G8 Environment Ministers' Meeting in 2000
G-8 Environmental Futures Forum on
"Alternative Fuels and Propulsion Systems"
Bonn, January 25-26, 1999


Executive Summary

Background

In May 1996 G-7 Environmental Ministers agreed in Cabourg, France, to co-ordinate their countries’ efforts in the field of environment and sustainable development and to jointly examine poten-tial fields for action. In this context, it has been recognised as most helpful to organise forums for exchanging ideas and developing visions and recommendations for future action.

Following the first G-7 Environmental Futures Forum in Washington, DC. in April 1997 and the G-8 Environment and Transport Futures Forum in London last February, this Environmental Futures Forum was the third platform for information exchange and discussion on transport and environment related issues between policy makers, scientists and scientific advisors to governments, and representatives from important stakeholders like the private sector, non-governmental organisations and local communities.

In the course of the past two events transport has been identified as a primary consumer of fossil energy and the largest single anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, accounting for approx. 25% of global CO2 emissions and for 60% of oil consumption worldwide. Further urging solutions, traffic amount in travelled vehicle kilometers is predicted to raise by 136% until the year 2030. Thus the share of energy use from the transport sector will continue to grow due to falling numbers for other sectors like households or industry.

In this view it is a primary task to take on substantial steps towards sustainable transport in the future. It is widely recognised that the introduction of alternative fuels and propulsions must be a core element of efforts towards sustainable mobility.

Conclusions

The forum agreed that an environmentally sound transport sector requires technological innovation, behavioural change as well as other measures for uncoupling transport growth from economic growth (avoidance of traffic), for the improvement of infrastructure, integrated planning and modal shift as well as for increased education, information and awareness building. Alternative fuels and propulsions have a core function for sustainable transport and all societal actors have to cooperate in promoting alternative technologies. The G-8 countries as leading industrialised nations and leading vehicle producers have a specific responsibility and will have to play a key role in this process.

Recommendations

G 8 governments should play a major role in encouraging sustainable transport through a broad range of measures regarding technological innovation and behavioural change. They should establish the vision for sustainable transport and should ensure the provision of a suitable enabling framework through regulatory and economic instruments in order to facilitate the introduction of new technologies and fuels. Governments at all levels, industry and other stakeholders should be involved in the goal setting process. Education, information and awareness building should be promoted in order to change consumption and transport patterns.

(The complete text of the conclusions and recommendations can be found in section 4)


1. Introduction

The finite character of fossil fuels and the Greenhouse Effect, partly caused by vehicle emissions, make a paradigm change in transport policy a priority point on the political agenda in the next years. To further pursue the goals laid down in the Agenda 21 as agreed during the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro 1992 and to ensure the achievement of the given CO2 abatement commitments, new visions, new ways and new technologies for sustainable mobility have to be found. New data on the significance of transport for a sustainable future development as well as on the expected development of transport patterns have been presented during the forum. Initiated and moderated by Chairman Dr. Andreas Gallas, forum delegates intensively discussed arising problems and exchanged ideas on promising options and strategies.

1.1 Sustainable Mobility (Jugen Trittin)

G8 countries are the main producers of greenhouse gases and parallel their advanced technology sets the standards for technology world-wide, particularly in the vehicle manufacturing sector. Hence, G8 governments are responsible for shaping framework conditions to achieve sustainable transport in the face of increasing global exchanges of goods and services.

45% of greenhouse gases are produced by the G8 countries; transport accounts for approx. 20 - 25% of global CO2 emissions. Transport consumes 60% of all oil products and the G8 members consume about 70% of petroleum fuels. Industrialised countries are responsible for 75% of CO2 emissions. It is expected that by 2030 world-wide emissions of CO2 from the transport sector will have risen by 60% of the 1990 level, making attainment of the Kyoto targets very difficult.

Sustainable transport requires more than technological change. Germany intends to base an environmentally sound transport policy on five pillars: traffic avoidance, transferring modes of transports, e.g. to public transport, promotion of environmentally sound mobility, e.g. sound modes of transport and low-pollution cars, and environmentally sound traffic routes, e.g. reconciling road and rail construction with retaining an ecological balance.

Vehicles will still be running with combustion systems and on gasoline and diesel in the near future, which means that engines, after-treatment devices and fuel quality all have to be improved. It remains a duty of governments to find measures to increase the use of alternative engines and fuels. However, without an adequate energy supply infrastructure there will be no alternative energies in private vehicle traffic making it mandatory to involve car manufacturers and energy industries in the process.

Great progress is being made with engine technologies regarding the traditional pollutants carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particles. The EU has decided to set new limits values for exhaust gases of trucks, coaches and buses which requires the use of particulate traps and de-NOx catalysts. While a significant reduction in the fuel consumption and corresponding CO2 emissions of conventional vehicles is required, it remains indisputable that alternative energy sources are required for further CO2 reduction.

Essential tasks and objectives of the G8 Forum lie in recognising the need to further develop conventional technologies with the aim of reducing fuel consumption by 50% and in deciding which alternative energies and alternative engines are most promising, as well as the marketing and launching of such technologies. This includes the promotion of research and development of new technologies, tax incentives and possible subsidies for market launches, giving preference to alternative technologies for certain traffic or environment situations as well as consumer information and advice through joint information strategies of the political and corporate worlds.

The German government intends to increase mineral oil taxation on conventional fuels in order to support the achievement of sustainable transport as part of the ecological tax reform of the new Federal Government, thus creating new jobs in the high technology sector.

1.2 Global Trends(Ms. Joke Waller-Hunter)

Ms Joke Waller-Hunter introduced the main findings of an OECD study investigating global trends until the year 2010 of both OECD and non-OECD countries. It shows the growth of population (+8% in OECD countries from 1995 - 2010 and + 24% for non-OECD countries) is even overtaken by the very high rise in the vehicle stock (+33% in OECD countries and + 176% in non-OECD countries) and in aviation (+100% OECD and +200% non-OECD countries). It is expected that from 1990 to 2030 the motor vehicle stock in the rest of the world will increase more than the stock in the OECD countries. However, it has to be taken into account that growth rates in the OECD start from an already high level and that these countries are the main source of energy consumption and emissions from transport.

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In OECD countries the demand for vehicles approaches saturation while vehicle stock in the rest of the world will increase significantly. Also the highest increase in travelling will be found in non-OECD countries. Similar trends have to be expected for pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. A regional breakdown shows stagnation for OECD outputs, with a moderate increase of NOX and a slight reduction of CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, growth rates for non-OECD countries are somewhat higher both for NOX and CO2. A look on the vehicle categories reveals the growing significance of heavy trucks as emission sources.

