by pragmatic and substantial measures. The challenges are great and urgent, including the call for a new lifestyle. I am confident that this Declaration provides us with concrete means to create new mechanisms for international cooperation and to achieve an eco-industrial revolution.
On behalf of the organizers, I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to all the people concerned who helped bring this Congress to a successful conclusion.
Minister of State,
Director-General, Environment Agency
Minister of State in Charge of Global
The participants to the Congress include ministers of the environment and related ministries and agencies of countries in the Asian and Pacific region, senior municipal leaders from major cities in the region, leaders of intergovernmental organizations, of industry and of non-governmental organizations.
2. In this decade when we anticipate the dawning of the 21st Century, the top priority for humanity will be the achievement of a sustainable environment on which the livelihood of humanity and the alleviation of poverty depend. The concerns reflected in United Nations General Assembly Resolution 44/228 (22 Dec., 1989) that established the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), rest on principles of equity among people and across generations, of sustainable human populations and economic activities, of the preservation of biodiversity, and of public participation.
3. We welcome the improvement of East-West relations, which opens the way for anew period of cooperation. Although it is regrettable that people and the environment have this year been held hostage to war, cooperation on environment and development can foster peace among humanity and harmony between humanity and nature.
4. Affirming that all countries have common but differentiated responsibilities for resolving problems of environmental degradation -- including, for example, pollution of air and water, hazardous wastes, global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation including that of mangroves, and the decimation of biodiversity -- we recognize that developed countries have major responsibilities and greater opportunities to improve current social and economic mechanisms by transforming the structures of production, consumption and trade and citizens' lifestyles into environmentally friendly ones. Developed and developing countries need to work together to achieve sound and sustainable development.
5. Strengthening the capacities of governments to manage environmental change is needed. Among the necessary improvements am new political initiatives, better legal measures, greater capabilities in central and local governments for implementing and enforcing these measures, and personnel recruitment and training. We affirm that strong government action and will are essential for environmental protection.
6. We confirm that the issues of population, poverty and the environment are inseparable. Human development including effective family planning programs should therefore be the primary consideration in our endeavor to achieve sustainable growth. We urge that environmental ethics be integrated into decision-making at all levels, recognizing that we must co-exist in harmony with nature, that we must recognize that humankind is a part of the interdependent network of nature, and that we must share the limited resources of the earth with present and future generations. This reaffirms the principles adopted in 1982 in the World Charter for Nature by the UN General Assembly.
7. Being the primary engine of growth and agent of change, industry and business have a critical role to play in promoting sustainable development. In addition to providing the material base of our present day standards of living, they have the capacity as well as responsibility to help to achieve a truly just, equitable and environmentally sound and sustainable society, by developing new production processes and products which are less energy- and resource- intensive, and which me recycle oriented or environmentally benign. In this connection, we note with appreciation the codes of conduct for economic activities, including those prepared by the Keidanren, NGOs and others and the leadership of groups such as the Business Council for Sustainable Development.
8. We agree that women's level of risk from and responsibilities for changes to the environment are significant; that women's paid and unpaid roles give them a fundamental place in all aspects of economic activity and the use of natural resources; that women have a major responsibility for the transmission of environmental values across societies and to future generations; and that strategies for sustainable environmental management cannot be effectively implemented without the informed participation of women. Therefore, we call for the full participation of women into all phases of development planning and implementation to ensure sustainable development. Similarly, the energy and vision of youth will play an essential role in enabling humanity to meet the environmental challenges facing the next generation. Therefore, governments, businesses and other organizations should promote means by which young people can work to preserve and protect their environmental heritage.
9. NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs) support environmentally sound development through their accumulated experience and information. We urge that NGOs and CBOs be given important status in international cooperation mechanisms in order to strengthen existing capabilities of those mechanisms, and that these groups be assisted in appropriate ways to promote sustainable development. In particular, we feel that it is most essential to facilitate popular participation through independent sectors such as women's and youth groups, environment and development NGOs, workers' organizations and minority community groups in the UNCED preparatory process, and to ensure that opinions of ordinary citizens are adequately reflected in the country reports.
II. New Mechanisms for International Cooperation
II-A Technology Transfer
10. Consistent with the principles laid down in UNGA Resolution 44/228, we agree on the urgent necessity for the transfer and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries to cope with threats e the environment and to achieve sustainable development For this goal, we agree on the importance of strengthening existing institutions and establishing new facilities where needs are great, and welcome the UNEP Governing Council's decision to establish the UNEP International Environmental Technology Center in Japan, as well as other centers that me existing and under consideration. In this regard we also agree on the importance of phased and flexible long-term strategies in technology transfer and innovative technology development.
11. Technology transfers need to be promoted at various levels of international activity, for example, via intergovernmental organizations, between national as well as local governments, and through enterprise partnerships.
12. Capacity building for effective technology transfer needs to include the strengthening of education, including the granting of scholarships, the establishment of training and research facilities on environment management in government, educational institutions and enterprises, and the enhancement of environmental industries and enterprises in developing countries.
II-B. Funding Mechanisms
13. Consistent with the principles laid down in UNGA Resolution 44/228, we recognize the necessity for a new approach to bilateral, regional and multilateral capital flows. Among the recommended mechanisms to be strengthened include the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), improved environmental accountability of international finance, debt-far-nature swaps, and, for certain countries, removal of structural impediments that constrain government support of collaborative environmental-projects involving overseas government, academic, or non- governmental partners.
14. To build domestic capabilities far sustainable development, domestic financing is necessary in addition m international financing. Most countries in the region need to enhance fiscal measures for building a domestic capacity for environmental management, which could include, far example, providing tax incentives to support the development of environmental industries, installing pollution control equipment, applying cleaner technologies, restoring degraded lands, etc.
II-C Regional Cooperation
15. Regional cooperation for environment and development needs e be promoted through, among other ways, a network of centers for excellence in environmental technology and in RED.
16. We note that the climate change issue is of special concern to countries of the Asia and Pacific region. Environmental risks arising from climate change could be severe for many countries of the region. On account of the population growth and economic activity of the region, now and in the coming decades, this region will play a crucial role in global efforts to address the problem of climate change. Consistent with this concern, Congress participants seek commitments from all nations to the limitation of emissions of greenhouse gases.
