IEM (Integrated Environmental Monitoring)
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Integrated Environmental Assessment
IEA Technical Summary 2005
IEA Technical Summary 2004
IEA Technical Summary
As economic growth in the Asia- Pacific region continues, it is becoming a greater challenge to policy-makers to balance environmental protection with socio-economic development. Innovative policies are needed to help make development environmentally benign and to reduce undesirable trade-offs between development and environmental protection.
IEA Products
The Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) sub-project will provide a set of computer simulation models as well as a strategic database, that can be used to systematically assess development strategies in the Asia-Pacific region.

The models include an energy-technology model (AIM/Energy), a material-economy model (AIM/Material), a multi-regional simple trend model (AIM/Trend), ecosystem models containing water, agriculture, vegetation and health elements (AIM/Ecosystem and AIM/Water), and overall integrated models (AIM/CGE and AIM/bottom-up) (Fig.7)
These models use data provided by IEM and can also be used to evaluate the policy effects of innovation options prepared by RISPO (to be explained below).
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IEA Achievements in 2002
IEA completed the full versions of two of its assessment models - AIM/Trend and AIM/Energy - and developed preliminary versions of four other models - AIM/CGE,AIM/Material, AIM/Ecosystem, and AIM/Water.It also prepared a preliminary version of its strategic database, preliminary projections of some environmental trends, and preliminary assessments of possible innovations. IEA held its first capacity building workshop in India in October 2002.
AIM/Material is a country-based model to assess the effects of environmental investment and the evolution of environmental industry based on economic flows and material balances, was modified for use in India and incorporated a module on the naturalenvironment. AIM/Material, as applied to India, demonstrated that investment in the environmental industry in India could substantially compensate for economic restrictions caused by policies to reduce industrial wastes. It also demonstrated that early investment in land conservation measures could provide substantial national financial benefits (Fig.8).
AIM/Energy is a technology selection model for energy use, and it was applied to India and China.
It clarifies the reasons behind China's substantial improvements in energy efficiency and CO2 reduction during the 1990s.
Technological progress in its steel, power generation and building materials industries, use of cleaner fuels, structural changes in its economy, and stringent environmental policies all contributed to China's improved environmental situation. The marginal cost of further improvements in China is high; however, this is not the case for India. India could greatly increase its energy efficiencies at a relatively low cost (Fig.9).
AIM/Trend is a multi-regional model with a simple structure that can project
the changes in the economy, energy use and state of the environment over
the next 30 years. It was used to simulate market development of the environmental industry sector for each subregion in Asia using four different scenarios - Market Forces, Policy Reform, Fortress World and Great Transition (Fig.10). The growth potential for the environmental industry in East Asia can readily be seen in the figure.
AIM/CGE (Asia) is a multi-regional, multi-sectoral,computable general equilibrium model being developed to assess the environmental and economic effects of new markets, new investment, technology transfer and international trade. It uses output from AIM/Trend as benchmarks for assessing future scenarios for different Asian countries.
AIM/Ecosystem links a set of ecosystem models to an economic model in order to provide integrated assessments of total ecosystem change (Fig.11).
It is specifically being developed for application to policy scenarios of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) process. Preliminary results indicate that globalization-based development will accelerate ecosystem degradation, while regional-based development, provides the best option for ecosystem conservation (Fig.12).
AIM/Ecosystem has been used to model stress on regional water resources (Fig.13).
Work continues on preparation of the Strategic Database. This user-friendly software will store all simulation results and statistics. It will also contain data on several hundred social and technical innovations, and be able to select the best mix of innovation options by nation and by sector(Fig.14).

Initial results from IEA indicates that:

  1. the potential for introducing technological innovations to protect the environment is very large in the Asia-Pacific region but differs between countries;
  2. the effects of technological innovations increase when combined with social innovations, and regional cooperation such as south-south technology transfer is needed for the evolution of innovations;
  3. integration of top-down and bottom-up incentives encourages the evolution of innovations, and investment in protecting natural capital that preserves the environment as well as enhances socio-economic development;
  4. pursuit of globalization policies support the evolution of innovations for reducing pollutant emissions but hinder the introduction of innovative policies for ecosystem conservation; and
  5. care is needed when introducing technological innovations because without other considerations, it may enlarge regional gaps in environmental management capacity.
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IEA Major Progress in 2003
Completion of Advanced version of AIM/Energy, AIM/Material, AIM/Top-down, and AIM/Ecosystem, and 1st version of Strategic Database (SDB) with indicators focusing on environmental efficiency.
At IEA workshop in Thailand, teams in each country using IEA models, and hove collected existing data, project future year's data, design socio-economic scenarios, and identified abatement options for selected countries with consultation of various policy-makers.

More Details in IEA Technical Summaries 2004 (PDF)
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IEA Major Progress in 2004
User-friendly APEIS/SDB with extensive database of technological, institutional and management innovation options
Enhancement of AIM/Material to assess environmental investments
Development of quantitative innovation scenarios and assessment for transport, residential, rural electrification and water management sectors in China, India, Korea and Thailand
A training workshop was held to enhance model building capacity.

More Details in IEA Technical Summaries 2005 (PDF)
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E-mail APEIS@env.go.jp