A long term environmental impact prognosis suggests that emissions from transport in general will multiply if no countermeasures are taken. Differentiated pictures are to be drawn for urban, regional and global levels. In OECD countries, the actions already taken for the improvement of air quality on local/regional levels will begin to pay off, resulting in stagnating noise emissions and decreasing emissions of NO2 and PM. Figures for ozone, acidification and water/sea pollution will increase only moderately. In non-OECD countries however, the mentioned pollutants remain an issue with expected further substantial growth. On a global level though, the need for action in both OECD and non-OECD is still urgently given.

To achieve sustainable transport, social, economic and environmental measures have to combined and implemented jointly. The role of politics in this context is the definition of scenarios and goals and the supporting of a shift from a business as usual scenario (BAU) to environmental sustainable transport scenarios (ESTs).

ESTs can address the switch to high technology, mobility management and a combination of both. Alternative fuels and propulsions play a crucial role in a high technology scenario, assuming no fossil energy use for transport, the utilisation of electric, hybrid and fuel cell cars, the use of renewable energies for heavy duty vehicles and the invention of hydrogen use in airplanes. The wide spread use of alternative technologies could lead to a reduction of emissions (in CO2 equivalents) of up to 85%, if primarily hydrogen, fuel cell and electric vehicles are used.

Another way of matching the sustainability goals is an improved demand side management. Here, emission threshold values could determine the allowed and acceptable maximum traffic volume. In the expanded use of information technologies, the changing of location, production and consumption patterns and the promotion of environmentally friendly modes like cycling, walking, rail and public transport lies an additional potential to meet the predefined environmental goals.

Scenario results indicate that acting "business as usual" takes us steadily away from sustainable transport criteria. Feasibility of sustainable transport is highest in a combination scenario with emission mitigation potentials of 30% to 50% through a more consequent switch to high (alternative) technologies and of 50% to 70% through an effective demand side management.

1.3 Future Demand of the Transport Sector for Fossil and Alternative Energies
(Dr. Fritz Vahrenholt)

Following the expected growth of the world vehicle fleet, recent scenarios of the Shell Group show a significant increase in world demand for transport fuels of up to 40% until 2020. World energy demand could triple until 2060. Shell long term scenarios give visions of the possible energy supplies by the year 2060. Fossil fuels will contribute to most of the growth over the next few decades, but renewable energy sources gradually will take an increasing market share.

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Renewable technologies such as wind, biomass and photovoltaics may be fully competitive with fossil fuels and able to begin taking a significant share of the market by 2020. The contribution of renewables to the world energy supplies could become 50% by the middle of next century. Use of fossil fuels, especially oil and gas, increases steadily over the next 30 years and reaches its maximum potential by 2020-2030. Their use becomes limited by the rate of production and the increasing competitiveness of renewable energies.

But long before we run out of fossil energy resources, the possible threat of global climate change will become a key driver for a change to more sustainability. Such a vision of a future scenario of sustainable growth will also include the development of sustainable transport. There are strong signals that the huge transformation process has already started.

Pollutant emissions from road transport in Germany have fallen more than 60% from its peak in 1987 which means a significant reduction in air pollution and might - dependent on the renewal rate of the car population - be reduced further in the next years to less than 90%. These results suggest that pollution by road traffic in the whole of Europe will no longer be a significant problem in the next century.

The remaining problem will be the global environmental impact of transport. With a two-fold strategy CO2 emissions must be reduced. As a first step through improved fuel economy of all vehicles. The second step will be a transition to alternative energies. The start of this transition will be difficult. Various technologies in drive train (improved internal combustion engines versus fuel cells versus hybrids) compete and alternative fuels like methanol and others are put on a similar race. We are confronted with a huge variety of alternatives and there are not enough financial resources to follow each of them.

Required is the evaluation of a huge number of possible combinations by "well to-wheel analysis". This involves analysing of complete energy chains with the aim of finding combinations of energy sources and drive trains which best meet the requirements of low CO2 emissions and cost efficiency.

A rapid move to hydrogen or to renewables will not be possible. One of the key challenges is to establish practical ways of providing a continuous supply of the hydrogen needed to power the fuel cells. Shell and DBB signed a joint research co-operation agreement which could advance the introduction of fuel cell cars.

The possible use of hydrogen is not limited to the concept of a fuel cell car. Highly efficient internal combustion engines powered by liquefied hydrogen is an alternative track. Shell is also interested in this line which is followed for instance by BMW.

1.4. Plenary Discussion

Subsequently, forum delegates discussed the data presented and confirmed the shown trends. The plenary confirmed that sustainable transport requires a broad range of measures, including technological innovation, behavioural change, avoidance of traffic and improvement of infrastructure. In order to reach the goal different policy options like regulation, incentives, management and planning and increased education have to be analyzed and habe to be combined in a policy package.

Given the trends a switch to alternative fuels and propulsion systems was considered necessary in the long run, stressing that G-8 countries should play a model role in this context. In order to manage the "massive and messy" transition period high level strategic guidance was needed. While seeing the benefits to prioritize promising options, delegates warned not to cut down options too early.

In the short term conventional technologies and fuels need to be optimized. Alternative fuels can only contribute to solving local problems, e.g. in heavily polluted urban areas.

Delegates stressed the need to send clear signals to consumers. "Whatever efforts industry will make, whatever assistance is given by legislation - at the end of the day the customer will be the sole decision maker of the market“.

Mass and freight transport should be given specific attention.


2. Alternative Fuels and Propulsion Systems - State of the Art and Future Development

The second plenary session served to give an overview on the state of the art and future trends of fuels and technologies. Efforts of Industry and funding of Governments in the G-8 countries were highlighted and experiences exchanged, necessary preconditions and potentials for implementation were discussed.

2.1 Europe(Dr.-Ing. Hansgert Quadflieg)

A whole range of concepts for alternative fuels and engines for road transport has been researched and developed. On the fuel side, gas in the form of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquid natural gas (LNG) is well-known along with Methanol on fossil basis, Dimethylether and Biofuels (Ethanol, Methanol and Vegetable Oil, e.g. RME). Hydrogen in gaseous or liquid form and electricity complete the list of conceivable fuels. Engine-wise, most fuels will be used in enhanced and retrofitted, though conventional, Otto- and Diesel engines. Promising new propulsion systems include the Internal Combustion engine (ICE) and different types of electric motors.

Unfortunately, comparisons of the different technologies regarding economic, environmental and feasibility aspects suggest that concepts with the highest benefits for the environment (Hydrogen powered ICE’s, fuel cells, electrical vehicles powered from renewable sources) are also the most costly options. Environmentally friendly concepts are significantly more expensive than today’s conventional systems. In addition, infrastructure bottlenecks are problems for a transition to these technologies in the near future. Some concepts however, e.g. CNG, seem to represent a sort of compromise between environmental benefits and economical costs and thus might offer a pragmatic option for the medium term.