17. In discussing the means to address the climate change issue, and in developing appropriate national response strategies, we note the importance of country-specific and sub- regional studies. We note also the importance of taking actions to enhance regional infraction in responding to climate change, and urge all governments in the region and relevant international organizations to consider mechanisms for achieving this. In this regard, we take particular note of the need to establish and promote a rematch and monitoring network in the region.
18. We endorse sub-regional cooperation on environmental problems, including those of the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), which is also actively preparing for UNCED '92, as well as the ASEAN Environment Programme (AS EP) and the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP).
19. Many urban areas within the Asia and Pacific region suffer environmental problems such as water pollution caused by inadequate waste water treatment, disposal of solid wastes, and air pollution caused by traffic and industry, as well as poor residential conditions. Interaction among local governments in the region could be an effective way to coopers' and exchange knowledge. Considering that the region includes over 80 cities with populations of over one million, and many more smaller cities and municipalities, we endorse intensified cooperation at this level.
20. The small island nations of this region face special problems, including coastal degradation and depletion of marine living resources, and we support the development of means to further cooperation among these nations. We note with alarm that if the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are realized, several dozen human cultures in the Pacific islands will face the threat of physical and cultural extinction.
III. Eco-Industrial Revolution
21. In achieving sustainable development, a major transformation in the way we conduct our activities is inevitable. The Industrial Revolution, which since the 18th Century has brought about the past era of mass production, mass consumption, and mass disposal based on the behavioral principle of profit maximization, would, if continued without a pause or a change in course, drive us to environmental destruction on a global scale.
The time for far-reaching change has come. This change will entail abating sustainable socio-economic systems on a global scale. Such a transformation would include a critical reexamination of socio-economic activities on a scale that might be called revolutionary, encompassing the behavior of industry, commerce and consumers, as well as the processes of production. Reform of our high-consumption lifestyles would be essential. This, in its entirety, may be called the Eco-Industrial Revolution.
There are at least five practical components of this revolution. First, society must move away from over-reliance on non-renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels. Second, developed nations must provide environmentally sound technologies which are low-cost, low- impact, and recycling-oriented. Third, we must create new economic models and instruments to ensure that the true costs of decisions which affect the environment are adequately internalized and reflected in market prices. Fourth, a new model of industrialization, different from that of the industrialized or newly industrializing countries, is needed. Fifth, there is an institutional need for broad-based participation and constant dialogue among planners, financiers, and development specialists. This round-table would involve government, business and industry, academia, NGOs and the media.
22. Sustainable development will also require the substantial reform of industry itself. Instead of conventional end-of-pipe approaches for pollution control, the introduction of production processes and products designed to minimize environmental impacts by reducing resource use, maximizing resource efficiency, and minimizing waste generation is the essence of new industrial design.
23. Corporations investing overseas would be expected to apply internationally acceptable standards or the best practicable technology, especially regarding pollution control, toxic substances and hazardous wastes.
24. The opportunities for and importance of citizens and communities participating in environmental enhancement should be emphasized. Interaction between communities and firms is essential in generating environmental information and should be ensured by legislative support for information disclosure laws. Similarly, NGOs and CBOs can help to foster responsible and sustainable activities by firms and governments.
25. The use of economic instruments to facilitate market transformations, and as a means of internalizing environmental costs, is an important part of these policies. Taxation and transfer payments can be useful instruments along the path to sustainable development.
IV. Looking Ahead
26. This Congress looks ahead e UNCED and submits this Declaration as a contribution from the Asia and Pacific region. In this regard, this Congress expects and urges developed and developing countries to cooperate in a spirit of amity and understanding to realize the goals of UNCED.
This summary includes highlights of the opening and keynote speeches of the first plenary session on Thursday, July 4, and discussions from the second and third plenary sessions on Friday, July 5.
Opening Plenary Session
The Hon Noboru Takeshita, former Prime Minister of Japan and Special Advisor to the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), welcomed the ministers and distinguished participants with a short speech. Among his remarks, Mr. Takeshita said that "no national boundary and nationality separate the global environmental problems. We must attack them on the basic premise that we are citizens of the earth living together on this irreplaceable planet.... I trust that countries around the world, in addition to trying to achieve a consensus for international cooperation, will carry out concrete actions to transform the economic and social activities into ones that are more conducive to environmental preservation."
The Hon Kazuo Aichi, Minister of State and Director-General of the Environment Agency of Japan, introduced the conference with brief remarks about the diverse environmental and economic conditions in the Asia and Pacific Region.
"The Asia-Pacific region is one of diverse economies, ranging from where economic development has been aaaine4 and industrialization and urbanization are becoming problems to those where economic development has yet to reach the stage of alleviating widespread poverty. Common e all these areas, however, is the importance of sustainable economic development. It is imperative that all promote concrete strategies for the maintenance of the environment.
"With this diversity of conditions as its background, we have all gathered to attend Eco-Asia '91. Although it is not an official intergovernmental meeting, it has as its goal the formulation of an Asia-Pacific regional statement of environmental goals to be submitted to the Earth Summit sponsored by UNCED, which is to take place in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992....
"I take three principles as my guide: "adherence to the law of nature", "tightening of the links between man and the environment", and "sharing of the environment with the community at large."
Mr. Aichi was selected as Chairman of the Eco-Asia '91 Congress, and the Hon. Minister Ahmad Mattar of Singapore accepted Mr. Aichi's request to serve as Vice Chairman of the Congress and to chair the second plenary session.
Mr. Maurice Strong presented the first keynote speech, "From Stockholm to Rio and Beyond." Mr. Strong is Secretary- General of the UNCED. He was Secretary-General of the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 and the first Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
Mr. Strong spoke in praise of the successes of the Japan Environment Agency and its leadership during the 20 year history since it was founded in July 1971. He acknowledged the successes were due to strict regulations, able government administrators, and cooperative, responsive industry.
