Section 1: Environmental Administration and Legislation in China
Section 2: Air Pollution Management
Section 3: Water Pollution Management
Section 4: Industrial Waste Management
Section 5: Soil Pollution Management
Section 6: Efforts by Local Environmental Administration - Tianjin Case Study -
Chapter 2: Environmental Conservation by Japanese Companies in China: Case Studies of Corporate Practices and Policies (337KB)
Section 1: Japanese Companies in China and Environmental Measures
Section 2: Case Studies of Advanced Measures to Reduce Discharge of Pollutants
How to Use This Book This book consists of two chapters and appendices. Chapter 1 describes China's environmental administrative framework. Chapter 2 presents case studies illustrating the practical environmental measures being taken by Japanese companies in China (Beijing and Tianjin areas). The appendices provide material for a deeper understanding of Chapters 1 and 2. Note that the term "Japanese companies" as used in this book refers to member companies of the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry in China, without regard to equity percentage invested from Japan or any other such criteria. It should also be noted that because the Japanese companies participating in field studies for this research were manufacturing companies in the main, this book focuses primarily on environmental practices in the manufacturing sector.
This book is designed so that each chapter and section can be read independently, allowing the reader to select the necessary environmental information according to the company's particular circumstances in implementing environmental practices.
Specifically, this book is organized as follows.
Chapter 1 provides up-to-date information about China's evolving system of environmental laws and regulations. This chapter is divided into the following six sections.
- Section 1: Environmental Administration and Legislation in China
- Section 2: Air Pollution Management
- Section 3: Water Pollution Management
- Section 4: Industrial Waste Management
- Section 5: Soil Pollution Management
- Section 6: Efforts by Local Environmental Administration -- Tianjin Case Study --
Section 1 describes the historical development and distinctive features of environmental policy in China. This is followed by an overview of the laws and regulations related to industrial pollution, the system of environmental legislation, and the administrative framework, all of which is essential knowledge for Japanese companies in their environmental programs. The environmental laws and regulations are discussed in detail, by specific category, in the subsequent sections.
Section 2 to Section 5 describe in detail the legislative framework and control standards in the four areas of air pollution, water pollution, industrial solid waste, and soil contamination.
At the end of the chapter, Section 6 presents the example of Tianjin, and devotes a few pages to outlining the environmental efforts of the local environmental administration and to explaining the regulatory controls specific to Tianjin.
The information in Chapter 1 was compiled mainly from interviews with officials at the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) and the Tianjin Environmental Protection Bureau (TianjinEPB).
IIn Chapter 2, Section 1 summarizes the features of the environmental measures implemented by Japanese companies in China. This introduction is followed by 14 case studies of progressive environmental practices being carried out by the companies studied in the field research. The case studies are divided into three sections.
- Section 2: Case Studies of Advanced Measures to Reduce Discharge of Pollutants
- Section 3: Case Studies of the Relationship of Environmental Management Systems to Improvements in Management
- Section 4: Case Studies of Improvements Designed for Other Than Environmental Protection
A wide variety of Japanese companies are conducting business activities in China, and the examples of environmental measures gathered in the course of our research are also wide-ranging. Section 2 looks at the manufacturing sector and gives examples of companies taking innovative initiatives beyond conventional measures for controlling wastewater, waste gas, and solid waste. Section 3 illustrates companies' efforts to utilize ISO 14001 and other environmental management systems to improve their business management practices. Section 4 outlines examples of companies in non-manufacturing sectors, and small and medium-size companies, that are working hard in various ways to incorporate environmental measures as part of their corporate programs.
The appendices at the end of this book contain the following reference materials.
- Appendix 1: Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China, effective December 26, 1989 (complete text)
- Appendix 2: Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution (complete text)
- Appendix 3: Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, revised 1996 (complete text)
- Appendix 4: Implementation of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Water Pollution Prevention and Control (State Council of the People's Republic of China, Law No.284) (complete text)
- Appendix 5: Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Coal-burning Oil-burning Gas-fired Boiler (Tianjin local standard DB12/151-2003) (complete text)
- Appendix 6: Contacts for Environmental Information in China and Japan
In Appendix 1, a translation of the complete text of the Environmental Protection Law is provided for a better understanding of the explanation given in Section 1 of Chapter 1. Appendices 2 and 3 contain the complete translated text of the law for preventing air pollution and the law for preventing water pollution. The complete translated text of the rules for practical implementation of the latter law is given in Appendix 4. Appendix 5 is the complete translated text of the local standard enacted by Tianjin.
The currency conversion rate used in this book is approximately 15 Japanese yen to one Renminbi (RMB; yuan), the exchange rate as of January 2004.