One potential obstacle is infrastructure. Investment costs for necessary infrastructure are highest for gaseous or cryogenic fuels and relatively low for some liquid fuels since they are consequently adjustable from conventional equipment. High investment costs are also necessary for production facilities for regenerative concepts, e.g. for biofuels or for hydrogen on the base of solar energy.

The European Commission and its member states have spent around 750 Million Euro of public funds for R&D on alternative fuels and propulsions in the last 25 years. As a result developed prototypes of vehicles and engines as well as fuel formulations and specifications are available for all concepts. Operability of systems has been proven in demonstration and pilot projects. All concepts are technologically feasible. The highest obstacle for market introduction was and is the lacking economic competitiveness which, only in special cases under indigenous incentives, could be overcome (LPG in the Netherlands, CNG in Italy). Continuity of R&D can be expected in the EU and in national programmes. Emphasis is expected to be put on hydrogen, methanol and natural gas with regard to the fuel cell development, on electric and hybrid propulsion systems and on Biofuels.

The conflict between ecology and economy has to be overcome. Therefore, the development of a double strategy for research and market introduction is recommended. On the one hand R&D has to be continued for all concepts, because the horizon of final sustainable systems is still far away. On the other hand a strategy has to be developed soon to prepare a stepwise market introduction by concentration on a few or one concept line which promises to be robust.

Clearly, such a dual strategy with partially divergent goals is difficult to pursue and requires the cooperation of all players. Auto and mineral oil industries, energy suppliers, infrastructure and vehicle operators, the users and, last but not least, the responsible public authorities have to be involved in the strategic process of defining, developing and realising sustainable transport goals right from the beginning.

2.2 North America(Mortimer L.. Downey / David Gardiner)

Traffic volume in the United States doubled from 1970 to 1995 amounting to 2.4 Trillion vehicle miles travelled in the year 1995. Scenario calculations show that a similar development has to be expected for the future, with an estimated annual growth rate of 1.8%. This is accompanied by corresponding increases in energy consumption and emissions from transport further raising the sectors’ share in overall energy use and emissions.

New technologies on different levels are essential to combat the increasing negative impacts of vehicle use. These include inventions in the field of energy conservation (direct injection, fuel cells); drivetrains (hybrid electric configuration, power electronics); energy storage (chemical batteries, flywheels) and fuels (low-sulfur liquid fuels, alcohols, hydrogen). Additionally, also other vehicle attributes have influence on its energy consumption and compatibility to sustainable transport, e.g. aerodynamics, tyres, aluminium and composite materials and different safety systems.

As the heart of United states efforts towards sustainable transport, the government, the car manufacturers Ford, General Motors and Daimler-Chrysler as well as over 300 suppliers, small businesses, federal laboratories and Universities work together in the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. The programme has been announced in 1993. It has three macro-level goals: First, to improve the productivity of the U.S manufacturing base, having in mind that auto industry accounts for one in seven jobs in the U.S. and the world wide competition for high mpg cars. Second, the pursuit of technology advances that lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Last but not least, the cost-efficient increase of fuel efficiency of up to three times of average 1994 vehicle models.

The programme aims at an increase in energy conversion thermal efficiency of 40% and a significant improvement in aerodynamic and rolling resistance. Vehicle weight is foreseen to be reduced by 40% and recyclability of vehicles will go up from 75% to 80%. As a result fuel consumption will be improved and the Tier II EPA emission standards will be met.

In early stages of the programme a wide range of technologies has been researched, including amongst others hybrid vehicles, fuel cells and fuel reformers, CIDI engines, turbines and flywheels. Later in the programme the need for bundling efforts is reflected by the selection of three technologies from the pool and the subsequent development of three prototypes/demonstration vehicles.

Although the application of new technologies might sometimes lead to ambivalent environmental effects (e.g. advanced Diesel engines can reduce CO2 emissions significantly compared to standard cars but this positive effect is outweighed by a hefty increase in NOX emissions), they do offer significant potential for a more sustainable mobility.

Technologies like natural gas, corn ethanol, or electricity can contribute to notable abatement in the release of greenhouse gas emissions in the next years. With the long term options biomass ethanol, fuel cell (ethanol/hydrogen) and electric cars on basis of renewables even reductions of up to 98% are possible. A remaining problem is however, that emissions reductions are unlikely to match the pace of travel growth.

Besides the Partnership for a New Generation of Car and the definition of new vehicle emission standards, the U.S. Government has proposed major new initiatives aimed at the sustainability of transport, including the $ 750 million Better America Bonds programme, tax credits for fuel efficient vehicles. Further to that, system efficiency improvements are encouraged through the Climate Change Technology Initiative and $ 200 million are dedicated to support community greenhouse gas reduction programmes under the Clean Air Partnership.

2.3 Far East(Tsutomu Kagawa)

Since their introduction in the late 19th century, automobiles have been a source of pollution, noise, and general nuisance, especially to people living on or near public roadways. The reason why automobiles endure is because of the great convenience and freedom of movement they offer. Also, many of the problems they caused in the past have been eliminated through technical innovations introduced by manufacturers, roadbuilders, and others involved in the motorisation process. It can be expected, therefore, that the critical issues we are facing today will eventually and in large part be resolved through new technologies.

Negative impacts constitute primarily of energy consumption and pollutant emissions from vehicles. Both problems must be tackled with a dual strategy which aims at increased fuel economy, to be achieved through the application of enhanced conventional technologies and the parallel expanded use of alternative energy sources.

Options for conventional technologies include further improvements in and integration of existing automotive technologies as well as the introduction of lean-burn engines, in-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engines and high-performance clean diesel engines.

What can be expected from alternative fuels and propulsions? In Japan, research has been funded and carried out on a variety of technologies, including LPG, CNG, methanol, fuel cell hybrid and electric vehicles. They all have specific advantages and problems which remain to be resolved. At present, it is the hybrid electric vehicles that are leading the pack in terms of feasibility. The Japanese government and the car industry alike are determined to continue their efforts in the development of the various fuels and propulsions.

There are three basic obstacles to expanding the availability of these new-technology vehicles. The first one is the lack of the technology required to improve their running performance and travelling distance. The second is the increased cost of production and higher sales prices and the third obstacle is the lack of infrastructure for the supply of alternative fuels.