Speaking of the Asia and the Pacific region, Mr. Strong said that it "is not only the largest in the world, both in terms of area and population, it is also the most diverse. Accordingly, any broad description of what is occurring in this great region in both economic and environmental terms would be bound to be inadequate, and in some cases even misleading, for the region contains not only some of the world's highest performing economies, and in Japan, a leading economic superpower, but it is also home to a large number of low income developing countries and still the largest populations of poor people." Mr. Strong spoke of the great disparities between countries and cities with material abundance and those with dire poverty, and "perhaps the most remarkable feature of this vast region is indeed the phenomena of our host country, Japan."
"Japan's role as the most dynamic economic superpower must be accompanied by a similarly leading ale in protecting the environment and resources of our planet."
Mr. Strong described the plans for the 1992 UNCED conference in Brawl, on the 20th anniversary of the Stockholm Conference. He expects the conference "to produce concrete decisions that will establish the basis for a more secure and more promising future for the world community as we move into the 21st Century." Governments will be asked "to undertake an extensive review and reorientation of the incentives and penalties which motivate the economic behavior of corporations and individuals in their nations, to ensure ... environmentally sustainable behavior, and that ... disincentives in the present system are removed and reversed....
"Mr. Chairman, Your Excellencies, the changes these measures must be designed to achieve will be fundamental, and pervasive in nature. That's why they will not be easy [and] why the state of political will must radically move from where it now exists....
"This will involve significant changes in lifestyles, as more people in the industrialized world opt far lives of sophisticated modesty, and people of developing countries receive greater support in their attempts to achieve livelihood which do not undermine or destroy the environment and resource base on which their future 1ivelihoods depend....
"There is no question that the kind of transition we are making to an environmentally driven economy will create significant problems and disruptions for many and therefore will meet with strong resistance from those who feel they might be adversely affected by it. But I believe that the experience of Japan and others has already demonstrated that such changes can produce at least as many opportunities as promises.
"The industrialized countries must take the lead in effecting this transformation and in setting an example of how to do it. The unparalleled economic growth that has produced their wealth and power has also given rise to most of the major global environmental risks that we now face."
Mr. Strong spoke of the need for concrete action to provide developing countries access to the additional financial resources and technologies they require for sustainable development. There is a special need to attack the vicious circle of poverty that drives millions of people in the developing world to meet their immediate survival needs by destroying the environmental and resource base on which their future survival and well-being depends, and in the course of doing so adding to global risks in economic and environmental terms as well as in humanitarian and moral terms. It will be far less costly and more effective to act now than to postpone action.
"This will call for something much more than a mere extension of existing concepts of foreign aid."
Mr. Strong spoke of specific goals to be agreed upon in the early phase of UNCED, such as the Earth Charter, Agenda 21, new and additional financial resources, transfer of technology, and conventions on climate change and biodiversity. "These specific measures provide the essential ingredients for a new global partnership uniting North, South, East and West in a common commitment to securing the future of our planet, the greatest security alliance ever. For our security is threatened today more from the common risks we face to the Earth's environment and life-support systems than the risks we have traditionally faced from conflict with each other....
"Indeed, no one conference can be expected to do it all but this Conference presents a unique opportunity to break out of the cunt t inertia which continues in the same unsustainable patterns of economic life which have created our present dilemma.... We must establish in 1992 a new inertia, a basic shift in direction.... If we fail to do this in Rio in 1992 the prospects of having another chance to do so in our generation -- if ever -- will be very slim indeed. This is an opportunity we simply cannot afford to miss. Our common future depends on it.
"The full participation and contributions of this vast Asian and Pacific region will be indispensable to the success of the Earth Summit. And may I say I particularly value this [Eco-Asia] Conference because I am deeply concerned about the need for an intensification of the processes of intergovernmental consultation and negotiation which will be the key to the successful implementation and acceptance of proposals that will be in front of world leaders in Rio.
"No country is in a better position [than Japan] to take the leadership in creating a new and sustainable balance between the world's economic life and its environment on which the global future depends. The 1992 Conference provides a unique opportunity far Japan m assert this leadership. The world needs it, indeed the world expects it. And I am encouraged by Japan's initiative in convening this important Conference and by the growing evidence the Japanese policies and plans and the practices of Japanese industry are moving firmly in this direction. It gives me full confidence that Japan will indeed rise to this challenge. Nowhere is Japan's leadership and its example more important than in this great Asian and Pacific region."
The Hon Dr. Emil Salim, Minister of State for Population and Environment, Indonesia, presented the second keynote speech, "Remaking the Future." He prefaced his remarks saying "my task is to present the developing countries' point of view in order that this Eco-Asia '91 could become a bridge towards UNCED '92."
Dr. Salim spoke of the principles that would underlie "a vision of the future we wish to shape." Fundamental to such a vision, "we must establish equity within our nations, between nations and between generations. Whether in the pursuit of safeguarding our environment or a better quality of life, the vision of equity must be our overarching, guiding principle." ...
"I would like to appeal to all of us to refocus UNCED's preparation towards sustainable development and the eradication of poverty as a prerequisite for coping with global and environmental issues. [UNCED] is a conference on environment and development. Environmental issues are the result of wrong conducts of development in industrialized countries. Environmental issues are the results of underdevelopment in developing countries.
"The term interdependence evokes a sense of balance and symmetry in the economic relations between nations, but this is certainly not the case today. The balance is still very much in favour of the advanced countries in terms of market, production and monetary controls, possession of technology and general resource flows. The establishment of equity will essentially mean improving the symmetry in the relations between nations.
"This will require three important steps:
"First, a transfer of resources to obtain better symmetry in the resource-flows between advanced and developing countries;
"Second, an accelerated transfer of technology; not just the transfer of technology for the sake of managing the environment but also of general, environmentally-kind technology for development purposes as well, leading to;
"Third, a restructuring of the global economy....
"Thus the developing countries need investments and new technologies from abroad to help develop their infant industries. They need markets to sell their industrial products at prices that properly reflect manufacturing costs as well as raw material prices into which the environmental costs and the costs of raw materials are integrate As they progress further, their desire to generate value-added to their raw materials ... should not be hampered by tariff and other barriers.
"This would negatively affect similar industries in the more advanced countries. These, however, have the capabilities and the means to move ahead towels the production of more sophisticated products and manufacturing processes that ac more capital intensive and rely more heavily upon sophisticated technology. Thus one can envisage a new and dynamic process in which the world's engines of growth would indeed pull ahead all economies. Obviously, it is essential that in so doing physical and social environmental conditions be carefully considered."
Dr. Salim made further specific remarks, urging greater spread of water treatment facilities for the poor. He recommended non-timber uses of forests. He offered a suggestion that countries preserving forests from consumption should be entitled to compensation. He suggested that there be a total global level of allowable atmospheric carbon emissions. Dr. Salim suggested that intellectual patent rights be reconsidered, and that developing countries which safeguard genetic resources that are used for biotechnology be compensated for their genetic preservation efforts. Such policies, he said, would rely on new economic prices, and "an entirely new and comprehensive value system centered upon the core values of equity, of sustainable development...." Dr. Salim concluded by reiterating his point that the eradication of poverty is "a prerequisite for coping with the symptoms of environmental degradation."
The Hon Dr. Saburo Okita, Chairman of the Institute for Domestic and International Policy Studies, and former Foreign Minister of Japan, spoke of "Japans Contribution to Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific."
"The Asia and the Pacific have been developing with remarkably rapid structural change. Under such rapid development of this region, environmental problems have become more serious especially in developing countries. The deterioration of natural resources such as tropical forests is of grave concern to the world and the degradation of living environment due to rapid urbanization and industrialization is observed in many developing countries, particularly those with high economic growth.
"Japan, which has become a major economic power. depends upon natural resources ... especially in Asia and the Pacific, and has heavy impacts on the environment and economy of the region.... Therefore, Japan is expected not only to cope with its domestic environmental problems but also to contribute to environmentally sound and sustainable development of the region by utilizing its accumulated experience and technologies."
Dr. Okita proceeded to explain how Japan's first advisory committee on global environmental problems was established in 1981. Its recommendations led to the Japanese proposal at the 1982 UNEP Governing Council meeting in Nairobi for the establishment of an international panel of wise-men. This proposal was taken up by the UN General Assembly which established the World Commission on Environment and Development, the Bruntland Commission.
Dr. Okita spoke of the good results of "Japan's continuous efforts to improve its environment for the last twenty years since the Stockholm Conference... For instance, the emission of SOx -- sulphur oxides -- have been reduced to one-sixth, and the energy consumption per unit of GNP has been ... lowered by 35% in the past twenty years. With regard to carbon dioxide emissions, Japan shares less than 5% of the world total emission, while the United States 24%, the Soviet Union 19%, and China 10%."
Dr. Okita mentioned the establishment in 1989 of a Council of Ministers on Global Environmental Conservation which agreed on six general principles for guiding Japanese policy on the global environment:
At the Council of Minister' fourth meeting in October 1990, the Council adopted the "Action Program to Arrest Global Warming" and decided to provide comprehensive support to developing countries.
Dr. Okita spoke of the efforts of the private sector concerning the global environment and acclaimed the "Global Environment Charter" adopted by Keidanren in April 1991.
Dr. Okita remarked that at the Arche Summit of the Seven Industrial Countries in July 1989, Japan pledged to spend 300 billion yen (more than $2 billion) over three years for overseas development assistance projects on environmental protection. This was spent in two, not three years, so an additional plan is being prepared He spoke of Japan's contributions in a variety of areas. Japan assists forest conservation through the International Tropical Timber Organization (lTTO) which it invited to Japan. Japan establishes environmental research centers in developing countries to improve their environmental management capabilities, and is establishing a UNEP environmental technology transfer center in Japan to assist developing countries with training, consulting, and information dissemination. Dr. Okita spoke of a "kind of consensus among political leaders, business and scholarly cycles that the major contribution for Japan in the coming years will be to strengthen its effort for assisting developing countries all over the world to help improve the health of those poor countries, developing countries, and to support at most their improvement of global environmental problems. So danger of nuclear destruction has somewhat receded ... as a reduction of East-West tension, but them is new danger of gradual deterioration of global environment ... if ... steps are not taken to prevent such deterioration."
Second Plenary Session
The second plenary session began with presentations of the summary discussions of the two working groups:
Dr. Jiro Kondo, President of the Science Council of Japan, chained Working Group I and presented the summary. Dr. Stephan Schmidheiny, Chairman of the Business Council for Sustainable Development, presented the summary of Working Group II Please find summaries of Working Groups I and II following the summary of the Plenary Sessions.
The chairman of the plenary then opened the floor for discussion. The discussion that followed covered several issues, so diverse that it serves to list them first in the order they were introduced. Participants raised issues:
With such a diversity of issues, it is impossible to summarize each and every point. However, the following comments reflect some of the discussion and show what an active and engaging session was held.
One of ministers spoke reiterated comments about equity, which were summarized in the proceedings of Working Group II, by saying: "at a forum like this it is appropriate and I believe essential that nations ham this region actually demand that developed countries take actions to try and repair some of the damage that we have done. If we really believe in equity ... as my colleague Dr. Salim has talked about ... we as developed countries have got to do something to restore the balance ... and [take] action to reduce greenhouse gases in particular.... And the only way we can get that is by countries around this table today demanding that the developed world take specific action to set targets to reduce greenhouse gases."
Indeed, the seriousness of the risks of global warming were emphasized by Mr. S. Kato, the head of the global environment division of the Japanese Environment Agency. Referring to the famous report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Mr. Kato reminded the plenary that the current rate of emissions of greenhouse gases will cause a temperature increase which is unprecedented "and that there could be serious impacts on the economy and social systems ... and threats to man's living environment. I think this immense impact will be, in particular, very serious in this specific region of Asia and the Pacific." The Japanese action program of October 1990 was mentioned, and is available from the Environment Agency.
As a specific suggestion, one participant asked the Chairman to request the Conference in the next year to create a regional agreement or charter containing the views expressed in this Conference. This would provide the framework for an ongoing series of actions in Asia and the Pacific region.
One participant reminded the plenary that for most countries in the Asia and Pacific region, 50 to 60% of the population, and sometimes 70-80% of the population depend on land- and water- based occupations. China has only 0.1 hectare per capita available, and India has 0.15 hectare per person. To improve the livelihood of these people, land productivity must be increased, and or employment must be diversified.