In order to address these issues, governments have an essential role to play in assisting manufacturers and consumers through appropriate fiscal policies and specific financial measures. Governments could subsidise research, development and introduction of vehicles as well as establishment of infrastructure nets. The Japanese government approved the so-called Eco-Station Plan 2000 in 1993. As a result, between 1993 and 1997 seventy-three alternative-fuel stations were set up nationwide, 26 stations for electricity, 33 stations for CNG, 10 stations for methanol and 4 for LPG.

Increased R&D in Asian countries is desirable since their share of the vehicle park will increase rapidly in the coming years. However, most of them have neither the technical means nor the funds required to develop and promote new-generation vehicles. Financial and technical assistance from developed countries will be imperative. Both the Japanese government and the Japanese auto industry are expected to play an important role in this regard.

2.4. Plenary discussion

In the discussion following to the reports from Europe, North-America and the Far East, the delegates took the opportunity to complement and discuss the overviews on the state of the art in the three regions.

The Forum discussed the opportunities and obstacles for the development of innovative vehicles and propulsion systems, the use of alternative fuels and their introduction into the market. A major obstacle mentioned were higher prices of alternative technologies e.g. the high prices for fuel cells. The storing and distribution of alternative fuels were also identified as big challenges for the future.

It was repeatedly noted that the knowledge on alternative fuels and propulsions is sufficient today. It was thought to be important now to choose those technologies from the variety of options, which are most promising under economical and environmental points of views and where realisation and market implementation is feasible. Available resources will have to be bundled in order to support the implementation of the chosen alternative technology. The example of LPG/CNG funding in various countries shows the necessity of such governmental support in the introductory phase. A permanent funding however was not considered desirable.

The plenary concluded that a comprehensive assessment of an alternative technology requires the complete accounting of effects over its entire life cycle in order to ensure that all indirect impacts and shifts in emissions are included. The fuel cell was mentioned as a good example for this. The same example also illustrates that - in some cases - an alternative technology also generates the need for an alternative fuel, here hydrogen or methanol. As a result uncertainties and implementation risks are further incremented.

The question was raised whether it might be a better option to test and implement alternative energies firstly in other sectors with stationary „consumers“. Thus, in comparison to the transport sector a better amortisation of the substantial investments could be achieved. Most delegates however stated that the transport sector is an attractive field for the use of alternative fuels and propulsions, although framework conditions vary from country to country.

In this context, it was put forward that at the moment the efficiency in the use of hydrogen is higher in stationary sources. As hydrogen availability will be limited for some decades, it was proposed to direct hydrogen to these sources. Nevertheless, participants agreed that the introduction of hydrogen into the transport sector should be followed in parallel. Since the use of fossil fuels will decrease in the future it was thought to be important to fully explore the use of hydrogen as an alternative. A certain network has to be built in order to support developments in this field.

Moreover, the importance of gas as a "ransition technology" was emphasized.


3. Setting the right Framework for Technical Innovation

Repeatedly, the forum stressed that all involved societal actors will have to play their roles in the development and introduction of alternative fuels and propulsions. They will have to cooperate and to synchronise their efforts in order to achieve the goal of sustainable mobility.

Three working groups deliberated the roles of the major players. On the basis of issue papers the groups discussed potential options for supporting sustainable transport especially for introducing alternativ fuels and technologies and elaborated recommendations for the possible role of the actors.

3.1 The Role of Government (Working Group A)

(Chairman: Vic Buxton; Introductory Statement: Iain Todd)

Mr Buxton structured the session along two principle questions. First, which potential do alternative fuels and propulsions offer for reducing emissions and should governments therefore promote their development and introduction? Second, which options or measures are most effective in order to set the right framework for the development of alternative technologies, how do they have to be designed and what is governments role here?

In his introductory statement Mr Todd pointed out principal options for governmental action. Taking the UK as a case study he showed that governments have to set up a whole policy package, including regulatory measures and incentives in order to get closer to sustainable transport and to introduce alternative fuels and new technologies into the market.

The group summarized its work as follows:

Background

  • Transport has become the largest single anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, accounting for approximately 20-25% of the total CO2 emissions. The sector consumes more than 60% of the world's oil products.
  • Measures for ensuring sustainable transport become even more important as the share of the transport sector has, unlike that from other sectors, constantly grown in the past years. Between 1973 and 1988 carbon dioxide emissions from transport increased by 30% world-wide, while in the same period CO2 emissions from other human activities fell by 2 %.
  • Movement of people and goods is increasing. A certain level of access to people, places, goods and services is a precondition for economic and so-cial development and must be guaranteed in a sustainable way. Global CO2 emissions from trans-port are projected to rise by more than 60 % over the period 1990-2030, making it difficult for the international community to meet and sustain the targets agreed in Kyoto.
  • A move to alternative fuels and propulsion systems and their promotion may assist with CO2 reductions but may also bring about other environmental and economic benefits.
  • Governments are responsible to protect human beings and the environment. They have to define, implement and promote policies, taking into account market forces that will lead to achieving these goals. They have to play a major role in encouraging sustainable transport, both nationally and internationally, including with regard to the policies of multilateral financial institutions. Participants in the Environment and Transport Future Forum agreed that an environmentally sound transport sector requires both technological innovation and measures for uncoupling transport growth from economic growth (avoidance of traffic) and improving the transport infrastructure. Close interaction with industry, NGOs and the public is mandatory.

Recommended roles for government

G 8 governments shall ensure adequate public awareness and education and support transportation polices and practices in such a way which contributes towards sustainable development. They also have a key role to play in ensuring co-ordination both domestically and internationally. These recommendations apply to both passenger and freight transportation sectors.

The governments should:

(1)establish the vision for sustainable transport, the role of innovation within it, and performance measurement criteria as necessary
(2)provide appropriate incentives for effective transportation systems and ensure to the degree possible the internalisation of external costs
(3)ensure the provision of a suitable fiscal framework to facilitate the introduction of and open the market for new and innovative technologies (for example, taxation measures, pricing, subsidies for the development of new technologies, incentives etc., including tradable permits.).
(4)develop, support and enunciate their transportation policies and practices in such a way which contributes towards sustainable development
(5)do their utmost to disseminate their experience (e.g. using multilateral institutions) in the pursuit of sustainable transportation as widely as possible (especially to non-G8 countries)
(6)ensure integrated planning for transportation in relation to other relevant policy sectors
(7)ensure that international co-operation mechanisms are in place (fullest possible exchanges in R & D technologies, demonstrations, best practises, etc.)
(8)ensure co-ordination, consultation and co-operation with a view to achieving consensus among constituencies in society e.g. regional and local authorities, NGOs and the private sector, etc.
(9)ensure co-ordination and co-operation with a view to achieving consensus at an international level
(10)encourage and facilitate public/private partnerships
(11)consider the resolution of transport issues both in the short-term context and in the long term context
(12)give special consideration to the aviation sub-sector using existing international mechanisms because of the accelerated rate of growth in this sector
(13)utilise economic and regulatory instruments as necessary, taking into account market principles
(14)establish standards early on in the process to facilitate the orderly and safe technological development without foreclosing on future options
(15)alternative fuels and new technologies should be compared re-garding their environmental impact, technical potential and their cost-efficiency, ranked and the most appropriate ones be identified
(16)assist in the funding of R & D especially in areas of high economic and/or technical risk and including support for promising technologies (development, demonstration, dissemination, prototype testing, etc.)
(17)make provisions for the verification of performance claims when verification is necessary for the early introduction of new and innovative technologies
(18)act as a role model, especially with regard to procurement practises, vehicle fleets, etc.
(19)assist in the provision of an infrastructure when such an infrastructure is a key component in the introduction of new and innovative technologies.

3.2 The Role of Industry (Working Group B)

(Chairman: David Grant Lawrence; Introductory Statement: Corrado Clini)

The discussion in working group B has been structured by Mr Lawrence focusing on three guiding questions. First, it was to be elaborated if and to what extent industry has a responsibility to promote sustainable transport, especially through developing alternative technologies. Second, the group was to work out which measures and developments can be expected from industry. Finally, the participants were requested to discuss the measures that should be taken by governments in order to promote the development and introduction of alternative fuels and propulsion systems.
In his introductory statement Mr Clini dealt with transport sector trends and the potential new technologies. He stated that the next ten years will be decisive to avoid the "clash of interests" between the right ot mobility, crucial for the development and the economic growth, and the "carrying capacity" of the local and global atmosphere, limiting conditions for any perspective of development.

In the subsequent discussions it was acknowledged that industry has made substantial efforts in the development of alternative propulsions and fuels so far, partly funded by governments. However, participants agreed that environmental goals sometimes come into conflict with other industrial aims and interests like employment, transport safety or convenience. Working together on these conflicts should lead to a strengthening of environmental requirements if industry research, development and innovation are more focused on them.
It was stressed that industry is a private economic actor and market rules have to be followed. In order to develop new alternative vehicles and fuels with high associated initial costs, national and international governmental commitments to these technologies were considered necessary.
Working group members stated that in the framework of fixed goals for sustainable transport, industry accepts its role and responsibility to find the most effective technology, also through concentrated research, development efforts and co-operation with governments and among enterprises. It was also pointed out that infrastructure networks have to be built and that industry should promote the market introduction of the new technologies, which has to be supported to a certain extent by governmental measures.

In the end Working Group B concluded:

1. Technologies and market needs should not be prescribed by governments.

2. Industry needs to know what are the goals to be reached in order to attain sustainable transportation. These must take into account international agreements such as, for example, the UN Protocols on Transboundary pollution and the Kyoto Protocol.
"Industry" in this context needs to be defined in its widest sense: not only car and oil, but also energy, chemical and other industries.
Partnerships should be established between government and industry for the exchange of data for scenarios.
All stakeholders should be involved in the goal setting process.
Experiences from the different methodologies for goal setting should be compared and discussed to find the best fitting one.
Once those goals are fixed, the role of industry is to find the most effective technology. Eventually, there has to be a concentration on a smaller number of technology options. The decision making process for this will have to be agreed by all stakeholders.

3. Some degree of governmental subsidies for promoting the introduction of environmentally sound technologies is necessary but within a well-defined framework and for a limited duration of time. A common basis for adopting this is necessary, e.g. life cycle analysis.

4. Developing Countries In relation to developing countries, industry should avoid the transfer of substandard technology to developing countries. It may be more cost efficient to reduce environmental damage through assistance to other countries.

3.3 The Role of Local Authorities, Communities and Consumers (Working Group C)

(Chairwoman: Ms. Dominique Dron; Introductory Statement: Ms. Johanne Gelinas)

Ms Dron structured the discussion along three guiding questions: First, to what extent local authorities, communities and consumers have a responsibility to promote sustainable transport. Second, which measures local authorities and communities should undertake in promoting sustainable transport, which are their capacities to do so and which difficulties have to be overcome? Thirdly, which consumption patterns can be expected from consumers and how can consumers be stimulated to promote sustainable transport? Outlining that technical changes alone would not be enough to achieve sustainable modes of transport, Ms Dron focused the questions to promoting the introduction of alternative fuels and propulsion systems.

Ms Gelinas emphasized in her introductory statement that "without people nothing happens". In order to raise the attractivity and acceptance of alternative fuels and propulsions it is crucial to involve the people at the local level. The key question in this context is how to reach them. One possibility could be an enforced "social marketing". People have to be addressed as clients. It must be attractive to them to change their behaviour and to make use of alternative technologies and fuels. When setting the framework right, equity aspects have to be taken into account.

The group summarized its work as follows:

As the major part of traffic takes place in urban areas the working group has stressed the crucial role of communities, local authorities and consumers in the process of promoting sustainable transport in general, and the introduction of alternative fuels and propulsions in particular. It has stated that a wide range of experience with new transport systems already exists in many cities and communities. National and international policies should benefit from local experience. Furthermore, communities can play a key role in raising public awareness for the necessity of a switch to more sustainable forms of transport for people and goods.

1. Roles of communities, local authorities and consumers (comprising both individuals and companies)

Communities, local authorities and consumers can play a wide range of roles in the promotion of alternative technologies and fuels. Conceivable roles include:

-. Consumers / demanders of/for conventional and alternative transport services
-. Advocates or catalysts for change in consumption and demand patterns
-. Awareness raisers and builders of confidence in the new technologies
-. Policy makers giving incentives / disincentives for the use of alternative/conventional technologies
-. Law-makers and enforcement agencies
-. Innovators and learners
-. Researchers
-. Employees of conventional or alternative transport services.
-. Players who can establish a supportive environment for the introduction of new fuels and propulsions
-. Voters
-. Providers of alternative or conventional transport services

2. Conclusions regarding possible measures

Working group participants have recognised that alternative fuels and technologies have to be part of a strategy which should also comprise land use policies, infrastructure planning and other measures for the encouragement of modal shift. Measures suggested included i.a. space management, city of short distances, infrastructure choices aiming at sustainable transport.