A participant from one of the Pacific Island nations commented: ''I would like to emphasize once again that we, the lowland coastal areas in small low-lying island nations of the South Pacific are the victims of a host of human activities, particularly in developing countries since the industrial revolution. Although there are uncertainties still prevailing in this area, we believe that our very survival is at risk." A Japanese senator responded: "As a member of Asia, I feel this is indeed a peat sadness that all of us must feel. And maybe the entire world must feel that sadness. We must be aware that there is something wrong, something that we have done must be wrong."
The Beijing Declaration of 41 developing countries concerning environmental protection, adapted on June 19, 1991, was mentioned by several participants. Specific to that declaration were concerns that the developed world provide new and additional and adequate financial resources to the developing world.
Some participants from developing countries stressed this language repeatedly, and similar language concerning technology transfer and responsibilities for environmental protection. Concerning technology transfer, some participants from developing countries prefer the expression, "them is a need for transfer of technology on a preferential, noncommercial basis." A participant from another country remarked that "one group of countries says, "fair and most favourable basis or terms" then another group of countries prefers "preferential and non-commercial basis." The phrase "non-commercial basis" is very difficult for some countries to accept.
Concerning financial resource transfers, "adequate" financial resources are thought to be especially important. The participant said there were troubles with the term "new" but not with "adequate" and preened the phrase "adequate and additional."
Concerning responsibilities for environmental protection, a participant mentioned that the UN General Assembly Resolution 44/228 that established the UN Conference on Environment and Development, and the Beijing Declaration of June 19, 1991, express that different countries have different responsibilities for environmental protection. The phrase that was advocated was "countries have common but differentiated responsibilities." This was integrated into the Eco-Asia Declaration, supported also by a participant from Japan.
As a specific suggestion for making manifest this sense of responsibility, an environment fund to assist developing countries with environmental problems was recommended. This might be similar to the fund for controlling CFCs that deplete the ozone layer. As one participant said, despite all the talk about technology transfer, "the current international economic order does not facilitate developing countries to solve these issues.... No one single country yet in the world would like to give technical transfer in favourable terms for developing countries."
This notion of responsibility was discussed in the working groups and presented in each working group summary. For example, the responsibility of consuming counties was specifically mentioned in the plenary. One speaker said, "Japan is the largest importer of logs from Malaysia, ... and not only Malaysia, Japan is the largest consumer of timbers or logs. We Japanese should feel more responsibility on these matters of consumption...." He continued to say that not only is poverty a serious cause of environmental destruction but "it is also caused by the strong demand by the people in developed countries." A Japanese parliamentarian suggested the use of tax treaties to help prevent such problems. Similarly, several participants noted that policies to correct environmentally unsound pricing may conflict with the principles of GATT' (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs).
Not all participants emphasized environmental protection. Some participants felt that the discussion was "lopsided" and neglected problems of economic development. One participant feared that Dr. Salim's call for harmonization of environmental standards (mentioned in the summary of Working Group II) "may create some other problems like unemployment and other things."
It should also be noted that there was slight disagreement over the title of the conference statement. Some visiting participants expressed "discomfort in calling the statement "declaration"", and preferred "statement" or another toned down term. The Japanese side, and other visiting participants expressed in the plenary their desires to have the statement called a "declaration."
This second plenary session was adjourned just after noon with the distribution and brief discussion of the draft conference declaration. Prof. Akio Morishima, the chairman of the drafting committee, reported on the work of the drafting meeting the previous evening from 9:00 p.m. until after 1:00 a.m., and again in the morning from 8:30 a.m. until the plenary session began at 10:00 a.m.
The initial comments on the draft declaration were ones to strengthen it. Indeed, the Chairman of the Business Council for Sustainable Development commented that the draft did not reflect the dire urgency of the need for far reaching change.
Third Plenary Session
The afternoon plenary session was focused on editing and revising the draft declaration for the conference. This summary elaborates on the suggestions raised by the participants. The secretariat included the suggestions as shown in the final declaration. This summary includes some of the dialogue and context of the discussion that underlies or is otherwise not reflected in the declaration itself.
A participant from the World Bank spoke of concern that the draft declaration does not recognize the rising competition for multilateral development funds due to the market transformation of eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. "Preliminary estimates of the amount of resources needed to sustain the economy of the Soviet Union run on the order of 30 billion dollars per year. And these resources or these needs will be directly competing with those of the Asia region." The declaration should better reflect that funds for economic development and environmental protection in the region will need to be sustained.
Hon. R. Kelly, the Minister of the Environment of Australia, offered closing remarks on a positive note. "Many of you around this table have helped Australia and France who jointly sponsored the Antarctic Declaration, declaring the area a land of peace and silence. My personal thanks and the thanks of the Australian Government to all of you who have contributed because as you know President Bush agreed to sign that treaty yesterday. Particularly I want to thank the Japanese because you were very instrumental in getting a change of attitude and we can now guarantee that for at least the next 50 years Antarctica will be declared a land of peace and silence. It shows what can be achieved with international cooperation."
The Chairman, Hon. Aichi, closed in saying, "This report will be presented to the Earth Summit and its Preparatory Committee. I will make every effort to make sure that this will be incorporated into the UNCED process as an important input from this region. Your kind cooperation in this respect is most appreciated.... Thank you very much again, and see you hopefully in Brazil next year."
The thud plenary session adjourned at 4:30 p.m.
In closing this summary of the plenary sessions, three comments, by the chairmen of the working groups and one of the participating ministers of the environment, bear repetition about the work ahead.
"We recognized that we could not follow [a] lifestyle such as that of the Americans. I am any to say that. We cannot develop industries infinitely. We have to change our lifestyle."
"Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that the whole thrust of this Conference has been that we can see what the problems are; we me feeling our way towards the solutions, and we do need a high level of public awareness, and we need a high level of political will. And most of all, we need action."
"For our children's sake, as well as for that of the millions of other species of living things sharing our planet with us, we must act now to radically reform our habits and practices before it is too late. So, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, let us then go to work now along these lines as our children expect us to do."
5. Summary of Working Group I Discussion on
This working group had a broad agenda for discussion, and accordingly the comments by the distinguished participants covered a wide range of issues. In this summary, the points raised for discussion are summarized in turn under the headings: (1) technology transfer, (2) finance, and (3) new mechanisms for cooperation. Participants often presented their views in terms of what should be done, which is reflected in the normative tone of much of this summary.
Many people praised the recent announcement to establish the UNEP International Center for Environment Technology in Shiga Prefecture and Osaka. Similarly, it was mentioned that a second center in Japan for environmental technology transfer has been initiated between industry and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), that ESCAP has started a center far environmental technology in Bangalore, India, and that the new South Pacific Regional Environment Program (SPREP) will focus on technology transfer as one of its roles.
The missions of these various organizations, and others like them that may exist or are being planned, are not clearly specified, and may include personnel training, identification and characterization of harmful or appropriate technologies, market studies, monitoring of previous or ongoing technology transfers, acquisition and diffusion of intellectual property rights, preferential or specialty financing, etc. In addition, Japan's Environment Agency and ODA program are working to establish new national environmental research centers in other countries to support those countries' environmental regulatory agencies. The first of these are in China and Indonesia, respectively. The intergovernmental organizations in the region, including ESCAP, can assist the organizations conducting these various activities to communicate and interact.
Training of personnel is thought to be an especially important way to improve the effectiveness of technology transfer. Indeed, training seems to be the initial focus of the two new centers in Japan, the UNEP Environmental Technology Center and the joint industry-MlTI center. In addition, universities and companies both provide useful existing facilities for training.
Several participants urged the establishment of a mechanism to provide technology at preferential or favourable terms. Although the working group did not have time to elaborate this idea, there were two variants in this idea. One possibility would be the creation of a special fund that would acquire technology (presumably as intellectual property rights) and make it available on favourable terms to poor countries. Another possibility would be the creation of a specialized development finance institution (perhaps like the specialized technology development banks supported by the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank) which would assist in the identification and selection and financing, at confessional terms, of environmental technologies.
Technology transfer, comprising equipment and know-how is accomplished not simply by the acquisition of patents and intellectual property, but by the efforts of participating enterprises. Therefore, direct investments, often in the form of joint ventures, are one of the major channels for technology transfer. The environmental impact of direct investments have typically not been monitored, or subject to environmental guidelines. This may be changing. Keidanren and various NGOs have proposed guidelines for the activities of multinationals, activities which would include technology transfer. But as mere guidelines, they still lack systematic measures to hold enterprises accountable, such as monitoring and performance disclosure requirements.
Many people urged the transfer of new technologies and the restraint of the transfer of those technologies that are obsolete or environmentally inferior to others that are available. For effective technology transfer, training of operating personnel is especially important. Indeed, technology can not be thought of as mere equipment, but rather as a system, a system including the rules of operation of the facility and the management and regulatory standards of the facility. Other people mentioned that technology transfer is not a one-way street from highly industrialized countries to less industrialized ones, but rather, there are many opportunities for bilateral exchange, and for exchange among developing countries. The agents involved in the exchange are not simply countries, but generally enterprises within those countries, and therefore partnership may be a mare fitting concept than mere transfer.
Harmonization of environmental standards may assist smooth technology transfer, and make it easier for enterprises and governments to identify suitable technologies.
Related to technology transfer is the need for countries to develop indigenous and appropriate technologies. Japan's environment agency offered to assist in these activities.
Two examples of such grass-roots initiatives from Japan were mentioned, one by the Japanese International Association for Mangroves which is working to protect and re-establish mangrove forests in tropical regions, and another by the Japan Volunteer Center, an NGO that dispatches youth overseas on rural development projects.
The stress on rural and appropriate technologies by some Japanese participants was echoed by others in developing countries. Specifically, research on and the dissemination of the know-how concerning low input sustainable agriculture is essential for ensuring and enhancing the long-term productivity of lands in the Asian and Pacific region.
Developing and developed countries have mutual responsibilities concerning, on the one hand, the transfer and promotion of environmentally-friendly technologies, and on the other hand, the restraint of the transfer of obsolete or environmentally- inferior technologies. Several participants urged developed countries to monitor and report technologies transferred, and to restrict those that are environmentally harmful The monitoring of direct investment was recommended, and may be implicitly urged but is not required under the guidelines for corporal activity adopted by Keidanren. Further, where exports from resource-based industries in developing countries are criticized for causing environmental degradation, developed countries and trading companies, as importers, have responsibilities for the impacts of their consumption. Japanese participants advocating this, including Japan's former ambassador to Britain, generally spoke in a modest manner of the need for "enterprises to practice self- discipline."
In summary, there are roles for various actors in technology transfer. Intergovernmental organizations appear prepared to coordinate activities of various training and technology transfer organizations in the region. Development banks' efforts to promote sustainable development may include specialty financing of technology transfer among their new activities. National governments may assist the formation of new organizations. However, mindful of existing organizations for training, finance, etc., it may be more important to strengthen the environmental technology transfer aspects of their current activities. Community organizations and NGOs also have important roles in monitoring technology transfer and disseminating information, and in hands-on grass-roots development projects.
The context for this discussion was set by opening remarks by Mr. K. Tarumizu, the President of the Asian Development Bank He remarked that "few of us have let this important issue [of environmental change) fully penetrate our minds ... [and that we] may require a re-thinking of the relationship between nature and people." He spoke positively of the need to strengthen domestic financing of environmental protection agencies and also of new mechanisms for multilateral financial assistance including special environmental funds, and debt-for-nature swaps.
The deputy director of ESCAP
mentioned highlights of the recent ESCAP
general assembly including the claim that it
is the moral responsibility of the rich
countries to ensure that financial resources
are available for environmental protection in
poor countries. Indeed, many remarks by
several participants concerning financial
mechanisms were prefaced by comments
placing the blame for much environmental
change on developed countries.
Undoubtedly this is true for many issues, including climate change, but the burden of responsibility for, several issues, and even climate change, is shifting more and more to the Asian region. Thiefec, it is important to think of how to act from now on. In this respect, a recently completed study from Japan provided a concrete lesson. The report (by the Study Group for Global Environment and Economics at the Japan Environment Agency) showed that the costs of compensation and clean-up expenses of pollution incidents in Japan exceeded the costs of the pollution control investments. According to the study, the tragedy of the Japanese experience was not just the irreversible damages caused, but that in addition it cost Japan more to cleanup and compensate after than if preventive measures had been adopted initially.