With regard to the promotion and use of alternative technologies and fuels, i.a., the following measures have been proposed:

  • Raising awareness and building confidence in the usability and reliability of alternative technologies and fuels have been considered as key issues. Public authorities should take the "client interest" seriously and should give positive examples.
  • Local communities should address additional advantages of the use. For people such advantages might be an increase in comfort or lower noise emissions. For private businesses and enterprises it might comprise opportunities for establishing a "creen image" which could be used for marketing purposes or win-win effects e.g. through the saving of maintenance costs and emissions reduction at the same time.
  • The provision of an adequate enabling framework, including incentives for the use of alternative technologies through appropriate pricing, taxation and regulatory policies is considered to be a prerequisite for local communities to take actions (convergence of signals).
  • Local authorities should encourage the use of alternative fuels and technologies and discourage the use of more pollutant vehicles.
  • Fuel availability and the establishment of infrastructure facilities for alternative vehicles should be facilitated.
  • When promoting alternative technologies and fuels, social consequences should be considered a priori.

3. Recommendations

  • As a prerequisite for local communities supporting alternative technologies and fuels, information should be made available on emissions and energy consumption of different vehicle and fuel types (on the basis of a life cycle analysis) as well as on other elements relevant for their decision making process.
  • Local communities should give positive examples through the use of alternative fuels and propulsion systems in public vehicle fleets in order to demonstrate the benefits of alternative technologies and to build confidence among the public in the reliability of such technologies.
  • As a prerequisite for local authorities / communities to take actions, governments should provide an adequate enabling framework, including incentives for the use of alternative technologies through appropriate pricing, taxation and regulatory policies (convergence of signals).
  • Governments at all levels should initiate awareness campaigns to enhance public acceptance and to foster broad changes in consumption patterns.
  • Governments at all levels should support network building to establish platforms for exchanging best practices at a local level; they should analyse these experiences in order to identify the key elements of success and to overcome the main obstacles.


4. Conclusions and Recommendations of EFF 3

Forum members have discussed the presented data and trends on the transport sector and the role of alternative fuels and propulsion systems for sustainable mobility. The plenary also deliberated the findings of the working groups and jointly agreed on the following general conclusions and recommendations from the forum to G 8 countries.

Conclusions

The Environmental Futures Forum analysed environmental problems of transport, especially if and to what extent alternative fuels - in particular from renewable sources - and new technologies can offer opportunities towards sustainable transportation. They agreed that an environmentally sound transport sector requires technological innovation, behavioural change as well as other measures for uncoupling transport growth from economic growth (avoidance of traffic), for the improvement of infrastructure, integrated planning and modal shift as well as for increased education, information and awareness building.

There is a clear international agreement between experts that future vehicles must increase energy efficiency significantly - both in the short and the medium term - and simultaneously begin to shift towards use of renewable energy. A substantial reduction in emission and energy consumption levels through technological improvement of transport systems and fuels will have to be one of the key elements of sustainable transport strategies within and beyond G8-Countries. Apart from the short and medium-term improvement of conventional propulsion systems and fuels, investment in alternative technologies and fuels is considered necessary, given the finite nature of fossil resources and the environmental impacts arising from fossil fuels. The G-8 countries as leading industrialised nations and leading vehicle producers have a specific responsibility and will have to play a key role in this process.

Given the potential which alternative fuels and propulsion systems offer for reducing CO2emissions the forum concluded that governments should promote the development and introduction of promising alternative fuels and propulsion systems, especially by setting the policy framework. Pricing, taxation measures, subsidies and other economic measures as well as an appropriate regulatory framework were considered to be indispensable for technological innovation. The need for information dissemination and consensus building between governments at all levels, the private sector, communities, individuals and other stakeholders as well as the funding of basic and applied research was highlighted.

The forum recognised the efforts of the automobile and fuel industries in the field of alternative propulsion systems and fuels, such as hybrid drive, fuel cell and hydrogen. It stated a responsibility of industry to promote sustainable transport within the framework of specified goals, especially by developing and introducing alternative fuels and technologies.

The Forum concluded that local authorities, communities and individuals, as consumers of alternative fuels and propulsion systems, have an important role to play in achieving the goal of sustainable transportation. Awareness building, information dissemination and research on the costs and benefits of switching to alternative technologies and fuels as well as to different modes of transport were identified as key issues for improving the capacity of communities and individuals to make informed transport decisions.

Recommendations

The Forum recommends that

  • G8 governments should play a major role in encouraging sustainable transport through a broad range of measures regarding technological innovation, behavioural change and other measures for uncoupling transport growth from economic growth (avoidance of traffic), for the improvement of infrastructure, integrated planning and modal shift as well as for increased education, information and awareness building. G 8 governments should provide appropriate incentives for effective transportation systems and ensure to the degree possible the internalisation of external costs.
  • G8 Governments have a key role in ensuring co-operation and co-ordination both domestically and internationally.
  • G8 governments should establish the vision for sustainable transport and should ensure the provision of a suitable enabling framework in order to facilitate the introduction of new and innovative technologies and fuels, through regulatory and economic instruments, i.a. by establishment of goals and standards, adequate taxation measures, pricing, incentives and subsidies for the development of new technologies. All stakeholders should be involved in the goal setting process.
  • G8 governments, the private sector and other stakeholders should work together in identifying the most promising alternative fuels and technologies and in assessing their impacts.
  • Industry should strengthen its research and development efforts and improve co-ordination in order to make use of synergy effects; G 8 governments should continue to support research and demonstration programmes on alternative fuels and propulsion systems;
  • Industry and governments should continue their efforts in establishing an infrastructure for alternative fuels and technologies. Industry should strive to offer vehicles based on these technologies at a reasonable price;
  • G8 governments, local communities and the private sector should promote education, information and awareness building in order to change consumption and transport patterns.
  • Government at all levels should encourage and facilitate private-public partnerships and support network building to establish platforms for analysing experience and for exchanging best practices at all levels.


Annex

I. Meeting Agenda

Monday, January 25

9.30 - 11.00Welcome and Introduction (Salon Haydn)
9.30Sustainable Mobility
Jygen Trittin (Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety)

  • Opening and Introduction
  • Outline of the topic
  • Environmental challenges in the future and plans for action as laid down in Agenda 21, the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol
  • Significance of sustainable mobility and sound transport systems for sustainable development
  • Environmental threats, including the global aspect of the greenhouse effect and the local aspect of air pollution
  • Requirements and visions for sustainable mobility highlighting different options, their feasibility and usefulness - The role of alternative fuels and propulsion systems
  • Status quo in Germany - Trends, problems and consumption patterns in the transport sector and action programme of the German Federal Government
10.00Global Trends
Joke Waller-Hunter (Head of the Environment Directorate of the OECD)

  • Analysis of global trends in transport
  • Growth rates in vehicle stock, transport volume and travelled distance, both in OECD and Non-OECD countries, and their impact on global emissions of CO2 and pollutant gases
  • Economic and social background - economic structures and trends, land use and behavioural patterns
  • Concepts for mitigation of CO2 and pollutant gases in the transport sector
  • Mitigation potential of to-date-technologies and future technologies
10.30Future Demand of the Transport Sector for Fossil and Alternative Energies
Dr. Fritz Vahrenholt (Member of the Board of Shell Germany)