Although this is not a new idea, the recent study underscored the economic folly of neglecting pollution prevention. However desirable, useful, and just international development finance may be, even without it, countries will save money by investing in pollution prevention.
Many participants requested a new regional facility, or a new loan window existing finance institutions, so that additional finance, explicitly for environmental projects can be provided. The Asian Development Bank did not announce any new fund for environmental activities, although its current efforts are substantial. It is actively supporting studies and strategies for sustainable development in countries and at a sub-regional level within the Asian and Pacific Region, and impact studies of climate change.
ESCAP proposed the establishment of environmental levies on various kinds of "environmentally unfriendly" production and consumption to serve as an incentive to change the behavior of industry and consumers and accrue financial resources. The regional Commission also urged the establishment of additional grants and low-interest loans, with a greater emphasis on grants, for supporting environmental projects.
There were repeated requests for new, additional, and adequate financial resources for sustainable development, a request that few can disagree with, but which remains rather vague. One specific suggestion that is being addressed by the bilateral and multilateral development assistance programs, and needs continuing emphasis, is the finance of safe water supply. Water supply and sewage treatment facilities need to be established, in rural and urban areas, so that people in the region can have safe water and so that environmental damage from sewage runoff can be reduced.
The following specific suggestions for support would be useful in preparation for UNCED '92. These we pragmatic suggestions and were endorsed in general terms in relevant paragraphs in the Declaration of the Congress.
This sub-topic of new mechanisms overlapped to some dept with the discussions of technology transfer and finance. To avoid repetition, the points summarized below are those relating to new organizations or international action, and specific epics of environmental change. Though the title of this sub-topic was "new" mechanisms, many participants urged the strengthening of existing legal instruments, organizations, and other mechanisms of cooperation.
One of the first suggestions was that of a regional charter for the environment, which would be a complement e an international charter planned for the UNCED, with more specific focus on the issues pertinent to the Asian and Pacific region.
Similar to this charter, or perhaps as a supporting document, some participants, concerned about biodiversity and tropical forests, including mangroves, recommended an agreement on forest management and forest products trade in the region. Opinions of the participants were divided over the strength such a document might take: some participants from supplier countries wanted only a mere statement of concern, while others from consuming countries suggested a stronger, legally binding document. The Japanese Ambassador Akao mentioned, however, that if the forestry charter were negotiated at a global level as part of the UNCED, Japan would recommend as a first step a general statement of principle.
The discussion of shared responsibility of suppliers and consumers, referred to earlier under technology transfer, was mentioned concerning a regional agreement on forests. A participant from the Philippines, which is suffering vast mangrove destruction, told of how the mangrove forests are being converted into shrimp farms, the output of which is exported primarily to Japan. A strong convention on forests, particularly at a regional level, may need to consider the possibility of mutual control by the suppliers and the consumers.
A participant from Malaysia complained that some countries have initiated unilateral actions which hurt countries that export wood products. Malaysia would prefer coordination through the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Malaysia's request to the ITTO for an objective study of Malaysia's forest management and deforestation problems was noted as a worthy example of international cooperation. Despite the ITTO's good efforts, a remark was also made as to why the ITTO is waiting until the year 2000 before it hopes to have all topical timber produced from sustainable forests.
These many issues reveal that gaining consensus on an agreement on forests would take considerable diplomatic initiative and effort on the put of all countries in the region. Such an effort would be one exemplary sign of new international cooperation.
Environmental charters were also proposed as a pragmatic step in local education, specifically oriented towards the young who make up the bulk of the three billion people population in the Asian and Pacific region. Village charters for nature could be prepared by each school, and supported by curriculum requirements by national and local education authorities. Such activities would provide the roots at a local level that would support the UNCED's proposed Earth Charter.
The new efforts and ambitions of the South Pacific Regional Environmental Program (SPREP) were mentioned and welcome It will be a coordinating body for small island states in the Pacific to promote climate change impact studies, identify technologies needed in the region, develop policy positions for the nations concerned, and represent the member countries in specialized meetings on environment.
The rise in population in the Asian and Pacific region over the next 35 years is awesome, a rise from 3.1 billion persons to 4.8 billion. The consequences will be many, not least being the need to provide for the poor and the youth, who will make up the majority. International cooperation to provide safe water and the basis for local food production, and education for the one to two billion poorest people in Asia is as essential and urgent as efforts to provide couples the means to plan their family size.
Though population will rise most in developing countries, the high rates of natural resource consumption in the developed countries give strong reason to limit or reduce population even in developed countries. Several participants euphemistic ally called for modesty in consumption.
A regional framework for climate change was urged by same participants. If a framework is eventually obtained, its success will depend in part on the transition period between now and the time actions required under a framework would take place. In this interim period, the efforts of researchers in the region, supported by the ADB, other intergovernmental organizations, and national research budgets, will provide a deeper understanding of the nature of and impacts of climate change. Research cooperation has already begun, and more is planned.
The new association of environmental journalists in Japan was welcomed, and encouraged to interact with the Asian-Pacific Forum of Environmental Journalists which is supported by ESCAP.
This working group on new institutional arrangements for international cooperation had a large task, and a long range vision appropriate for the task. That vision was captured in one Chinese saying mentioned by one of the participants.
"If you are going to think 1 year ahead, plant rice.
If you are going to think 10 years ahead, plant trees.
If you are going to think 100 years ahead, educate the people."