  • Energy scenarios for transportation
  • Short term (2005), medium term (2020) and long term (beyond 2020) demand for energy as well as demand for motor vehicles and transport systems in industrialised countries, economies in transition, newly industrialised and developing countries
  • Driving forces of this demand
  • Availability of fossil energies, horizons of expected depletion of resources
  • Opportunities and requirements for the introduction of new fuels and renewable energies
  • Visions and plans for the development of new fuels and necessary supply structures
11.00Coffee Break
11.30Plenary Discussion
Chairman: Dr. Andreas Gallas (Director General, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety)
12.30Lunch Break
14.00-15.30Alternative Fuels and Propulsion Systems - State of the Art and Future Development
14.00 Europe
Dr.-Ing. Hansgert Quadflieg (Head of the Project Management "Mobility and Transport" of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research)

  • Concepts for new fuels and propulsion systems - e.g. LPG, CNG, Methanol, Bio fuels (Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel), Hydrogen, Battery/Fuel cell
  • State of the art and future trends of the technologies - Evaluation of availability, safety, environmental benefits - particularly with respect to greenhouse gases, and costs
  • Consideration of infrastructure needs and system requirements
  • Secondary effects, e.g. on fiscal structures and employment
  • Research and development funded by the European Union and its member states
  • Plans for further funding
  • Necessary preconditions and potentials for implementation
14.20North America Mortimer L. Downey (Deputy Secretary of the U. S. Department of Transportation)
David Gardiner (Assistant Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)

  • Concepts for new fuels and propulsion systems - e.g. LPG, CNG, Methanol, Bio fuels (Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel), Hydrogen, Battery/Fuel cell
  • State of the art and future trends of the technologies - Evaluation of availability, safety, environmental benefits - particularly with respect to greenhouse gases, and costs
  • Consideration of infrastructure needs and system requirements
  • Secondary effects, e.g. on fiscal structures and employment
  • Research and development funded by the countries of Canada and the US
  • Plans for further funding
  • Necessary preconditions and potentials for implementation
14.40Far East
Mr Tsutomu Kagawa (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association)

  • Concepts for new fuels and propulsion systems - e.g. LPG, CNG, Methanol, Bio fuels (Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel), Hydrogen, Battery/Fuel cell
  • State of the art and future trends of the technologies - Evaluation of availability, safety, environmental benefits - particularly with respect to greenhouse gases, and costs
  • Consideration of infrastructure needs and system requirements
  • Secondary effects, e.g. on fiscal structures and employment
  • Research and development funded by the Asian countries
  • Plans for further funding
  • Necessary preconditions and potentials for implementation
15.00Plenary Discussion
15.30Coffee Break
16.00 Concurrent Sessions "Setting the right framework for technical innovation"
(Salon Haydn, Salon Haber and Salon Mann)

Working Group A: The role of Government
Chairman: Mr. Vic Buxton (Director of the Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate, Environment Canada - Canada)
Introductory statement: Mr. Ian Todd (Head of Vehicle, Environment and taxation Division, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions - UK)

  • Potential of the transport sector for cost-efficient reduction of CO2 and pollutant gas emissions (in comparison to possible measures in the household, small scale and industry sector)
  • Necessities for funding research in the private, academic and public sector
  • Adequate measures to support the private sector in developing, implementing and producing alternative fuels and propulsion systems
  • Necessary pricing measures, e.g. taxation, to facilitate and accelerate switching from fossil to renewable fuels
  • Appropriate regulatory instruments like legislation or technical, emission and fuel standards
  • Essential infrastructure investments, e.g. in alternative fuel supply nets
  • other useful measures like public awareness campaigns etc.
  • Ways to achieve political acceptance
  • Government procurement policies

Working Group B: The role of industry
Chairman: Mr David Grant Lawrence (Director, European Commission, DG XI)
Introductory statement: Dr. Corrado Clini (Director General, Ministry for the Environment - Italy)

  • Which alternative fuels/technologies have been developed so far?
  • Which technology is favoured from economic and environmental points of view?
  • When will technologies and fuels be available for market introduction and large-scale production?
  • Possibility of a transition from conventional to alternative technologies with a successive and partial market introduction and substitution of fossil through alternative fuels/renewable energies
  • Necessary investments and capacities for mass production
  • Desirable support for industry from governmental side
  • Necessary (new) market structures
  • Administrative and legal preconditions for developing, implementing and producing alternative fuels/propulsions

Working Group C: The role of Local Authorities, Communities and Consumers
Chairman: Ms. Dominique Dron (Director, Ministry for the Environment - France)
Introductory statement: Ms. Johanne Gelinas (Chair of the Canadian Task Force on Sustainable Transportation - Canada)

  • Ecologically orientated urban development planning
  • Environmentally compatible development of the transport sector (e.g. public transportation, low-emission modes of transportation)
  • Public procurement policies, e.g. urban vehicle fleets
  • Estimation of abatement effects in urban pollution
  • Opportunities for promotion
  • Education, information and awareness building
19.00End

Tuesday, January 26

9.30 Reports from the Working Groups
Chairman: Dr. Andreas Gallas (Director General, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety)
(Salon Haydn)

  • Highlighting of important results
  • Proposals for action
11.00Coffee Break
11.30 Discussion and Recommendations
Chairman: Dr. Andreas Gallas (Director General, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety)

  • Discussion of workshop results and proposals
  • Synthesis of the forum's findings
  • Recommendations for policy development, further research and for further action of the G-8 Environmental Futures Forum
12.30Lunch
14.30Closure


II. List of Participants

Canada

Buxton, Vic

Director

Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate

Environment Canada

351 St. Joseph Bvld., 18th Floor

Hull, Quebec K1A OH3

Dr. Hill-Campbell, Margaret

Senior Policy Advisor

Strategic Directions & Policy Coordination

Environment Canada

10 Wellington Street, 23rd Floor

Hull, Quebec K1A OH3

G_linas, Johanne

Chair of the Task Force on Sustainable Transportation

National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy

1079 Willibrord

Verdun, Qu_bec

Canada H4G 2V1

Ball, Michael A.