6. Summary of Working Group II Discussion on
July 4, Thursday
|09:30 - 10: 45||
First Plenary Session
Minister of State in Charge of Global Environmental Problems
Head of Environmental Impact CONTROL Agency, Indonesia
Chairman, Institute for Domestic & International Policy Studies
|11:15 - 13:00||
Working Group Meetings: Two parallel sessions
KEYNOTE Speech: Mr. Kimimasa TARUMIZU , President, Asian Development Bank
Keynote Speech: Mr. James Gustave Speth, President, World Resources Institute
|14:30 - 18:30||Working Group Meetings (continued)|
|19:00 - 21:00||Reception|
|21:00 -||Informal declaration drafting session|
July 5, Friday
|08:30 - 10:00||Informal declaration drafting session|
|10:00 - 12:45||Second Plenary Session
|15:00 - 16:30||Third Plenary Session
|17:00 - 17:30||Press conference|
|18:00 - 20:00||Farewell party|
Mr. Mohamed Abdur Rashid
Additional Secretary in charge of Environment and
Ministry of Environment and Forest
Mr. Dato Seri Laila Jasa Haji Mohd Salleh
Minister of Development
Hon. Qu Geping
National Environmental Protection Agency
Hon. Tomasi Rayalu Vakatora
Minister for Housing and Urban Development
Mr. Samar Singh
Additional Secretary, Ministry of Environment and
Hon. Emil Salim
Minister o( State for Population and Environment
Hon. Kazuo Aichi
Minister of State, Director-General, Environment
Minister of State in Charge of Global
Amb. Nobutoshi Akao
Ambassador far Global Environmental Affairs and
Mr. Hideo Suzuki
Director-General, Industrial Location and
Environmental Protection Bureau
Ministry of International Trade and Industry
Mr. Keizo Okamoto
Director, Department of Private Forests
Mr. Saburo Kato
Director-General, Global Environment Department,
Mr. Syuji Tamura
Councilor, Minister's Secretariat, Environment
Dr. Yoon Soo Suh
Director for Water Quality Research Department
National Institute of Environmental Research
Hon. Law Hieng Ding
Minister of Science, Technology and the
Mr. Hassan Sobir
Deputy Minister of Planning and Environment
Hon. Zambyn Batjargal
Minister of State and Chairman, State Committee
for Nature and Environmental Protection
Mr. Bhanu Prasad Thapliya
Charge d'Affairs, Royal Nepalese Embassy
Dr. Roger W.G. Blskeley
Secretary for the Environment (Chief Executive),
Ministry for the Environment
Hon. Sardar Yaqoob Nasar
Minister for Environment and Urban Affairs
Papua New Guinea
Hon Michael Polycarp Singan
Minister for Environment and Conservation
Hon. Fulgencio Jr. Santos Factoran
Secretary, Department of Environment and Natural
Hon. Ahmad bin Mohamed Mattar
Minister for the Environment
Hon. Dr. Wimal Wickramasinghe
Minister of Environment
Mr. Kasem Snidvongs
Director-General, Department of Science Service,
Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy
Hon. Dang Huu
Chairman of State, Committee for Science
Dr. Lu Yucheng
Vice Mayor of Beijing
Mr. Prem Prakash Chauhan
Administrator and Commissioner, Municipal
Corporation of Delhi
Mr. Teuku Arifin Akbar
Head, Environmental and Population Bureau,
Government of the Capital, City of Jakarta
Mr. Dong-Il Kim
Director-General, Parks and Environment Bureau,
Seoul Municipal Government
Mr. Ryozo Matsushima
Director-Goal, Bureau of Environmental
Protection, The Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Rio de Janeiro
Mr. Roberto D'Avila
Secretary of the State of Rio de Janeiro for
Mr. Nobro Takeshita
Special Advisor to UNCED
Member of the House of Representatives
Mr. Bunbei Hara
Member of the House of Councillors
Mr. Masahisa Aoki
Member of the House of Representatives
Mr. Sukio Iwatare
Member of the House of Representatives
Mr. Keijiro Murata
Member of the House of Representatives
Ms Wakako Hironaka
Member of the House of Councillors
Mr. Takashi Kosugi
Member of the House of Representatives
Chairman, Standing Committee on Environment
Mr. Masayoshi Takemura
Member of the House of Representatives
Mr. Takeko Kutsunugi
Member of the House of Councillors
Ms Akiko Domoto
Member of the House of Councillors
Hon. Orlando Sanchez Mercado
Ms Seiko Takahashi
Deputy Executive Secretary
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
Mr. Daniel Ritchie
Director, Asia Technical Department
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Dr. Gloria J, Davis
Division Chief, Asia Environment Division
International Bank for Reconstruction and
Dr. B.C.Y. Freezailah
International Tropical Timber Organization
Mr. Bill L, Long
Director, Environment Bureau
Organization far Economic Cooperation and
Mr. Maurice Strong
United Nations Conference on Environment and
Mr. Hidehiko Sazanami
United Nations Centre for Regional Development
Mr. Krishan G. Singh
Assistant Administrator, Regional Bureau for Asia
and the Pacific
United Nations Development( Programme
Mr. Goh Kiam Seng
Director and Regional Representative for Asia and
United Nations Environment Programme
Mr. Katsuhide Kitatani
Deputy Executive Director
United Nations Population Fund
Dr. Juha I. Uitto
Programe Officer, Academic Division
United Nations University
Mr. Roel Re villa Ravanera
Program Officer for Sustainable Development and
Asian NGO Coalition
Dr. Stephan Schmidheiny
Business Council for Sustainable Development
Prof. Monkonbu Sambasivan Swaminathan
Center far Research on Sustainable Agricultural and
Dr, Ashok Khosla
President, Development Alternatives
Dr. Saburo Okita
Chairman of Institute far Domestic and
International Policy Studies
Dr. Jiro Kondo
President, Science Council of Japan
Mr. Katsuhiro Kotari
Special Assistant to the President
Prof. Akio Morishima
Professor, Law Department, Nagoya University
Prof. Michio Hashimoto
President, Overseas Environmental Cooperation
Prof. Shunsuke Iwasaki
President, Japan International Volunteer Center
Mr. Takuya Okada
Chairman, ĈON Group Environment Foundation
Mr. Shizuo Saito
President, Japan International Association far
Mr. Jiro Kawake
Chairman, Oji Paper Co., Ltd.
Mr. Saburo Kawai
Vice Chairman and President, Keizai Doyukai
Mr. Yutaka Kume
President, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
Mr. Toshiaki Yamaguchi
President, Tosoh Corporation
Mr. Pramon Sutivong
Secretary General, Board of Trade of Thailand
Mr. James Gustave Speth
President, World Resources Institute