Chief

Transport Canada

Research Program Development

Safety and Security

Place de Ville, Tower C, 12th Floor

330 Sparks Street

Ottawa, Ontario

Canada K1A ON5

Reilly-Roe, Peter

Assistant Director

Natural Resources Canada

12-12B5-580 Booth Street

Ottawa, Ontario

Canada K1A OE4

Preusser, Steffen

Senior Official

Canadian Embassy

Science and Technology Section

Bonn



France

Laurent, Jean-Luc

Director General

Minist_re de lĀfAmenagement du Territoire et de lĀfEnvironnement

20, avenue de S_gur

75302 Paris 07 SP

Dron, Dominique

Director

Minist_re de lĀfAmenagement du Territoire et de lĀfEnvironnement

20, avenue de S_gur

75007 Paris

V_ne, Denis

Minist_re de lĀfAmenagement du Territoire et de lĀfEnvironnement

20, avenue de S_gur

75007 Paris



Gruson, Jean-Fran_ois

Institut Fran_ais du P_trole

Direction Strat_gie Economie Programme

1 et 4, avenue de Bois Pr_au

92852 Ruell-Malmaison

Cedex - France

Biedermann, Jean-Michel

Total Raffinage Distribution

51 Esplanade de Gal de Gaulle

92907 Paris la D_fense



Germany

J_rgen Trittin

Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Andreas Gallas

Director General

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Westheide, Eberhard

Director General

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Vygen, Hendrik

Deputy Director General

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Quennet-Thielen, Cornelia

Head of Division

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division G II 1

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Sach, Karsten

Adviser

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division G II 1

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Jain, Gordo

Adviser

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division IG I 5

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn



Dr. Friedrich, Axel

Head of Division

Federal Environment Agency

Bismarckplatz 1

14193 Berlin

Moetzel, Ulrike

Federal Ministry for Transport

Robert-Schuman-Platz 1

53175 Bonn

Dr. Pieper, Hermann

Deputy Director General

Federal Ministry for Economy and Technology

Villemombler Stra_e 76

Bonn

Schr_der, Dietrich

Federal Ministry for Transport

Robert-Schumann-Platz 1

53175 Bonn

Dr. Vahrenholt, Fritz

Member of the Board

Shell AG

‹berseering 35

22297 Hamburg

Dr. Quadflieg, Hans-Gert

Head of the Project Management "Mobility and Transport"

T_V-Rheinland

Am Grauen Stein

51105 K_ln

Huss, Cristoph

BMW AG

Hufelandstra_e 6

80788 M_nchen

Dr. Schaller, Karl Viktor

MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG Phone: 089-15802057

Dachauer Stra_e 667

80995 M_nchen

Axel Welge

Deutscher St_dtetag

Lindenallee 13

50968 K_ln

Seifert, Katrin

EURONATUR

Grabenstra_e 23

53359 Rheinbach



United Kingdom

Todd, Iain

Head of Division

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions

Vehicle, Environment and Taxation

Room 2109B, Great Minster House

76 Marsham Street

London SWIP 4DR

Lowen, James

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions

4/C2 Ashdown House

123 Victoria Street

London SOIE 6DE

Dunne, Michael

Head of Division

Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions

Vehicle, Environment and Taxation

Zone 2105, Great Minster House

76 Marsham Street

London SWIP 4DR

Murray, Jonathan

Energy Saving Trust

21 Dartmoth Street

London SWIH 9PB



Italy

Dr. Clini, Corrado

Director General

Ministry for the Environment

Via Bella Ferratella

In Laterano 33

00184 Roma

Astraldi, Valerio

Minister Plenipotentiary

Ministry for the Environment

Via Cristoforo Colombo 44

00147 Roma

Dr. Rizzo, Valeria

Ministry for the Environment

Via Bella Ferratella

In Laterano 33

00184 Roma

Dr. Penna, Marina

Ministry for the Environment

Via Bella Ferratella

In Laterano 33

00184 Roma

Dr. Scolari, Paolo

Director

FIAT

Environment Department

Via Bella Ferratella

In Laterano 33

00184 Roma



Japan

Usuki, Mitsuo

Senior Adviser to Director General

Environment Agency

Global Environment Dept.

1-2-2 Kasumigaseki

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8975

Tanaka, Satoshi

Deputy Director

Environment Agency

Global Environment Dept.

Planning Division

1-2-2 Kasumigaseki

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8975

Suzuki, Nagayuki

Chief

Ministry of Transport

Energy Affairs Section

2-1-2 Kasumigaseki

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8989

Kagawa, Tsutomu

Managing Director

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc.

Otemachi Bldg. 6-1

Otemachi i-chome

Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0004

Kasamatsu, Ichiro

Vice-Chairman and Executive Director

Organization for the Commercialization of Low-Emission

Vehicles (LEVO)

3rd Floor, YPC Building

2-14-8 Yotsuya, Shinjuku-ku

Tokyo 160-0004

Igushi, Kenichi

Managing Director

Japan Trucking Association

Nishi-Shinjuku 1-6-1

Shinjuku L Tower Bld. 19F

Ward of Shinjuku

Toyo

Post. 163-1519



United States of America

Downey, Mortimer

Deputy Secretary of State

US Department of Transportation

400 7th Street S.W.

Washington D.C. 20590

Gardiner, David

Assistant Administrator

US Environmental Protection Agency

401 M Street, SW

Washington, DC 2460

Crumm, Thomas

General Motors

826 Spane St

Ann Arodr Mica

USA 98103

Williams, Brett

Rocky Mountain Institute

1739 Snowmass Creek Road

Snowmass, CO 81654 USA

Thornton, Gayle

US Environmental Protection Agency

401 M Street, SW

Washington, DC 2460



European Union

Lawrence, David Grant

Director

Commission of the European Union

200, Rue de la Loi

1049 Brussels

Rabe, Patrick

Commission of the European Union

200, Rue de la Loi

TRMF 4/57

1049 Brussels

Dr. Borthwick, William

Commission of the European Union

200, Rue de la Loi

Office: M075 6/18

1049 Brussels

Dr. Samoulidis, Ioannis

Commission of the European Union

226, Av. de Tervuren

1150 Brussels



OECD

Waller-Hunter, Joke

Director for Environment

Organistion for Economic Development
and Co-operation

2, Rue Andre-Pascal

75775 Paris cedex 16

Dr. Wiederkehr, Peter

Organistion for Economic Development
and Co-operation

2, Rue Andre-Pascal

75775 Paris cedex 16



Organizer of the Forum and Support Staff

Gavriliidis-M_ller, Marika

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division G II 1

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Kuflicki, Ursula

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division G II 1

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Jansen, Peter

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and

Nuclear Safety

Division G II 1

P.O.Box 12 06 29

53048 Bonn

Dr. Waldeyer, Heinrich

T_V-Rheinland

Institute for Environment Protection and Energytechnology

Division Consulting - Transport and Environment -

Am Grauen Stein

51105 K_ln

Kober, Ralf

T_V-Rheinland

Institute for Environment Protection and Energytechnology

Division Consulting - Transport and Environment -

Am Grauen Stein

51105 K_ln


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